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Professor K. F. Geldner 

with gratitude and regard. 


Ihe present Grammar is a work of no pretensions; 
it is offered as a small contribution toward advancing the 
Avesta cause. It is written in part fulfilment of a design 
formed when I first began to study the Avesta and be- 
came deeply interested in the true value and importance 
of that monument of antiquity. 

The end for which the book is intended would per- 
haps have been better accomplished, however, if the work 
had been a mere grammatical sketch. This was my first 
design; and it may at another time be carried out. But 
as the work grew under my hands, it seemed desirable to 
enlarge it somewhat further, and to embody additional 
material which for reference might be serviceable to the 
general philologist, not to the specialist alone. The linguist 
may thus find in it useful matter and fresh illustrations, 
especially in the new readings from Geldner's edition of 
the Avesta texts. 

No attempt, on the other hand, has been made to 
secure absolute completeness. Numerous minor points have 
been purposely omitted. These may perhaps later be taken 
up in a more extended work including also the Old Persian 
by the side of the Avesta and the Sanskrit. Little of im- 

VJ Preface. 

portance, however, it is believed, has been overlooked. 
A fairly symmetrical development has been aimed at , al- 
though at times certain less familiar points have received 
fuller illustration than those that are well-known. This was 
intentional. They are chiefly matters that had not as yet 
been sufficiently emphasized elsewhere, or points which are 
peculiarly individual to the Avesta. They will easily be 

The method of treatment is based throughout on the 
Sanskrit grammar; a knowledge of Sanskrit is presupposed. 
At every step, therefore, references have been made to 
Whitney's Sanskrit Grammar 2 ed. 1889; and it is a 
pleasure here to express thanks to the author of that work 
for the abundant suggestions received from it. 

In the Grammar it might have been easier and more 
practical in many respects to use the Avesta type itself 
instead of employing a transcription. On the whole, how- 
ever, it seemed best under the circumstances to transliterate. 
For general reference at present this method appears more 
convenient, and is useful in showing grammatical forma- 
tions. The original type, it is expected, will be employed, 
as hinted above, in a little book Avesta for Beginners. 
planned for a date not far distant. 

In regard to the transcription here adopted, my 
views have already been given in The Avestan Alphabet 
and its Transcription. Stuttgart, 1890. The phonetic and 
palaeographic character of each of the Avestan letters is 
there discussed. Reasons are likewise presented for trans- 
literating Av. f , { by the 'turned' 3,3, so familiar in pho- 
netic works. The composite a> (as) for r~ (*) is also 

Preface. v jj 

there explained (p. 13). The choice of the old Germanic 
characters fy, j, p, d for the spirants i-, ^, 6, ^, and for 
the nasal (}), as well as the method of transliterating 
r> (i -}-") by h (h-\-v) is defended (pp. 14, 21). The 'tag' 
( t ) appearing in the letters f, Q, n, fy, a is an attempt at 
systematically representing the 'derivation stroke' { ^ j by 
which many of the letters palaeographically are formed. 
Thus, r , to iy, w 6-, < <j> w, , -o sp etc. the dotted 
line denoting the 'derivation stroke'. See Av. Alphabet 
pp. 1 6 17. The same 'tag' appears in the transcription 
f KJ (u-f-'o) by $ (,-\~s}. See Av. Alphabet p. 20. In the 
case of ro / (beside /), the 'subscript' tag is merely turned 
in the opposite direction so as to correspond with the 
hooked part (9) of the letter. The threefold differentiation 
s, /, ,y for -o, &, ro, is not necessary, however, except in 
transliterating a text for purely scientific purposes. In 
practise, s may everywhere be written. A 'substitute alpha- 
bet' to be used in popular articles is offered in the same 
monograph p. 28. I wish again to repeat my thanks to 
the authorities there quoted (Av. Alphabet p. 7) who so 
kindly aided me with advice and suggestions in regard to 
the transcription adopted. 

In reference to the transliteration of Sanskrit, the 
familiar system (cf. Whitney, Skt. Grain. 5) is followed; 
but be it observed that for comparison with the Avesta 
it seems preferable to transcribe the palatal sibilant by s 
(Whitney f), the palatal nasal by // (Whitney #), the gut- 
tural nasal by v (Whitney it). 

A word may now be added in regard to my mani- 
fold indebtedness in the present book. The general gram- 

viii Preface. 

matical works from the early contribution of Haug (Essays, 
1862), through Hovelacque (Grammaire , 1868) down to 
the present date have been on my table. Justi's Hand- 
buck der Zendsprache (1864) was of course consulted con- 
tinually. Constant reference has been made also to Bar- 
tholomae's Altiranische Dialekte (1883) and to his other 
admirable grammatical contributions. Spiegel's Vergl. Gram, 
der alter an. Sprachen (1882) was often opened, and will 
be specially acknowledged with others under the Syntax 
(Part II). C. de Harlez' Manuel de r Avesta (1882), Dar- 
mesteter's Etudes Iraniennes (1883^, W. Geiger's Handbuck 
der Awestasprache (1879) furnished more than one good 
suggestion, for which I am much indebted. 

Acknowledgment is also due to some special con- 
tributions on grammatical subjects. In the Phonology, 
selections were made from the rich material collected by 
Hiibschmann in Kuhris ZtitsckriftJOKN. p. 323 seq. (1878). 
My indebtedness to that well-known standard work Brug- 
mann's Grundriss der vergl. Gram. (= Elements of Compar. 
Grammar of the Indg. Languages. English translation by 
Wright, Conway, Rouse, 1886 seq.) may be noticed from 
the citations below. Under Declension, frequent reference 
was made to Horn's Nominal/ ex ion im Avesta (1885) and 
Lanman's Noun- Inflection in the Veda (r88oj. Under Verbal 
Inflection, in addition to Bartholomae's contributions below 
cited , acknowledgments are due to other authors to be 
mentioned in connection with Syntax (Part II). Caland's 
Pronomina im Avesta { \ 89 1 ) unfortunately came too late for 
the Inflections, but is cited under the Syntax of the Pro- 
nouns. I also regret that the work of Kavasji Edalji Kanga. 

Preface. IX 

A Practical Gram, of the Av. Language (1891) was not 
received in time. My indebtedness to Whitney's Skt. Gram. 
is noticed above. For grammatical training in Sanskrit, 
moreover, I shall always thank my teachers in America 
and GermanyProfessors Perry, Hopkins, and Pischel. 

To my honored instructor and friend, Professor 
K. F. Geldner of Berlin, I owe, as I have owed, a last- 
ing debt of gratitude. The book was begun when I was 
a student under his guidance; since I returned to America 
it has progressed with the aid of his constant encourage- 
ment, suggestion, and advice. He has been kind enough, 
moreover, not only to read the manuscript, as it was sent 
to Stuttgart, but also to look through the proof-sheets 
before they came back to me in America. The work I 
may call a trifling expression of the inspiration he gave 
me as a student. Let what is good in it count as his; 
the faults are my own. 

It is a pleasure to add my cordial thanks to the 
publisher, Herrn W. Kohlhammer, for the characteristic 
interest which, with his usual enterprise, he has taken in 
the work. Special praise is due to his compositor, Herrn 
A. Sauberlich, whose accuracy is in general so unfailing 
that I fear I must say that the misprints which may have 
escaped notice are probably due to original slips of the 
author's pen, and not to inaccuracies on the part of the 
type-setter a thing which cannot always be said. I should 
like also to express to Messrs. Ginn & Co., of Boston and 
New York, my appreciation of their willing co-operation 
in advancing the Iranian as well as other branches of the 
Oriental field in America. 

X Preface. 

The present part of the Grammar (Part I) is confined 
to the Introduction, Phonology, and Morphology. The 
prefatory sketch of the Avesta and the Religion of Zo- 
roaster may perhaps prove not without use. The second 
volume (Part II), a sketch of the Syntax, with a chapter 
also on Metre, is already half in print, and is shortly to 
appear. The numbering of sections in the second part 
will be continued from the present part; the two may 
therefore be bound together as a single volume if pre- 

With these words and with the suggestion to the 
student to observe the Hints for using the Grammar, given 
below, and to consult the Index, the book is offered to 
the favor of Oriental scholars. Any corrections, sug- 
gestions, or criticisms, which may be sent to me, will 
be cordially appreciated and gladly acknowledged. 

A. V. Williams Jackson 

October 1891. Columbia College 



Avesta: The Sacred Books of the Parsis. 1 

The Avesta as a Sacred Book. 

I. The Avesta, or Zend-Avesta, as it is more familiarly, though 
less accurately called , is the name under which , as a designation , we 
comprise the bible and prayer-book of the Zoroastrian religion. The 
Avesla forms to day the Sacred Books of the Parsis or Fire-Worshippers, 
as they are often termed, a small community living now in India, or still 
scattered here and there in Persia. The original home of these worship- 
pers and of their holy scriptures was ancient Iran , and the faith they 
profess was that founded centuries ago by Zoroaster (Zarathushtra), one of 
the great religious teachers of the East. 

2. The Avesta is, therefore, an important work, preserving as it 
does , the doctrines of this ancient belief and the customs of the earliest 
days of Persia. It represents the oldest faith of Iran , as the Vedas do 
of India. The oldest parts date back to a period of time nearly as re- 
mote as the Rig- Veda , though its youngest parts are much later. The 
religion which the Avesta presents was once one of the greatest ; it has, 
moreover, left ineffaceable traces upon the history of the world. Flourish- 
ing more than a thousand years before the Christian era , it became the 
religion of the great Achrcmenian kings, Cyrus, Darius, and Xerxes, but 
its power was weakened by the conquest of Alexander, and many of its 
sacred books were lost. It revived again during the first centuries of our 
own era, but was finally broken by the Mohammedans in their victorious 
invasion. Most of the Zoroastrian worshippers were then compelled through 
persecution to accept the religion of the Koran ; many, however, fled to 
India for refuge, and took with them what was left of their sacred writ- 

1 This sketch, with additions and some alterations, is reprinted from 
my article AVESTA, simultaneously appearing in the International Cyclopaedia ; 
for which courtesy I am indebted to the kindness of the Kditor, my friend, 
Professor H. T. Peck, and that of the Publishers, Messrs. Dodd, Mead & Co., 
New York. 

xii Introduction: The Avestn. 

ings. A few of the faithful remained behind in Persia, and, though per- 
secuted , they continued to practise their religion. It is these two scanty 
peoples, perhaps 80,000 souls in India, and 10,000 in Persia, that have 
preserved to us the Avesta in the form in which we now have it. 

3. The designation Avesta, for the scriptures, is adopted from 
the term Avistak, regularly employed in the Pahlavi of the Sassassian time. 
But it is quite uncertain what the exact meaning and derivation of this 
word may be. Possibly Phi. Avistak, like the Skt. Vlda , may signify 
'wisdom, knowledge, the book of knowledge'. Perhaps, however, it means 
rather 'the original text, the scripture, the law'. The designation 'Zend- 
Avesta', though introduced by Anquetil du Perron, as described below, is 
not an accurate title. It arose by mistake from the inversion of the oft- 
recurring Pahlavi phrase, Avistak ra Zaad 'Avesta and Zend', or 'the Law 
and Commentary'. The term Zand in Pahlavi (cf. Av. aza'titi-}, a.s the Parsi 
priests now rightly comprehend it, properly denotes 'understanding, explana- 
tion', and refers to the later version and commentary of the Avesta texts, 
the paraphrase which is written in the Pahlavi language. The proper de- 
signation for the scriptures, therefore, is Avesta; the term Zend (sec below! 
should be understood as the Pahlavi version and commentary. 

Allusions to the Avesta; its Discovery and History of Research. 

4. Of the religion, manners, and customs of ancient Persia, which 
the Avesta preserves to us, we had but meagre knowledge until about a 
century ago. What we did know up to that time was gathered from the 
more or less scattered and unsatisfactory references of the classic Greek 
and Latin, from some allusions in Oriental writers, or from the later Per- 
sian epic literature. To direct sources, however, we could not then turn. 
Allusions to the religion of the Magi, the faith of the Avesta, are indeed 
to be found in the Bible. The wise men from the East who came to 
worship our Saviour, the babe in Bethlehem, were Magi. Centuries before 
that date , however , it was Cyrus , a follower of the faith of Zoroaster, 
whom God called his anointed and his shepherd (Isaiah 45.1,13; 44.28; 
2 Chron. 36.22,23; Ezra i.i n) and who gave orders that the Jews 
be "returned to Jerusalem from captivity in Babylon. Darius, moreover 
(Ezra 5.13 17; 6.1 16), the worshipper of Ormazd, favored the rebuild- 
ing of the temple at Jerusalem as decreed by Cyrus. Allusions to the 
ancient faith of the Persians are perhaps contained in Ezek. 8.16, Is. 45.7,12. 
See also Apocryphal New Test., The Infancy, 3.1 10. 

5. The classical references of Greek and Roman writers to the 
teachings of Zoroaster, which we can now study in the Avesta itself, may 
be said to begin with the account of the Persians given by Herodotus 

Early Allusions to the Avesta. xiii 

(B.C. 450) iu his History 1.131 141. To this account may be added 
references and allusions , though often preserved only in fragments , hy 
various other writers , including Plutarch 'On Isis and Osiris', and Pliny, 
clown to Agathias (A. D. 500). 

6. After the Mohammedan conquest of Persia, we have an 
allusion by the Arabic writer, Masudi (A. 1). 940), who tells of the 
Avesta of Zeradusht (Zoroaster), and its commentary called Zend, together 
with a Pazend explanation. The Abasia (Avesta) is also mentioned several 
times by Al-Biriini (about A. D. 1000). The later Mohammedan writer, 
Shahrastani (A. D. 11501, sketches in outline the creed of the Magi of 
his day. An interesting reference is found in the Syriac-Arabic Lexicon 
of Bar-Bahlul (A. D. 963) to an AvastaR, a book of Zardusht (Zoroaster), 
as composed in seven tongues , Syriac , Persian , Aramaean , Segestanian, 
Marvian, Greek, and Hebrew. In an earlier Syriac MS. Commentary on 
the New Testament (A. D. 852) by Tshb'clad , Bishop of Hadatha, near 
Mosul, mention is made of the Abhastn. as having been written by Zar- 
dusht in twelve different languages. These latter allusions, though late, 
are all important, as showing the continuity, during ages, of the tradition 
of such a work as the Avesta, which contains the teachings of Zoroaster, 
the prophet of Iran. All these allusions, however, it must be remembered, 
are by foreigners. No direct Iranian sources had been accessible. 

7. From this time, moreover, till about the iyth century we find 
there was liltle inquiry into the sacred books of the Persians. One of 
the first series of investigations into the Greek and Roman sources seems 
then to have been undertaken by a European, Barnabc Brisson , D.e Per- 
saruin rriiicipatu (Paris 1590). The Italian, English, and French travelers 
in the Orient next added some information as to the religion and customs 
of the Persians. Among them may be mentioned the works of Pietro 
della Valle (1620), Henry Lord (1630), Mandelso (1658), Tavernier (1678), 
Chardin (1721), l)u Chinon. Most important, however, was the work of 
the distinguished Oxford scholar, Thomas Hyde (1700). It was written 
in Latin , and entitled Historia Religionis vcterum Persarutn. Hyde re- 
sorted chiefly to the later Parsi sources ; the original texts he could not 
use , although an Avesta MS. of the Yasna seems to have been brought 
to Canterbury as early as 1633. Hyde earnestly appealed to scholars, 
however, to procure MSS. of the sacred books of the Parsis, and aroused 
much interest in the subject. In 1723 a copy of the Vendidacl Sadah 
was procured by an Englishman, George Boucher, from the Parsis in Surat 
and was deposited as a curiosity in the Bodleian Library at Oxford. 

8. No one, however, could read these texts of the Avesta. To 
a young Frenchman , Anquetil du Perron , belongs the honor of first de- 

xiv Introduction : The Avesta. 

ciphering them. The history of his labors is interesting and instructive. 
Happening, in 1754, to see some tracings made from the Oxford MS., 
and sent to Paris as a specimen, du Perron at once conceived the spirited 
idea. of going to 1'ersia, or India, and obtaining from the priests them- 
selves (he knowledge of their sacred books. Though fired with zeal and 
enthusiasm , he had no means to carry out his plan. He seized the idea 
of enlisting as a soldier in the troops that were to start for India, and in 
November, 1754, behind the martial drum and fife this youthful scholar 
marched out of Paris. The French Government, however, recognizing at 
once his noble purpose, gave him his discharge from the army and pre- 
sented him his passage to India. After countless difficulties he reached 
Surat, and there after innumerable discouragements, and in spite of almost 
insurmountable obstacles, he succeeded in winning the confidence and favor 
of the priests , with whom he was able to communicate after he had 
learned the modern Persian. He gradually induced the priests to impart 
to him the language of their sacred works , to let him take some of the 
manuscripts, and even to initiate him into some of the rites and ceremo- 
nies of their religion. He stayed among the people for seven years, and 
then in 1761, he started for his home in Europe. He stopped at Oxford 
before going directly to Paris , and compared his MSS. with the one in 
the Bodleian Library, in order to be assured that he had not been im- 
posed upon. The next ten years were devoted to work upon his MSS. 
and upon a translation, and in 1771, seventeen years from the time he 
had first marched out of I'aris, he gave forth to the world the results of 
his untiring labors. This was the first translation of the Avesta, or, as 
he called it, Zend-Avesta (Ouvrage de Zoroastre, 3 vols., Paris 1771), a 
picture of the religion and manners contained in the sacred book of the 

9. The ardent enthusiasm which hailed this discovery and open- 
ing to the world of a literature, religion, and philosophy of ancient times 
was unfortunately soon dampened. Some scholars , like Kant , were dis- 
appointed in not finding the philosophical or religious ideas they had 
hoped to find ; while others missed the high literary value they had looked 
for. They little considered how inaccurate, of necessity, such a first trans- 
lation must be. Though Anquetil du Perron had indeed learned the 
language from the priests , still , people did not know that the priestly 
tradition itself had lost much during the ages of persecution or oblivion 
into which the religion had fallen. They did not sufficiently take into 
account that Anquetil was learning one foreign tongue, the Avesta, through 
another, the modern Persian ; nor did they know how little accurate and 
scientific training du Perron had had. A discussion as to the authenticity. 

Discovery of the Avesta History of Research. XV 

of the work arose. It was suggested that the so-called Zend-Avesta was 
not the genuine work of Zoroaster, but was a forgery. Foremost among 
the detractors, it is to be regretted, was the distinguished Orientalist, Sir 
William Jones. He claimed, in a letter published in French (1771), that 
Anquetil had been duped, that the Parsis had palmed off upon him a 
conglomeration of worthless fabrications and absurdities. In England, Sir 
William Jones was supported by Richardson and Sir John Chardin ; in 
Germany, by Meiners. In France the genuineness of the book was uni- 
versally accepted, and in one famous German scholar, Kleuker, it found 
an ardent supporter. He translated Anquetil's work into German (1776, 
Riga) , for the use of his countrymen , especially the theologians , and he 
supported the genuineness of those scriptures by classical allusions to the 
Magi. For nearly fifty years, however, the battle as to authenticity, still 
raged. Anquetil's translation, as acquired from the priests, was supposed 
to be a true standard to judge the Avesta by, and from which to draw 
arguments; little or no work, unfortunately, was done on the texts them- 
selves. The opinion, however, that the books were a forgery was gradually 
beginning to grow somewhat less. 

10. It was the advance in the study of Sanskrit that finally won 
the victory for the advocates of the authenticity of the Sacred Books. 
About 1825, more than fifty years after the appearance of du Perron's 
translation , the Avesta texts themselves began to be studied by Sanskrit 
scholars. The close affinity between the two languages had already been 
noticed by different scholars; but in 1826, the more exact relation between 
the Sanskrit and the Avesta was shown by the Danish philologian, Rask, 
who had travelled in Persia and India, and who had brought back with 
him to the Copenhagen library many valuable MSS. of the Avesta and of 
the Pahlavi books. Rask, in a little work on the age and authenticity of 
the Zend-Language (1826), proved the antiquity of the language, showed 
it to be distinct from SanskriU though closely allied to it, and made some 
investigation into the alphabet of the texts. About the same time the 
Avesta was taken up by the French Sanskrit scholar, Eugene Uurnouf. 
Knowing the relation between Sanskrit and Avestan , and taking up the 
reading of the texts scientifically, he at once found, through his knowledge 
of Sanskrit , philological inaccuracies in Anquetil's translation. Anquetil, 
he saw, must often have misinterpreted his teachers ; the tradition itself 
must often necessarily have been defective. Instead of this untrustworthy 
French rendering , Burnouf turned to an older Skt. translation of a pak 
of the Avesta. This was made in the 1 5th century by the Pars! Naryo- 
sangh , and was based on the Pahlavi version. By means of this Skt. 
rendering, and by applying his philologial learning, he was able to restore 

xvi Introduction : The Avesta. 

sense to many passages where Anquetil had often made nonsense, and lie 
was thus able to throw a flood of light upon many an obscure point. 
The employment of Skt., instead of depending upon the priestly traditions 
and interpretations, was a new step; it introduced a new method. The 
new discovery and gain of vantage ground practically settled the discussion 
as to authenticity. The testimony, moreover, of the ancient Persian in- 
scriptions deciphered about this time by Grotefend (1802), Burnouf, I,assen, 
and by Sir Henry Rawlinson , showed still more, by their contents and 
language so closely allied to the Avesta, that this work must be genuine. 
The question was settled. The foundation laid by Burnouf was built upon 
by such scholars as liopp, Haug, Windischmann, Westergaard, Roth, Spiegel 
the two latter happily still living and to day by Bartholomae, Darme- 
steter, cle Harlez, Hiibschmann , Jusli , Mills, and especially Geldner, in- 
cluding some hardly less known names , Parsis among them. These 
scholars, using partly the Sanskrit key for the interpretation and meaning 
of words , and partly the Parsi tradition contained in the Pahlavi trans- 
lation, have now been able to give us a clear idea of the Avesta and its 
contents as far xs the books have come down to us, and we are enabled 
to see the true importance of these ancient scriptures. L'pon minor points 
of interpretation, of course, there are and there always will he individual 
differences of opinion. We are now prepared to take up the general 
division and contents of the Avesta, and to speak of its Pahlavi version. 

Contents, Arrangement, Extent, and Character. 

it. The Avesta, as we now have it, is but a remnant of a once 
great literature. It has come down in a more or less fragmentary con- 
dition ; not even a single manuscript contains all the texts that we now 
have; whatever we possess has been collected together from various 
codices. All that survives is commonly classed under the following di- 
visions or books : 

1. Yasna, including the Gathas 

2. Vispered 

3. Yashts 

4. Minor texts, as Nyaishcs, Gahs etc. 

5. Vendidad 

6. Fragments, from Hadhokht Nnsk etc. 

12. In the first five divisions two groups are recognized. The 
first group (i) comprises the Vendidad, Vispered, and Vasna; these as used 
in the service of worship are traditionally classed together for litur- 
gical purposes and form the Avesta proper. In the manuscripts, more- 

Divisions of the A vesta. xvii 

over, these three books themselves appear in two different forms, accord- 
ing as they are accompanied, or not, by a Pahlavi version. If the books 
are kept separate as three divisions , each' part is usually accompanied by 
a rendering in Pahlavi. On the contrary, however, these three books are 
not usually recited each as a separate whole , but with the chapters of 
one book mingled with another for liturgical purposes , on this account 
the MSS. often present them in their intermingled form , portions of one 
inserted with the other, and arranged exactly in the order in which they 
are to be used in the service. In this latter case the Pahlavi translation 
is omitted, and the collection is called the Vendidad Sftdah or 'Vendidad 
pure' i. e. text without commentary, (ii) The second group comprising 
the minor prayers and the Yashts which the MSS. often include with these, 
is called the Khordah Avesta or 'small Avesta'. Of the greater part of 
the latter there is no Pahlavi rendering. The contents and character of 
the several divisions, including the fragments, may now be taken up more 
in detail. 

13. (i) The Yasna, 'sacrifice, worship', is the chief liturgical work 
of the sacred canon. It consists principally of ascriptions of praise and 
prayer, and in it are inserted the GalhSs, or 'hymns', verses from the ser- 
mons of Zoroaster , which are the oldest and most sacred part of the 
Avesta. The Yasna (Skt. yajfia) comprises 72 chapters, called Ha, Haiti. 
These are the texts recited by the priests at the ritual ceremony of the 
Yasna (Izashnc). The book falls into three nearly equal divisions, (a) The 
first part (chap, i 27) begins with an invocation of the god, Ormazd, 
and the other divinities of the religion ; it gives texts for the consecration 
of the holy water, zaothra , and the baresma, or bundle of sacred twigs, 
for the preparation and dedication of the Haovna , haoma , the juice of a 
certain plant the Indian Soma which was drunk by the priests as a 
sacred rite, and for the offering of blessed cakes, as well as meat-offering, 
which likewise were partaken of by the priests. Interspersed through this 
portion, however, are a few chapters that deal only indirectly with the 
ritual; these are Ys. 12, the later Zoroastrian creed, and Ys. 19 21, cateche- 
tical portions. (b)Then follow the Gathas lit. 'songs', 'psalms' (chap. 28 53), 
metrical selections or verses containing the teachings , exhortations , and 
revelations of Zoroaster. The prophet exhorts men to eschew evil and 
choose the good, the kingdom of light rather than that of darkness. These 
Gathas are written in meter, and their language is more archaic and some- 
what different from that used elsewhere in the Avesta. The GftthSs, 
strictly speaking, are five in number; they are arranged according to 
meters, and are named after the opening words, Ahunavaiti, Ushtavaiti etc. 
The GathSs comprise 17 hymns (Ys. 2834; 43 4 6 : 475; 5*. 53), and, 


Introduction : The AvesU. 

like the Psalms, they must later have been chanted during the service. They 
seem originally to have been the texts or metrical headings from which 
Zoroaster, like the later Buddha', preached. In their midst (chap. 35 42) 
is inserted the so-called Yasna of the Seven Chapters (Yasna Hapttuigh&iti). 
This is written in prose, and consists of a number of prayers and ascriptions 
of praise to Ahura Mazda, or Ormazd, to the archangels, the souls of the 
righteous, the fire, the waters, and the earth. Though next in antiquity 
to the Gathas , and in archaic language , the Haptanghaiti represents a 
somewhat later and more developed form of the religion, than that whicli 
in the Gftthas proper was just beginning. Under the Gathas also are in- 
cluded three or four specially sacred verses or formulas. These are the 
Ahuna Vairya or Honovar (Ys. 27.13), Ashem Vohu (Ys. 27.14), Airyama 
Ishyo (Ys. 54.1) and also the Yenghe Hatam (Ys. 4.26), so called from 
their first words, like the Pater Noster, Gloria Patri, etc., to which in a 
measur they answer. (c) The third part (chap. 52, 55 72) or the 'latter 
Yasna' (aparo yasno) consists chiefly of praises and offerings of thanks- 
giving to different divinities. 

14. (2) The Vispered (Av. vlspl ratavu) consists of additions to 
portions of the Yasna which it resembles in language and in form. It 
comprises 24 chapters (called Karde) , and it is about a seventh as long 
as the Yasna. In the ritual the chapters of the Vispered are inserted 
among those of the Yasna. It contains invocations and offerings of hom- 
age to 'all the lords' (vtspf ratavo). Hence the name Vispered. 

15- (s) The YasAts (Av. yeiti 'worship by praise') consist of 
21 hymns of praise and adorations of the divinities or angels, Yatatas 
(hads), of the religion. The chief Yashts are those in praise of Ardvi- 
Sura , the goddess of waters (Yt. 5) , the star Tishtrya (Yt. 8) , the angel 
Mithra, or divinity of truth (Yt. to), the Fravashis, or departed souls of 
the righteous (Yt. 13), the genius of victory, Verethraghna (Yt. 14), and 
of the Kingly Glory (Yt. 19). The Yashts are written mainly in meter, 
they have poetic merit, and contain much mythological and historical matter 
that may be illustrated by Firdausi's later Persian epic, the Shah Namah. 

1 6. (4) The minor texts, Nyftishes, GaAs, Sirotahs, Afring&ns, 
consist of brief prayers , praises , or blessings to be recited daily or on 
special occasions. 

1 7. (5) The Vcndidad , or 'law against the daevas , or demons' 
(vidatva data), is a priestly code in 22 chapters (called Fargard}, cor- 
responding to the Pentateuch in our Bible. Its parts vary greatly in time 
and in style of composition. Much of it must be late. The first chapter 
(Farg. i) is a sort of an Avcstnn Genesis, a du'alistic account of creation. 

Contents and Extent of the Avesta. x { x 

Chap. 2 sketches the legend of Yima , the golden age , and the coming 
of a destructive winter, an Iranian flood. Chap. 3 teaches, among other 
things, the blessings of agriculture; Chap. 4 contains legal matter breaches 
of contract, assaults, punishments; Chap. 518 relate mainly to the im- 
purity from the dead; Chap. 13 15 deal chiefly with the treatment of 
the dog; Chap. 16 17, and partly 18, are devoted to purification from 
several sorts of uncleanness. In Chap. 19 is found the temptation of 
Zoroaster, and the revelation; Chap. 20 22 are chiefly of medical cha- 
racter. In the ritual , the chapters of the Vendidad are inserted among 
the Gathas. 

1 8. (6) Besides the above books there are a number of frag- 
ments, one or two among them from the Hadhdkht Nask. There are 
also quotations or passages from missing Nasks, likewise glosses and glos- 
saries. Here belong pieces from the Nirangist&n , Aogemadalca , Zand- 
J'ahlavi Glossary, and some other fragments. These are all written in 
the Avesta language, and are parts of a once great literature. Under the 
Zoroastrian religious literature, moreover, though not written in Avesta, 
must also be included the works in Pahlavi , many of which are trans- 
lations from the Avesta, or contain old matter from the original scriptures. 

19. From the above contents, it will be seen that our present 
Avesta is rather a Prayer-Book than a Bible. The Vendidad , Vispered, 
and Yasna were gathered together by the priests for liturgical purposes. 
It was the duty of the priests to recite the whole of these sacred writings 
every day, in order to preserve their own purity, and be able to perform 
the rites of purification, or give remission of sins to others. The solemn 
recital of the Vendidad , Vispered , and Yasna at the sacrifice might be 
compared with our church worship. The selections from the Vendidad would 
correspond to the Pentateuch when read; the preparation, consecration, 
and presentation of the holy water, the Haoma-juice, and the meat-offering, 
described in the Yasna and Vispered would answer to our communion ser- 
vice ; the metrical parts of the Yasna would be hymns ; the intoning of 
the Gathas would somewhat resemble the lesson and the Gcspel, or even 
the sermon. In the Khordah Avesta, the great Yashts might perhaps be 
comparable to some of the more epic parts of our Bible; but as they are 
devoted each to some divinity and preserve much of the old mythology, 
they really have hardly a parallel, even in the apocryphal books. 

20. Such , in brief outline , is the contents of the books known 
to-day as the Avesta ; but , as implied above, this is but a remnant of a 
literature once vastly greater in extent. This we can judge both from 
internal and from historical-evidence. The character of the work itself in 
its present form , sufficiently shows that it is a compilation from various 

XX Introduction: The Avesta. 

sources. This is further supported by the authority of history, if the Parsi 
tradition, going back to the time of the Sassanidnc, be trustworthy. Pliny 
{Hist. Nat. 30.1,2) tells of 2,000,000 verses composed by Zoroaster. The 
Arab historian , Tabari , describes the writings of Zoroaster as committed 
to 12,000 cowhides (parchments); other Arabic references by Masudi, and 
Syriac allusions to an Avesta, which must have been extensive, have been 
noted above 6. The Parsi tradition on the subject is contained in the 
Rivayats , and in a Pahlavi book , the Dinkard. The Dinkard (Bk. 3 ) 
describes two complete copies of the Avesta. These each comprised 
2 1 Nasks, or Nosks (books). The one deposited in the archives at Perse- 
polis, as the Arda Viraf says, perished in the flames when Alexander burned 
the palace in his invasion of Iran. The other copy, it is implied, was in 
some way destroyed by the Greeks. From time the scriptures , like 
the religion under the Graeco-Parthian sway, lived on , partly in scattered 
writings and partly in the memories of the priests, for nearly 500 years. 

21. The first attempt again to collect these writings seems to 
have been begun under the reign of the last Arsacidae, just preceding the 
Sassanian dynasty. Pahlavi tradition preserved in a proclamation of King 
Khusro Anoshirvan (6th cent. A. D.), says it was under King Valkhash, pro- 
bably Vologoses I., the contemporary of Nero , that the collection was 
begun of the sacred writings as far as they had escaped the ravages of 
Alexander, or were preserved by oral tradition. Valkhash was among the 
last of the Arsacidae. The Sassanian dynasty (A. D. 226) next came to 
the throne. This house were genuine Zoroastrians and warm upholders of 
the faith, and they brought back the old religion and raised it to a height 
it had hardly attained even in its palmiest days. The first Sassanian mon- 
archs, Artakhshir Papakan (Ardeshir Babagan, A. D. 226 240) and his son 
Shahpuhar I. (A. D. 240 270), eagerly continued the gathering of the 
religious writings, and the Avesta again became the sacred book of Iran. 
Under Shahpuhar II. (A. D. 309 380) the final revision of the Avesta texts 
was made by Atur-pat Maraspend, and then the king proclaimed these as 
canonical, and fixed the number of Nasks or books. 

22. Of these Nasks, 21 were counted, and a description of them, 
as noted, is found in the Rivayats , and in the Dinkard ; each received a 
name corresponding to one of the twenty-one words in the Ahuna-Vairya 
(Honovar), the most sacred prayer of the Parsis. Each of these Nasks 
contained both Avesta and Zend, i. e. original scripture and commentary. 
This tradition is too important to be idly rejected. Its contents give an 
idea of what may have been the original extent and scope of the Avesta. 
The subjects said to have been treated in the 21 Nasks may practically 
be described in brief, as follows : Nask I (twenty-two sections), on virtue 

Extent of the Avesta; the Nasks. xxi 

and piety ; 2 (likewise twenty-two sections), religious observance ; 3 (twenty- 
one sections) , the Mazdayasnian religion and its teachings ; 4 (thirty-two 
sections) , this world and the next , the resurrection and the judgment ; 
5 (thirty-five sections), astronomy; 6 (twenty-two sections), ritual perfor- 
mances and the merit accruing ; 7 (fifty sections before Alexander, thirteen 
then remaining), chiefly political and social in its nature ; 8 (sixty sections 
before Alexander, twelve after remaining), legal; 9 (sixty sections before 
Alexander, fifteen later preserved) , religion and its practical relations to 
man, 10 (sixty sections before Alexander, only ten afterwards surviving), 
king Gushtasp and his reign, Zoroaster's influence ; 1 1 (twenty-two sections 
originally, six preserved after Alexander), religion and its practical relations 
to man; 12 (twenty-two sections), physical truths and spiritual regenera- 
tion; 13 (sixty sections), virtuous actions, and a sketch of Zoroaster's in- 
fancy; 14 (seventeen sections), on Ormazd and the Archangels; 15 (fifty- 
four sections), justice in business and in weights and measures, the path 
of righteousness; 16 (sixty-five sections), on next-of-kin marriage, a tenet 
of the faith; 17 (sixty-four sections), future punishments, astrology; 18 (fifty- 
two sections) , justice in exercising authority, on the resurrection , and on 
the annihilation of evil ; 19, the Videvdad, or Vendidad (twenty-two sections, 
still remaining) , on pollution and its purification ; 20 (thirty sections) , on 
goodness; 21 (thirty-three sections), praise of Ormazd and the Archangels. 

23. During the five centuries after the ravages of Alexander much, 
doubtless, had been lost, much forgotten. The Parsi tradition itself ac- 
knowledges this when it says above , for example , that the seventh Nask 
consisted originally of 50 sections, but only 13 remained 'after the ac- 
cursed Iskander (Alexander)'. So says the Dinkard and so the RivSyats. 
Like statements of loss are made of the eighth , ninth , tenth , eleventh 
Nasks. The loss in the five centuries from the invasion of Alexander, 
however, till the time of the Sassanian dynasty, was but small in com- 
parison with the decay that overtook the scriptures from the Sassanian 
times till our day. The Mohammedan invasion in the seventh century of 
our era, and the inroad made by the Koran proved far more destructive. 
The persecuted people lost or neglected many portions of their sacred 
scriptures. Of the twenty-one Nasks that were recognized in Sassanian 
times as surviving from the original Avesta, only one single Nask, the 
nineteenth the Vendidad has come down to us in its full form. Even 
this shows evidence of having been patched up and pieced together. 
We can furthermore probably identify parts of our present Yasna and 
Vispered with the Staot Yasht (staota ytsnya) or Yasht (yesnya), as it is 
also called. The two fragments Yt. ai and 22 (as printed in Westergaard's 
edition) and Yt. n, in its first form, are recognized in the MSS. as taken 

xxii Introduction: The Avesta. 

from the 2Oth. or Hndhoklit Nask. The Nirangistan, a Pahlavi work, con- 
tains extensive Avestan quotations, which are believed to have been taken 
from the Husparatn, or i;th Nask. Numerous quotations in Pahlavi works 
contain translations from old Avestan passages. The Pahlavi work, ShSyast- 
la-Shayast, quotes briefly from no less than thirteen of the lost Nasks; the 
Bundahish and other Pahlavi works give translations of selections, the 
original Avesta text of which is lost. Grouping together all the Avesta 
texts, we may roughly calculate that about two-thirds of the total scrip- 
tures have disappeared since Sassanian times. 

24. The present form of the Avesta belongs to the Sassanian 
period. Internal evidence shows that it is made up of parts most varied 
in age and character. This bears witne'ss to the statement that during 
that period the texts, as far as they had survived the ravages of Alexander, 
and defied the corrupting influence of time, were gathered together, com- 
piled, and edited. According to the record of Khusro Anoshirvaji (A. 1). 
531 579), referred to above, King Valkhash , the first compiler of the 
Avesta, ordered that all the writings which might have survived should be 
searched for, and that all the priests who preserved the traditions orally 
should contribute their share toward restoring the original Avesta. The 
texts as collected were re-edited under successive Sassanian rulers , until, 
under Shahpuhar II. (A. D. 309 379) the final redaction was made by his 
prime minister , Atur-pat Maraspend. It is manifest that the editors used 
the old texts as far as possible ; sometimes they patched up defective parts 
by inserting other texts; occasionally they may have added or composed 
passages to join these, or to complete some missing portion. The character 
of the texts , when critically studied, shows that some such method must 
have been adopted. 

25. Parts of the Avesta , therefore , may differ considerably from 
each other in regard to age. In determining this the text criticism by 
means of metrical restoration is most instructive. Almost all the oldest 
portions of the texts are found to be metrical ; the later, or inserted por- 
tions, are as a rule, but not always, written in prose. The grammatical 
test also is useful; the youngest portions generally show a decay of clear 
grammatical knowledge. The metrical Gathas in this respect are wonder- 
fully pure. They are , of course , in their form the oldest portion of the 
text, dating from Zoroaster himself. The longer Yashts and metrical por- 
tions of the Yasna contain much that is very old and derived doubtless 
from the ancient faith of Iran ; but in their Ibrro and in general com- 
position , they are probably some centuries later than the Gathas. The 
Vendidad is in this regard most incongruous. Some parts of it are doubt- 
less of great antiquity, though corrupted in form ; other parts, like younger 

Formation of the A vesta. Age of the different Parts. xxiii 

portions also of the Yashts, may be quite late. The same is true of 
formulaic passages throughout the whole of the Avesta, and some of the 
ceremonial or ritual selections in the Vispered and Nyaishes, etc. Roughly 
speaking, the chronological order of the texts would be somewhat as follows : 

i. Gathas (Ys. 28 53) and the sacred formulas Ys. 27.13,14, 

Ys. 54, including also 
ii. Yasna Haptanghfiiti (Y. 3542) and some other compositions, 

like Ys. 12, 58, 4.26, in the Gatha dialect, 
iii. The metrical Yasna and Yashts, as Ys. 9, 10, ix, 57, 62, 65; 

Yt. 5, 8, 9, 10, 13, 14, 15, 17. 19; portions of Vd. 2, 3, 4, 5, 18, 19, 

and scattered verses in the Vispered, Nyaishes, Afringins, etc. 
iv. The remaining pros,e portions of the Avesta. 

In the latter case it is generally, but not always, easy to discover by the 
style and language, where old material failed and the hand of the redactor 
came in with stupid or prosaic additions. 

$5 20. Considerable portions, therefore, of our present Avesta, espe- 
cially the Gathas , we may regard as coming directly from Zoroaster him- 
self; still, additions from time to time must have been made to the sacred 
canon from his day on till the invasion of Alexander. The so-called copy 
of the Zoroastrian Bible which it is claimed was destroyed by that invader, 
doubtless contained much that was not directly from the founder of the 
faith, but was composed by his disciples and later followers. The Parsis, 
however , generally regard the whole work as coming directly from 
Zoroaster; this is a claim that the Avesta itself hardly makes. The 
Gsthas, however, undoubtedly came directly from the prophet; the Avesta 
itself always speaks of them as 'holy' and especially calls them the 'five 
Gathas of Zoroaster'. We may fairly regard many other portions of the 
Avesta as direct elaborations of the great teacher's doctrines , just as the 
Evangelists have elaborated for us portions of the teachings of our Lord. 

27. In regard to the locality in which we are to seek the source 
of the Avesta and the cradle of the religion, opinions have been divided. 
Some scholars would place it in the West , in Media ; the majority, how- 
ever, prefer to look to the East of Iran, to Bactria. Both views probably 
have right on their side, for perhaps we shall not be amiss in regarding 
the Avesta as coming partly from the East , and partly from the West. 
The scene of most of it doubtless does belong in the East; it was there 
that Zoroaster preached ; but the sacred literature that grew up about the 
Gsthas made its way, along with the religion to the West, toward Media 
and Persia. Undoubtedly some texts, therefore, may well have been com- 
posed also in Media. The question is connected also with that of Zo- 

Xxiv Introduction: The AveSta. 

roaster's home which may originally have been in the West. On the native 
place of Zoroaster, see Jackson in Amer. Or. Society's Journal, May 1891 
pp. 222 seq. The language itself of the texts, as used in the church, be- 
came a religious language , precisely as did Latin , and therefore was not 
confined to any place or time. We may regard the Avesta as having been 
worked upon from Zoroaster's day down to the time of the Sassanian 

Religion of the Avesta. 

28. The religion contained in the Avesta is best called Zoroastria- 
nism , a name that gives due honor to its founder and which is thus pa- 
rallel with Christianity, Buddhism, Mohammedanism. Other designations are 
sometimes employed. It has often been termed Mazdaism, from its supreme 
god ; or again Magism, from the Magi priests ; sometimes we hear it styled 
Fire-Worship, or even Dualism, from certain of its characteristic features 
The designation Parsiism , from the name of its modern followers , is oc- 
casionally applied. 

29. Beyond our own Bible , the sacred books perhaps of hardly 
any religion contain so clear a grasp of the ideas of right and wrong, or 
present so pure , so exalted a view of the coming of a Saviour, a resur- 
rection and judgment, the future rewards and punishments for the immortal 
soul , and of the life eternal , as does the Avesta, the book of the scrip- 
tures of ancient Iran. 

30. In Zoroastrianism, however, as in other religions, we recognize 
a development. In the older stage of the Gathas , we have the faith in 
its purity as taught by Zoroaster (Zarathushtra) himself, more than a thousand 
years perhaps before our Lord. But later, and even before the invasion of 
Alexander had weakened the power of the religion, we find changes creeping 
in. There was a tendency, for example, to restore many of the elements 
of the primitive faith of Iran, which Zoroaster had thrown into the back- 
ground. Traces of the different stages are plainly to be recognized in 
the Avesta. 

31. The most striking feature of Zoroaster's faith, as taught in 
the Gathas, is the doctrine of Dualism. There are two principles, the 
good and the evil , which pervade the world. All nature is divided be- 
tween them. These principles are primeval. Good and evil have existed 
from the beginning of the world. Ahura Mazda, the Lord of Wisdom 
(the later Persian Ormazd) is Zoroaster's god; Angra Mainyu, or the 
Spiritual Enemy (the later Persian Ahriman) is the devil. The evil spirit 
is also called Druj 'Deceit, Satan'. The good spirit and the evil are in 
eternal conflict. The good, Zoroaster teaches, however, will ultimately 

Religion of the Avesta. Dualism. XXV 

triumph. Man, a free agent, will bring the victory by choosing right and 
increasing the power of good. Evil shall be banished from the world. 
This will be the coming of the 'kingdom' or 'the good kingdom' vohu 
tyiiapra as it is called. To the right choice Zoroaster exhorts his people. 
The question whence Zoroaster derived his idea of dualism, and how far 
he was a reformer, will not here be entered into. 

32. According to the prophet's teaching, Ahura Mazda, the god 
of good , is not without the aid of ministering angels. These are 
called Amesha Spentas, 'Immortal Holy Ones', the later Persian A m- 
shaspands. They correspond in a measure to our idea of Archangels. 
They are six in number and constitute, with Ahura Mazda, the heavenly 
host. Their names are personifications of abstractions or virtues, Righ- 
teousness , Goodness , or the like. The seven-fold group , or celestial 
council, is as follows. 

Ahura Mazda 
aided by 

Vohu Manah 

Asha Vahishta 

Khshathra Vairya 

Spenta Armaiti 



These abstractions or personifications may be noticed more in detail. 

33. Vohu Manah (lit. 'good mind', Plutarch eovoia) is the 
personification of Ahura Mazda's good spirit working in man and uniting 
him with God. In the later development of the religion , this divinity 
was specialized into the good mind or kindliness that is shown toward 
cattle. He thus became the guardian genius of the flocks. 

34. Asha Vahishta (lit. 'best righteousness, Plutarch dXVjflsia) 
is the next divinity in the celestial group and is the personification of 
right (Skt. r/<0> tm; divine order that pervades the world. In the 
heavenly court Asha stands almost in the relation of prime minister to 
Ormazd. To live 'according to Asha' (Right , or the Law of Righteous- 
ness e. g. Ys. 31.2) is a frequent phrase in the Avesta. The attribute 
Ashavan is the regular designation of 'the righteous' , as opposed to 
Dregvant 'the wicked', or one that belongs to Satan or the Druj. In 
later times Asha Vahishta came to preside as guardian genius over the 
fire, a symbol of perfect purity. 

XX vi Introduction: The Aveita. 

35. Khs hat lira Vairya or Vohu Khsbathra (lit. 'the wished- 
for kingdom , the good kingdom', Plutarch suvo|i ! .a) is the personification 
of Ahura Mazda's good rule , might , majesty, dominion , and power, the 
Kingdom which Zoroaster hopes to sec come on earth. The establishment 
of this kingdom is to be the annihilation of evil. In later times, Khsha- 
thra Vairya , as a divinity, came to preside over metals. The symbolic 
connection may have been suggested by the fact that the coming of the 
Kingdom (khshatlira) was presumed to be accompanied by a flood of 
molten metal , the fire that should punish and purge the wicked , and 
which should purify the world. The metals thus became emblematic of 

36. Spenta Armaiti (lit. 'holy harmony, humility', Plutarch 
aoqpia) is the harmony, peace, and concord that should rule among men. 
She is represented as a female divinity ; the earth is in her special 
charge. She plays an important part at the resurrection. The earth is 
to give up its dead. 

37. llaurvatat (Plutarch TCAOUTOJ) literally means 'wholeness, 
completeness, the saving health, the perfection', toward which all should 
strive, in short 'Salvation', with which. word it is etymologically cognate. 
This divinity is always mentioned in connection with Ameretat. In the 
later religion, Haurvatat came to preside as guardian angel over the health- 
giving waters. 

38. Ameretat literally means 'immortality', and is always joined 
with Haurvatat. In later Zoroastrianism, AmeretEt presides over the tre es. 
The pair of Haurvatat and Ameretat together seem to symbolize the 
waters of health and the tree of life. 

39. To the number of the celestial council also is to be added 
the divinity Sraosha (lit. 'obedience'). This genius completes the mystic 
number seven when Ahura Mazda is excepted from the list (cf. also 
Vs. 57.12). Sraosha is the angel of religious obedience, the priest god, 
the personification of the divine service that protects man from evil. 

40. Beside the above divinities in the Gath&s , mention is also 
made of Geush Tashan, the creator of the cow, and Geush Urvan, 
the personified soul of the kine. We sometimes also find Spenta 
Mainyu, the Holy Spirit of Ormazd, the will of God, represented prac- 
tically as a distinct personage. Lastly, the Fire, A tar, is personified in 
the Gath&s as one of God's ministering servants, and is a sacred emblem 
of the faith. 

41. Such is the heavenly hierarchy, and such the faith of Ormazd 
in which Zarathushtra exhorts the people, to believe. The faithful are 

Religion of the A vesta. Dualism. XXvii 

called Ashavans 'righteous', or later more often Mazdayasnians i. e. 'wor- 
shippers of M a z d a'. This is the true religion in contradistinction to the 
false. The false religion is the worship of the Daevas 'demons' (Av. 
daeva opposed to Skt. diva 'god'). The Daeva-worshippers are misguided 
and live in error. They are the wicked Dregvants (lit. 'belonging to the 
Druj, Satan'), 'the children of the wicked one' (St. Matt. xiii. 3843). The 
two religions themselves are a part of the dualism. 

42. In juxtaposition to Ahura Mazda, Zoroaster sets the fiend 
Druj 'Deceit, Satan' or Angra Mainyu (Ys. 45.2). The spirit of evil in co- 
existent with Onnazd iYs. 30.3), but is less clearly pictured in the Gathas. 
In later times, to carry out the symmetry of dualism, Angra Mainyu is 
accompanied by a number of Arch-Fiends, in opposition to the Archangels 
of Ormazd. The number of the infernal group is not sharply defined, 
but the chief members are 

Angra Mainyu 

aided by 
Aka Manah 


Each is the opponent of a heavenly rival. Aka Manah or 'Evil Mind" 
is the antagonist of Vohu Manah ; Taro-maiti, the demon of 'Presumption', 
is the opponent of Armaiti or humility; Aeshma, 'Fury, Wrath', the foe 
of Sraosha or holy obedience. The antagonism in the case of the others 
is less marked, and the connection somewhat more mechanical. 

43. In the final struggle between the two bands , the powers of 
light and the powers of darkness, the good eventually shall triumph. That 
was an ethical idea which Zoroaster inculcated. But the warfare that rages 
in the world between the two empires and between the true religion and 
the false , the belief in Mazda and the Daeva-worship, pervades also the 
soul of man and leaves the way uncertain. Yet on his choice the ultimate 
triumph of right or of wrong depends 1 . Each evil deed which man commits, 
increases the power of evil (e.g. Ys. 31.15); each good deed he does, 
brings nearer the kingdom of good. As Ahura Mazda's creature , man 
should choose the right. Zoroaster's mission, as shown in the Gathas (e. g. 
Ys. 31.2 et al.), is to guide man's choice. A summary of the prophet's moral 

XXviii Introduction: The A vesta. 

and ethical teachings may best be given in the triad , so familiar later, 
'good thoughts , good words , good deeds'. This forms the pith of the 
whole teaching. Purity alike of body and soul, and the choice of the 
good Mazda-religion rather than the wicked Daeva-worship, are inculcated. 
Zoroaster enjoins also the care of useful animals, especially the cow, and 
commends the good deeds of husbandry. He is the teacher of a higher and 
nobler civilization, as may be judged from the A vesta creed Ys. 12.1 seq. 

44. Man's actions , according to Zoroaster, are all recorded in 
Ormozd's sight as in a life-book (e. g. Ys. 31.13,14, Ys. 32.6). By his own 
actions man shall be judged, and rewarded or punished. The doctrine of 
a future life, the coining of the Kingdom, the end of the world, forms a 
striking feature in the teachings of the Avesta. This is the tone that 
Zoroaster himself constantly strikes in the Gathas. This very doctrine, 
and a belief also in a resurrection of the body characterises the entire 
Persian faith. The resurrection is to be followed by a general judgment 
when evil shall be destroyed from the world. This general division and 
new dispensation is called the Vidaiti (vi -f- ~\fd& 'dis-pose'). 

45. The views in regard to a future life , though incomplete in 
the Gathas , are carried out in the Younger Avesta , and are fully given 
in the Pahlavi books. That the belief in a resurrection and a life here- 
after was common among the Persians, some centuries before our Saviour, 
we have evidence in the early Greek writers, such as Theopompus, Hero- 
dotus, etc. The belief in an immediate judgment of the soul after death, 
the weighing in the balance , the leading of the soul across the Cinvat 
Bridge and through the mansions of paradise to bliss , or through the 
grades of hell to torment , or again in special cases to an intermediate 
state to await the final judgment are all to be recognized in the Zoroa- 
strian books and have their prototypes in the Gathas. 

46. In the Yasna of the Seven Chapters, though not much later 
than the Gathas, we find in some respects a slight descent from the lofty 
level on which the religion had been placed by its founder. There is a 
tendency to revive ancient ideas and forms from the old worship , in 
which nature had played a prominent part. The elements, earth, air, 
fire , and water, receive adoration ; the Fravashis , or guardian angels of 
the righteous, are worshipped and praised together with Ahura Mazda 
and the Araesha Speutas. The deity Haoma , the divinity of the plant 
which produced the intoxicating Soraa drink , again finds place in the 
religious rites. 

47. In the Younger Avesta , especially in the Yashts , we find 
still further restorations or innovations. The gods of the ancient mytho- 

Later Development of the Religion. Xxix 

logy, like Mithra, Verethraghna , once more appear in honor by the side 
of the supreme deity; the divinities of the stars, moon, and sun have 
their share of pious worship. In the later parts of the Yasua, the sacri- 
fice is developed into a somewhat elaborate ritual. The Zoroaster presented 
in certain portions of the Vendidad, moreover, is evidently no longer a living, 
moving personage as in the Gathas; he has become a shadowy figure, around 
whom time has thrown the aureola of the saint. These passages differ widely 
from the old hymns ; they show unmistakeable signs of lateness. They 
present a religion codified in the hands of the priests; superstitious beliefs 
and practices have found their way into the faith; intricate purifications 
in particular are enjoined to remove or to avoid the impurity arising from 
contact with the dead. The spirit of the Gathas is gone. It is only here 
and there that passages in late texts are old and have the genuine Zo- 
roastrian ring. They must not be overlooked. In general , a distinction 
must be drawn between what is old and what is young. We must recall, 
as above ( 27) , that the Avesta was probably worked upon from Zo- 
roaster's own day down to the time of the Sassanian redaction. 

The Pahlavi Version of the Avesta. 

48. To the period of the Sassanian editing of the texts belongs 
the Pahlavi translation and interpretation of the Avesta. At the date 
when the texts were compiled and edited ( 21), the general knowledge 
of the Avesta and the understanding of the sacred texts was far from 
perfect. The preparation of a translation or version became necessary. 
Accordingly, the great body of the texts was rendered into Pahlavi , the 
language used in Persia at the time of the Arsacidse and Sassanidre. The 
Pahlavi version and interpretation of the entire Yasna , Vispered , and 
Vendidad, with some portions of the other texts, has been preserved. 
We have not as yet a thorough enough understanding of this version, as 
the Pahlavi question is still a vexed one ; but as our knowledge of this 
translation increases, we see more and more its importance. Owing to a 
somewhat imperfect knowledge of the Avesta texts at the time when the 
version was made , and owing to the unskilfull and peculiar manner in 
which the Pahlavi translation is made, this version abounds in numerous errors 
and inaccuracies. Its renderings, however, are often of the greatest value 
in interpreting allusions, particularly also in giving hints for the meanings of 
obscure words, and in such matters it is many times our best and only guide. 
When more fully understood and properly used in connection with the 'com- 
parative method', referring to the Sanskrit in interpreting the sacred texts, 
the 'traditional method' or native explanation is destined to win great results. 
The 'traditional' and the 'comparative-' methods must go hand in hand. 

XXX Introduction : The A vesta. 

Manuscripts of the Avesta. 

49. The manuscripts of the Avesta are quite numerous. Some 
of our specimens were copied down over five hundred years ago. They 
are written on parchment. The oldest was copied about the middle of the 
1 3th century. From that date onward we have a considerable number of 
codices still extant. They come to us from India and from Yezd and Kirman 
in Persia. A number of the manuscripts are deposited in the libraries at 
Copenhagen, Oxford, London, Paris, Munich. The Parsi priests, especially 
the Dasturs, Dr. Jamaspjt Minocheherji and also Peshotanji Behramji, have 
shown princely generosity in aiding Western scholars in editing texts by 
putting valuable MSS. in their possession. , It is thus that the new edition 
of the Avesta texts by Professor Geldner of Berlin , is able to be pre- 
sented in so critical a manner. No codex is complete in containing all 
the texts ( ll). The different MSS. themselves, moreover, show certain 
variations in reading; but these chiefly affect the form and construction 
of single words , rather than entire passages and the sense. As a rule, 
the older the MS. is. the better is its grammar ; and the later, the more 
faulty. Notable exceptions , however, must be made , especially in favor 
of some later MSS. from Persia. 

Importance of the Avesta. 

$ 50. The importance of the Avesta , as stated above (JJ 2) , lies 
not alone in the field of philology, ethnology and early litera- 
ture, but especially also is it of importance from the standpoint of com- 
parative religion. Resemblances to Christianity in its teachings be- 
come significant when we consider the close contact between the Jews 
and the Persians during the Babylonian captivity. These are beginning 
more and more to attract the attention of students of the Bible. 

Language of the Avesta. 
Grammatical Summary. 

51. The language in which the Avesta is written belongs to the 
Iranian branch of the Indo-Germanic tongues. With the Ancient Persian 
of the inscriptions it makes up the Old Iranian division. The later Iranian 
languages, New Persian, Kurdish, Afghan, Ossetish, Baluchi, Ghalcha, and 
some minor modem dialects , complete the younger division. The inter- 
vening Pahlavi and PSzand, or Parsi, do not quite complete the link be- 
tween the divisions. The extent of its relationship with the Armenian is 
not yet defined with sufficient exactness. On the positive kinship between 
the language of the Avesta and Sanskrit, see below 55. 

Language of the Avesta. Grammatical Summary. XXXI 

52. The language in which the Avesta is written may best be 
termed Avesta or Avestan. The designation Avesta for the language, as 
well as the book, is in keeping with the Pahlavi Avist&k, which is used 
both of the tongue and of the scriptures. The term Avestan, both for the 
language and as an adjective, is preferred by some scholars, in order to 
distinguish the speech from the work itself. This is sometimes, found 
very convenient. The term Zend for the language, as noted above ( 3), 
is a misnomer. The designation Old Bactrian, occasionally used for the 
tongue, has little to recommend it. 

53. The alphabet in which the Avesta is written is far younger 
than the language it presents. The characters are derived from the 
Sassanian Pahlavi, which was used to write down the oral tradition when 
the texts were collected and edited under the dynasty of the Sassanidae. 
The writing is read from right to left. What the original Avestan script 
was we do not know. 

54. Two dialects may be recognized in the Avesta : one the 
'Gatha dialect' or the language of the oldest parts, the Gathas, or 
metrical sermons of Zoroaster ; the other 'Younger Avesta' or the 
'classical dialect'. This latter is the language of the great body of the 
Avesta. The Gatha dialect is more archaic , standing in the relation of 
the Vedic to the classical Sanskrit , or the Homeric Greek to the Attic. 
Possibly the Gatha language may owe some of its peculiarities noticed 
below, also to an original difference of locality. The Gatha dialect was 
the speech of Zoroaster and his followers. Its grammatical structure is 
remarkably pure. The younger Avesta, but only in its late compositions, 
owing to linguistic decay, shows many corruptions and confusions in its 
inflections. All that is old or is written in meter, however, is correct and 
accurate. Inaccuracies that have there crept in , we must generally at- 
tribute to the carelessness of the scribes. In its forms , as a rule , the 
Avesta is extremely antique ; it stands in general on the same plane as 
the Vedic Sanskrit , and occasionally, though not often , it even shows 
more ancient forms. 

55. The language of the Avesta is most closely allied to the 
Sanskrit, though individually quite distinct from the latter. Together 
they may be classed as making up an Indo-Iranian group. Almost any 
Sanskrit word may be changed at once into its Avestan equivalent, or 
vice versa , merely by applying certain phonetic laws. As example may 
be taken the metrical stanza Yt. 10.6 in the Avesta : 

tjm amavatitom yazatun 
stirfm d&tndhu &jviittm 
miprtm yazai taofrr&byo 

Xxxii Introduction: The Avesta. 

'Mithra that strong mighty angel, most beneficent to all creatures, 1 will 
worship with libations' becomes when rendered word for word in Sanskrit: 

tarn dmavantam yajat&m 
i&ram dhamasu idviftham 
mitrdm yajSi hotr&bhyal). 

56. In its p h o n o 1 o g y the Avesta agrees with the Sanskrit in 
its vowels in general, but the Avesta shows a greater variety in using e- and 
<>-sounds instead of a. Final vowels , except 6, are shortened as a rule. 
The Skt. diphthong I appears in Av. as ad, Hi, i (final). Thus Av. vat- 
noifie 'they two are seen' = Skt. vtn-l-te. Skt. appears as Av. ao, in, 
6 (final), thus Av. aojo 'strength' = Skt. ojv, ojas; Av. i(rat3u$ 'of wisdom' 
= Skt. krdtiis. A striking peculiarity in Av., moreover, is the introduction 
of epenthetic vowels and help sounds, giving rise to improper diphthongs, 
Av. bavaiti 'he becomes' = Skt. bhdvati; Av. AaTva- 'whole' = Skt. 
sdrua-; Av. valpira- 'word* = Skt. v'aktra-; Av. Avar'- 'sun' = Skt. sv'ar. 
The Skt. voiceless stops k, t, p generally become spirants $, /, / in Av. 
before consonants. Thus, Av. fyapra- 'rule, kingdom' = Skt. ksatrd-; 
Av. fra 'forth' = Skt. pro. The original voiced aspirates .?//, dh, bh, be- 
come in Av. simply voiced stops g, d, b. They are so preserved in the 
old Gatha dialect ; the younger dialect commonly resolves them again be- 
fore consonants and between vowels into voiced spirants. Thus , GAv. 
ada , YAv. ada 'then' = Skt. ddha. Similarly spirantized in YAv. the 
voiced stops YAv. tijra-, GAv. ugra- 'mighty' = Skt. ugrd-. The sibilant 
s, when initial in Skt., becomes Av. //, as in Greek. Thus, Av. kapta 
'seven' = Skt. saptd. When internal , Skt. s may also appear as vh. 
Thus, Av. vavhana- 'vesture' = Skt. vdsaiia-. Final -as of Skt. appears 
regularly as -o. Thus Av. aspo 'horse' = Skt. amis. 

57. The Gatha dialect regularly lengthens all final vowels. It 
frequently inserts the anaptyctic vowels : GAv. f'ra, YAv. fra Skt. pra, 
Original ns appears in GAv. as ng. Thus GAv. dacvftig (ace. pi.), YAv. 
dafvqn 'demons' = Skt. devan; GAv. minghai 'I shall think' = Skt. wqsai. 

58. In inflection the Avesta shows nearly the richness of the 
Vedic Sanskrit. There are three genders , masculine , neuter , feminine ; 
likewise three numbers, singular, dual, plural. The dual is not extensively 
used. There are eight well-developed cases of the noun and the a d- 
jective; the normal endings are: Singular. Nom. -s; Ace. -tm; Instr. -J; 
Dat. -2; Abl. -// Gen. -o (-as); Loc. -/,- Voc. . Dual. Nom., Ace., Voc. 
-d; Instr., Dat., Abl. -bya; Gen. -#/ Loc. -o, -yd. Plural. Nom., Voc. -S 
(-as), -a; Ace. -6 (-as, -ns), -d; Instr. -bii; Dat. -6yd (-byas); Gen. -qm; 
Loc. -su, -hu, -$va. The classes of declension agree exactly with the 

Language of the Avesta. Grammatical Summary. xxxiii 

Sanskrit ; the method of forming comparison of adjectives likewise 
corresponds. The numerals answer to Skt. forms , except Av. afva- 
'one', opposed to Skt. eka-, Av. batoar- '10,000', but Skt. ayuia. The 
Av. pronouns closely resemble the Skt., but show also individual pe- 
culiarities. Noteworthy is the remote demonstrative Av. ava, h&u 'that, 
yonder', contrasted with Skt. aunt, asau. The verbal system in Av. 
and in Skt. are in general identical. The roots are chiefly monosyllabic 
and are subject to the same modifications as in Skt. In voice, mode, 
and tense, and in their conjugation-system the two languages quite agree. 
The endings show equal antiquity with the Sanskrit. The primary active 
endings in Av. are: Sing. I, >//, 2, -hi, 3, -ti; Dual. I, -vahi, 3, -to, -f>6; 
Plur. I, -mahi, 2, -pa, 3, -#/'. The other endings also are parallel with 
the Sanskrit. 

59. The Av. possesses like facility with the Sanskrit in forming 
words by means of prefixes, and by adding suffixes of primary and se- 
condary derivation. The same classes of compounds may be recognized 
in both tongues. The rules of external Sandhi , or joining together of 
words in a sentence, so universal in Skt., are almost wanting in Avesta. 
The Avesta separates each word by a dot. The vowels are fully ex- 
pressed as in Greek etc., by individual letters. No diacritical points or 
accents are written in the texts. The meters in which the GathSs are 
composed have analogies in the Veda. Almost all the metrical parts of 
the younger Avesta are in eight-syllable lines. The syntax, however, 
differs from the Sanskrit in certain points , and shows some marked in- 
dividualities, especially in the later portions. 




Yasna 45.12. 
Zoroaster preaches upon The Two Spirits. 

Ys. 45.1 translated. 

Now shall I preach, and do you give ear and hear, 
Ye who hither press from near and from afar, 
Therefore lay ye all these things to heart as clear 
Nor let the wicked teacher your second life destroy 
The perverted sinner your tongues with his false faith. 

Transliteration of the same. 

(See opposite page.) 

1 a( fravafyjlyd nu gu$5dum nu sraotd 
yaecd asndf yaecd durdf i$apd 

nu Im vispd ciprS zl mazdaiwhddum 
not} daibitim dus.sastis ahum m'rqgydf 
akd var a nd drzgva* hizvm dvar'to. 

2 af fravatysyd awhzus m&nyu po u ruye 
yay& spanyai u'ti mravaf yarn cuigr^m 
noif nd manes not} sSn.gJtd noi{ fyratavd 
naedd var a nd noi{ ufydd naedd yaop<*nd 
noif daend) noif u rvano haca^te. 

Ys. 45.2 translated. 

Now shall I preach of the world's Two primal Spirits 
The Holier One of which did thus address the Evil: 
'Neither do our minds, our teachings, nor our concepts, 
Nor our beliefs, nor words, nor do our deeds in sooth, 
Nor yet our consciences, nor souls agree in aught.' 

XXXVJ Introduction: The A vesta. 


a. Yasna 9.5 (metrical). 
The Golden Age of Yima. 

5 yimahe ^apre a u rvahe 

noif aotam mwha noif gar'mtm 

noif za u rva mwha noif mar'pyus 

noi arasko daevo.ddto; 

parica.dasa fracaroipe 

pita puprasca raodae$va [katarasctf] 

yavata Ji$aydi( hvqpwo 

yimo vivawuhato pupro. 

In the reign of princely Yima 
There was neither cold, nor heat 
Old age was not, death there was not, 
Nor disease, the work of Demons, 
But the son walked with the father 
Fifteen years old each in figure; 
Long as Vivanghvat's son, Yima 
The good shepherd, ruled as sovereign. 

Specimens of the Avesta Text. 


b. Vendidad 6.4445 (prose). 
Disposal of the Dead. 

[.mu a / a .in qni t i a v t s a .m q n a,p lag .tratdti] 


O holy One 

astva l tinqm 

of beings 

O Creator 

[. aru ha . a m a rab .muna t 

ahura bardma tanuiti 
O Ahura shall-we-bear body 


m q na t s iri ,m q r an . av k] 

iristanq.m narqin kva 
dead (gen.) of men where 

[. o ru h a . / o arm 

ahuro mraof 

Ahura spake 

./ a S 

. a m a p a din .av k .a dz a in] 

nidapdma kva mazda 

deposit where Mazda 





./ t i a p 

,acav$ iatSiztrab . & dz a m] 

barezistae$vaca mazdd) 
the heights Mazda 

^) -^3 

[.m i t 3 idi a b .mid 

bdidistam dim 

always it 

[. ii v . 6 y a v 

vd vayo 

or birds 

/' o d a y .a r t Sup ar a z . a in a t i p s] 

yadoi( zarapustra spitama 

where Zarathushtra O Spitama 

. d v 



. d r a hr , $ fink 



, o n O s .nqnazav a] 

suno avazanajt 

dogs may-see 

[.drab. $ fink] 


(Compared with Justi, Handbuck der Zendsprache). 1 

A. Vowels. 
Short -"a i t u f 9 w e ~ o 

a i u (e) (g) o 

Long -*' d y z $ u \3 j^e "$*o p" co x- q, 

S t a (e} g d (do) (a) 

B. Consonants. 

Guttural 9 k fa fy eg" ^ J 

k (kh) g (gh) 

Palatal Y C ^j 

c J 

Dental i t h p _$ d (^d gj / 

t (th) d (dh) (() 

Labial v p & f __J ^ ou TV 

p f b w 

Nasal -(J % \ n %% 4 m 

W (*) n (n) m 
Semivowel and 

Liquid TO (") y (i) 2 ^ r ^ (n) V (U) 2 

y r v 

Sibilant w-T -o S gJ, 3 ro/ 3 / 0^ 

(f) (*) W (**} * (*V 
Aspiration . . . . or h (" fy 

Ligature f" fir 


1 Forms in parentheses ( ) show where Justi has been deviated from. 

2 The signs *', u need only be employed for purely scientific pur- 
poses; the letters y, v for both initial and internal TO ", i) , answer 
fully for practical purposes. 

3 The differentiation /, /, / need only be made in scientific articles. 
The single sign / is ordinarily quite sufficient for the three -V, (X}, TO. 


The following hints may be helpful to the student in 
using the Grammar. The chief points on which stress 
should be laid, and which it will be sufficient for the be- 
ginner to acquire, are: 

1. In the Preface, the remarks on Transcription, pp. vi vii. 

2. In the Introduction , the sketch of the language of the Avesta, 
pp. xxx xxxiii. 

3. Throughout the Grammar, the large print alone need be studied. 
Every thing marked 'GAv.' (Gatha Avesta), and all that is in small type, 
may be practically disregarded. 

4. Under . Phonology, only the sections () referred to in the R6- 
sume pp. 60 6 1. 

5. Under the Declension of Nouns and Adjectives, the following 
sections should suffice: 236, 243, 251, 262, 279, 291, 300, 322, 339, 
362, 363. 

6. Under Numerals, note merely the Cardinals 366. 

7. Under Pronouns, compare the Av. and Skt. forms in the case of 
386, 390, 399, 409, 417, 422, 432. No attempt need be made to 
commit the paradigms to memory. 

8. Under Verbs, the following sections relating to the Present-System 
are important: 448, 466, 469, 470, 478 481, 483 488. The remain- 
ing conjugations, and the Perfect, Aorist, Future, etc., may be learned as 

9. The rest of the book may be overlooked by the beginner. 

10. In consulting the Grammar, the Index will be found of ser- 
vice for reference. 

xl Suggestions. 


The following list contains a few books that the be- 
ginner will find most useful. The list is very brief; the 
student as he advances will see how rapidly it may be 

a. Texts. 

GELDNER Avesta, or the Sacred Books of the Par sis. 
Stuttgart 1885 seq. 

The new standard edition. 

WESTERGAARD Zendavesta, or the Religions Books of the 
Zoroastrians. Copenhagen. 

Hard to procure, but useful until Geldner's edition is complete. 

W. GEIGER Aogemadaeca, ein Parsentract in Pdzend, Alt- 
baktrisch und Sanskrit. Erlangen 1878. 

Useful fo.r the brief Av. fragment it contains. 

SPIEGEL Die altpersischen Keilinschriften, im Grundtexte 
mit (Jbersetzung, Grammatik und Glossar. 2. Aufl. 
, Leipzig 1 88 1. 

Good for comparative purposes. 

b. Dictionary. 

JUSTI Handbuch der Zendsprache, Altbaktrisches Worter- 
buch. Leipzig 1864. 

The only dictionary at present, and indispensable for reference. 
Possible to obtain second-hand. 

c. Translation. 

DARMESTETER AND MILLS The Zend-Avesta translated , in 
the Sacred Books of the East, ed. by F. Max Muller, 
vols. iv, xxiii, xxxi. Oxford 1883-7. 

This translation is complete. Translations of separate portions 
are to be found in the works mentioned under (d) and (e). 

Books recommended for Reference. xli 

d. Grammar and Exegesis, 

including also Translations of selected portions. 
(Books specially mentioned above in Preface, are not repeated here.) 

BARTHOLOMAE Arische Forscknngen i-iii. Halle 1882-7. 
Grammatical and metrical investigations , with translations of 
selected Passages. 

GELDNKR Ueber die Metrik des jiingeren Avesta. 
Tubingen 1877. 

A useful treatise on Metre. Also contains translations. 

Studien sum Avesta. Strassburg 1882. 

Grammatical contributions, and numerous translations. 

Drei Yasht aus dem Zendavesta iibersetzt und er- 
klart. Stuttgart 1884. 

Translation of Yt. 14, 17, 19, with Commentary. 

SPIEGEL Commentar tiber das Avesta. Bd. i-ii. Wien 

Useful for occasional reference. 

e. Literature, Religion, Antiquities. 

DARAB PESHOTAN SANJANA Civilization of the Eastern Ira- 
nians. Vols. i-ii; being a translation from the Ger- 
man of W. Geiger's Ostiranische Kultur im Alter- 
thum. London 1885-6. 

Useful for reference. 

GELDNER Zend-Avesta, Zoroaster, articles in the Encyclo- 
paedia Britannica. Ninth edition. 1888. 

By all means to be consulted. 

HAUG AND WEST Essays on the Sacred Language, Writ- 
ings, and Religion of the Parsis. 3 ed. London 1884. 

Contains much useful information. 

FIROZ JAMASPJI Casartelli's Mazdayasnian Religion under 
the Sassanids. Bombay 1889. 

Treats fully of the later development of Zoroastrianism. 

xlii Suggestions. 

RAGOZIN Media, Babylon and Persia. (Story of Nations' 
Series.) New York 1888. 

A good and readable book. 

WINDISCHMANN Zoroastrische Studien, herausgegeben von 
Fr. Spiegel. Berlin 1863. 

Contains much good material. 

Beside the above works the student will find abundant 
and valuable contributions on the Avesta and kindred Ira- 
nian subjects in the philological journals and periodicals 
of the last few years. Reference need only be made to 
the names Bartholomae , Bang , Bezzenberger , Caland, 
Casartelli, Darmesteter, de Harlez, Geiger, Geldner, Horn, 
Hiibschmann, Fr. Miiller, Mills, Pischel, Spiegel, Wilhelm, 
and some others, in the following: 

Bezzenberger 's Beitrage ; 

Kuhn's Ztitschrift; 

Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenldndischen Gesellschaft ; 

Brugmann und Str either g"s Indogermanische Forschungtn; 

Le Museon; 

American Oriental Society's Proceedings; 

American Journal of Philology; 

Babylonian and Oriental Record. 




(The Numbers refer to the Sections .) 
Section Pago 









I. 1-3. The Av. characters. 4. Punctuation. 5-7. Pronun- 
ciation of Vowels and Diphthongs. 8-13. Sounds of the 

Consonants I 4 


14. Simple Vowels. 14. The Av. and Sk^. Vowel-Systems. 
15. Agreement both in Quality and Quantity between 
Av. and Skt. Vowels. 16-22. Agreement in Quality, 
Difference in Quantity. 23-26. Rules for Quantity of 
Vowels in Av. 27-46. Difference in Quality between 
Av. and Skt. Vowels. 47-49. Original f in Av. 
50-52. Concurrence of Vowels, Euphonic Rules, Con- 
traction, Resolution, Hiatus 4 15 

53. Diphthongs. 53. Proper, Improper Diphthongs; Reduction 
and Protraction Diphthongs. 54-59- The diphthongs Av. 
ag, oi; ao, iu; Si, 3u. 60. Vowel-Strengthening, Guna and 
Vrddhi. 61. Changes in y- or f-Syllables. 62. Vocali- 
zation of y and v. 63-68. Reduction and Abbreviation 
in y- or ^-Syllables. 69-72. Epenthesis , Prothesis, 
Anaptyxis 15 27 

xliv Table of Contents of Part I. 

Section Page 


73. General Rules for Consonants. 74. Voiceless and Voiced 
(Surd and Sonant). 75. Remarks on Sandhi. 76. Tenues, 
Av. k, t, p. 77-80. Voiceless (Surd) Spirants, Av. , /, /. 
8l. The character of Av. /. 8z-88. Mediae, Av. s> <* 
f>, j and the Voiced (Sonant) Spirants , Av. j, d, w. 
89-90. Hartholomae's Law for original aspirate mediae 
-(- / or -(- J. - 91-93. Semivowels , , Av. y (t), v (u). 
94-99. Original v in combination with Consonants. 
loo. Liquid, Av. r. 101-105. Nasals, Av. n, q, v, y, m. 
106-107. Sibilants, Av. s, i, /,/, z, i. 108-1 10. Original 
s, how represented in Av. 111-124. Original as, ds, how 
represented in Av. 125-129. Original ns. 130. Original 
sz>. 1 3 1 - 1 44. Original sy, sr, sin, sk^ ts, ps. 145- 1 50. Older 
palatal s (Skt. s), how represented in Av. 151-153. D$- 
veloped Av. .r. 154-166. Av. /,/,/. 167-175. Av. z. 
176-183. Av. L 184. Aspiration, Av. h, l\, h . . . . 27 57 

185. Special Rules for Consonants. 185. Assimilation. 
1 86. Double Consonants reduced in Av. 187. Consonant 
dropped. 188-190. Consonants added or substituted. 
191. Metathesis. 192-193. Final Consonants in Av. 
193 Note. MS.-Fluctuations in writing certain Consonants 
and certain Vowels. 194. Repetition of same sound 
avoided in Av 57 60 


195. 195-201. Differences between Av. and Skt. Vowels. 
202-203. Av. and Skt. Diphthongs compared. 204-206. 
Origin of the Consonants in Av. 207-218. Representa- 
tion of various Skt. Consonants in Av 60 6 1 


219. Synopsis of the Declension of Nouns and Adjectives. 
220. Case, Number, Gender. 221. Table of Case-Endings. 
222-227. Remarks on the Endings. 228-231. General 
Plural Case in Av. 232. Interchange of Neuter with 
Feminine Forms. 233. Interchange of Cases in their 
Functions. 234. Transition in Declension. 235. Stem- 
Gradation (Strong and Weak Forms). 236-250. Declen- 
sion of Stems in a, a. 251-261. Stems in i, i. 
262-276. Stems in u, a. 277-278. Diphthongal Stems 

Table of Contents of Part I. x lv 

Section Page 

in Si, &u. 279-283. Stems without Suffix. 284-288. Strong 

and Weak Stems. 289-298. Derivative Stems in aql, wat^t, 
vattt. 299-315. Derivative Stems in an, man, van. 
316. Derivative Stems in in. 317-318. Radical n- and 
;-Stems. 319-337. Stems in original r. 338-360. Steins 
in original J. 361-362. Feminine Formation. 363-365. 
Comparison 62 105 


366. 366-374. Cardinals and Ordinals. 375-376. Numeral De- 
rivatives 106 108 


377- 377-384. General Remarks and Synopsis of the Pronouns. 
385-398. Personal. 399-405. Relative. 406-407. Inter- 
rogative. 408. Indefinite. 409-433. Demonstrative. 
434-443. Other Pronominal Words and Derivatives, Pos- 
sessive, Reflexive, Adjectives, Adverbs 109 126 


444. 444-447. General Synopsis, Voice, Mode, Tense, Person, 
Number. 448. Table of Personal Endings. 449-458. Re- 
marks on the Endings. 459-464. Mode-Formation, Subjunc- 
tive, Optative. 465-466. Reduplication and Augment. 
467. Vowel-Variation (Strong and Weak Forms) 127 137 

468. Present-System. 469-470. Classes of Verbs. 47i.Trans- 
fer of Conjugation. 472-477. The a-Conjugation (thema- 
tic). 478. Cl. i (rt-class, str. root). 479. Cl. 6 (a-class, 
unstr. root). 480. Cl. 4 (ja-class). 481. Cl. 10 (aya- 
class). 482-506. Paradigms of a-Conjugation. 507-515. 
The non-fl-Conjugation (unthematic). 516-539. Cl. 2 
(root-class). 540-553. Cl. 3 (reduplicating class). 
554-565. Cl. 7 (nasal class). 566-575. Cl. 5 (-elass). 
576-582. Cl. 8 (-class). 583-591. Cl. 9 (;/<f-class) 137167 

592. Perfect-System. 592-596. Perfect Formation. 597-601. 
Table of Perfect Endings and Remarks. 602. The Plu- 
perfect (Preterite). 603-604. Mode-Formation of the Per- 
fect. 605-619. Paradigms of the Perfect-System. 
620-622. Absence of Reduplication. 623. Periphrastic 
Perfect . 167176 

624. Aorist-System. 624-625. Form and Classification of 
Aorists. 626. Augment and Endings. 627. Modes of 
the Aorist. 628-652. Non-Sigmatic Group, (l) Root- 

xlvi Table of Contents of Part I. 

Section Page 

Aorist , (2) Simple Aorist , (3) Reduplicated Aorist. 

653-666. Sigmatic Group, (4) h- (or J-) Aorist, (5) ha- 
(sa-) Aorist, (6) /7-Aorist, (7) A7-Aorist. 667-668. Aorist 
Passive Third Singular 176186 

669. Future-System. 669. Future Formation. 670-671. Modes 

of the Future. 672. Paradigms 186 187 

675. Secondary Conjugation. 675-683. Formation of the 
Passive. 684-694. Causative. 695-696. Denominative. 
697-698. Inchoative. 699-701. Desiderative. 702-707. 
Intensive 187 195 

708. Verbal Abstract Forms. 709-715. Active, Middle, and 
Passive Participles. 716-718. Gerundive and Gerund. 
719-721. Infinitive 195 199 

722. Periphrastic Verbal Phrases. 722-723. Periphrases in- 
stead of a tense-stem. 724. Periphrastic Expressions and 
Circumlocutions 199200 


725. 725-733. Adverbs. 734-737. Prepositions. 738-740. Con- 
junctions. 741-742. Interjections 201 206 



743. Morphology in general. 744-745. Suffixless Formation. 
746. Derivation by Prefix and Suffix. 747-754. Nomi- 
nal and Verbal Prefixes. 755- Derivation by Suffix. 
756-823. Primary Suffixes. 824-857. Secondary Suffixes 207 236 

858. Noun and Verb Compounds. 859-860. Noun-Composition. 
861-877. Euphonic Laws in the Union of the Members 
of Compounds. 878. Classes of Compounds. 879. Copu- 
lative Compounds. 880-882. Determinative Compounds. 
883-889. Secondary Adjective Compounds , Possessive 
Compounds and Adjective Compounds with governed Final 
Member. 890-894. Other Compounds, Numeral, Adverbial, 
Loose. 895-900. Sandhi in Compounds and Enclitics 236 247 

INDEXES 249271 



adj. = adjective 

advl. .= adverbial 

etc. = et cetera 

et al. = et alia 

fr. = from 

indecl. = indeclinable 

infin. = infinitive 

nom. propr. = nomen proprium 

num. = numeral 

orig. = original, originally 

opp., opp. to = opposed to 

pret. = preterite 

ptcpl. = participle 

str. = strong 

subst. = substantive 

v. 1. = varia lectio 

var. = variant 

wk. = weak. 

Afr. = Afringan 

Av. 1 = A vesta 

GAv. 2 = Gatha Avesta 

Ind. Iran. = Indo-Iranian 

Indg. = Indogermanic 

MS. = manuscript 

MSS. = manuscripts 

Ny. = Nyaish 

Phi. = Pahlavi 

Sir. = Sirozah 

Skt. = Sanskrit 

Vd. = Vendidad 

Vsp. = Vispered 

Wg. = Westergaard 

YAv. 8 = Younger Avesta 

Ys. = Yasna 

Yt. = Yasht 

ZPhl. Gloss. = Zand-Pahlavi Glossary. 

The other abbreviations require no remark. 


1. Av. (Avesta) prefixed to a word indicates that the word or form 
in question is either found in both GAv. and YAv. or has nothing pe- 
culiar about it which would prevent its occurence in both. 

2. GAv. (Gatha Avesta) is prefixed (l) when the word, or form, or 
construction is peculiar to the Gatha dialect and is not found in YAv. ; 
(2) to contrast a Gatha form with a younger form (YAv.) which may 
stand beside it; (3) to emphasize the fact that the form in question is 
found even in the Gathas, e. g. stavas 143. 

Under GAv. are comprised the usual 17 hymns and the sacred 
formulas (Introd. p. xxiii, 25), the Yasna Haptanghaiti, and those por- 

xlviii Abbreviations. 

tions, such as Ys. la, that are written in the Gftthi dialect even including 
some possible later imitations, e. g. Ys. 58, 4.26. 

3. Y A v. (Younger Avesta) comprises everything that is n o t written 
in the dialect of the G&th&s. For its usage see preceding note. 

4. The sign () is placed before a form to denote that the first part 
of the word is omitted. 

5. In the paradigms under Inflection, the forms in paren- 
theses () do not actually occur, but are made up after the form in 
small print which stands beside them. See 236 foot-note. Thus 

Loc. (yasnae$u) 

v-WA A /Wv~ 




i. The Avesta is written in the following characters 

A. Vowels. 
Short ....- a > i > u f 3 to e ^ o 

Long ....-"# -f I $ U { S ^e *> 5 r O) * H 

B. Consonants. 

Guttural . . . 9 k ly fy V g <^J 
Palatal . . . K C _ ^j _ 

Dental . . . . f t & p _j d ^ d ^ f 

Labial . . . ./ i f _j ^ QlfW 

Nasal ....} </ ^ \ n ^.n 4) m 
Semivowels and 

Liquid . . . ro, (*) ^ ^ r (j, () V 

Sibilant . . .MJ ^o^ i^/ W/ /* 40^ 
Aspiration . . w // (jj ^ 
Ligature . . . \" fv 

2 The writing runs from right to left. The 
vowels are fully expressed by individual letters as in Greek 

Note. The epenthetic and anaptyctic vowels ( 70, 72) will be 
expressed in transcription, in the Grammar only, by a small vowel slightly 
raised: e. g. Av. a*ruja- 'white' = Skt. arufd-; Av. antar* 'within' = Skt. 


2 Phonology. 

etc.; there are no diacritical points; nor are any accents 
written in the Avesta texts. 

3. In the manuscripts numerous ligatures occur; 
these except t&u st are generally resolved in printing. Ob- 
serve that ( hr is different from r hv. Many MSS. have 
a sign -6 m interchanging with fa hm. 

4. In Avesta, all words except some enclitics 
are written separately and each is followed by a 
point (.); the compounds even are mostly written sepa- 
rately in the MSS. ; but in printed texts these are written 
together, a point (.) being used to divide the members. 

5. The punctuation in the MSS. is meagre, 
mostly arbitrary and quite irregular; the following symbols 
borrowed from the MSS. have been adopted to correspond 
to our signs, namely -.- for colon or semicolon; v a full 
stop ; oo a larger break ; the end of a chapter ; sym- 
bol of abbreviation. 


6. Vowels. - a, -^ a, * i, y I, and > it, * u are 
pronounced as ordinarily in Sanskrit, but a, a perhaps duller. 
j 3 is most probably obscure like the short indefinite vowel 
familiar in English, 'gard<?n<r', 'measuring', 'history', 'sachem'; 
it often corresponds to the vulgar 'chim e ney', 'rheuma- 
tis u m'. In the combination j\ ar 3 , cf. Skt. r, much like 
English 'pretty' (when pronounced 'p e r e tty') , e. g. -DJ\ 
'he asked', cf. Mod. Persian pursidan 'to ask'; Av. 
- 'bird', Skt. mrga-, Mod. Pers. murj. See above, 
Introduction, on Transcription. \ $ is the corresponding 
long vowel to \ 9. e and w e, both narrow, about as 
English 'let, veil', French 'etc". "* o and > o probably 
somewhat muffled. H ce, as English 'extraordinary, fault, 

Pronunciation. * 

fa-w'mg, i. e. approaching '-aw' in 'saw'. x- q, nasalized 
a, or a, French 'sans', likely rather dull, 

7. Diphthongs. ** ai and v du are pronounced 
as in Sanskrit. >> oi as a Gk. tot. ^v- a/, "Sa^ ao and 
>{ ^ as a union of the two elements ai etc. R^ Se as 
forming two distinct sounds. 

8. Tenues * k, i t, p, and Mediae c ,_} </,_j b, 
as ordinarily. r c, ^ j, as in Sanskrit , English 'church, 

9. Spirants, ty ty, as ch in Scotch 'loch', Mod. Gk. 
i,/, a roughened , guttural buzz, cf. (often) Germ. 
'Tage', Mod. Gk. y. b p, as English 'thin', surd. ^ d, 
as English 'then', sonant. g /, apparently a spirant, 81. 

b f, as in English. w w, corresponding sonant, Germ. 
w, Mod. Gk. P (cf. Eng. v}. u s, sharp as in 'sister'. 

/ z, corresponding sonant, English 'zeal'. o s, as English 

sh in 'dash'. o z, corresponding sonant, English 'plea- 
sure, azure*. ro $, a more palatals/;, generally before y. 

m f> apparently a variety sh , differing little from t> s; 
etymologically it most often equals original rt. 

10. Nasals, j #, guttural = Skt. *>. -a ty, a modi- 
fication of the preceding, -mouille; the two (j and -u ij?) 
respectively perhaps as in Eng. 'longing'. i n, as Eng. 
'nun'. n (modified from an), a variety of n. $ ;, as 

ii. Semivowels and Liquid, roj (initial), probably 
spirant as Eng. 'youth'; y (internal), probably semi- 
vowel, i, English 'many a man'. ^ v (initial), probably 
spirant as Eng. 'vanish'; v (internal), probably semi- 
vowel, u, cf. Eng. 'lower, flour'. ^ r is a liquid vigorously 
pronounced. Observe / is wanting. 

Note. On YI in trualbya, see Vocabulary after ) u. 

4 Phonology. 

12. Aspiration, or h, as ordinarily. ^ ^, a modi- 
fication of h before y, possibly stronger. 

13. Ligature. ^ h, perhaps more vigorous than 
w hv , and possibly already shading towards the later 
Pers. y. 



14. General Remark. The Avesta presents a 
greater variety than the Sanskrit in its vowel- 
system, especially through the frequent presence of e- and 
0-sounds instead of a. 

Simple Vowels. 

A. Agreement in Quality between Avesta and 
Sanskrit Vowels. 

Av. - ., ,, , y, *. 

a, i, u, a, i, ii. 
i. Agreement in both Quality and Quantity. 

15. The Av. vowels a, a, i, I, u, u, agree in general 
with the corresponding vowels in Sanskrit. 

(i) Av. # = Skt. a; Av. a = Skt. a. 
Av. asti 'is' = Skt. dsti; Av. mdtaro 'mothers' = 
Skt. mdtdras; Av. vatais 'with winds' = Skt. vdtdis. 

(a) Av. i = Skt i; Av. z = Skt. i. 
Av. cistis 'wisdom' = Skt. cittis; Av. hinc&ti 'he 
sprinkles' = Skt. sincdti; Av. jivycpn 'living, fresh' 
(ace. f.) = Skt. jlvydm. 

(3) Av. it = Skt. ; Av. = Skt. . 
Av. uta 'also' = Skt. utd; Av. dd u ru 'wood' = Skt. 
ddru; Av. biirois 'of richness' = Skt. bhures; Av. 
butntm 'earth' = Skt. bhumim. 

Simple Vowels. e 

ii. Agreement in quality; difference in quantity. 

1 6. As to the relation between long and short 
quantity, the Avesta and the Sanskrit do n o t always coin- 
cide with each other. This is probably due in part to 
shifting of accent, partly to deficiencies or inaccuracy in 
Avesta writing, partly to dialectic peculiarities. 

17. (i) Av. a = Skt. a. 

GAv. nana 'differently' = Skt. ndnS; GAv. mava'tt 'to one like 
me' = Skt. mavatl; YAv. kasaf 'looked' Skt. kfiiat; YAv. bajina 
'dishes' = Skt. bhSjana-; 'Vh.v.dvanm 'door* = Skt. dvdram ; YAv. 
urvaranqm 'of trees' = Skt. urvdrdySm. 

1 8. (2) Av. a = Skt. a. 

Av. var'zanai 'for the community' = Skt. vfjdnSya; Av. yataro 
'which of two' = Skt. yatards ; Av. &j>rava (nom. sg.) 'priest' = 
Skt. dtharva. 

Note I. The manner of writing the same word or form in the Av. 
itself, sometimes varies between a and S. Av. hffmo beside hamd 'same' 
= Skt. samds; Av. ayu- beside Syu 'age' Skt. ayu-; Av. Autafttm, hu- 
taftjtn 'well-formed' = Skt. sutoffaat; Av. yazama'de 'we worship' beside 
(rarer) barama'de 'we carry' (Yt. 11.7) = Skt. ydjamatu, bhdramahi; Av. 
uHtamm beside uHtamm 'vital power' ; YAv. adw&mm (but GAv. adv&mni) 
'way' = Skt. ddhv&nam; GAv. ayGr* beside YAv. ayar* 'days'. Especially 
does the preposition a, Av. a (a), vary: Av. avaza'ti 'he rides to' = Skt. 
n-vahati; GAv. akS- beside fika- 'judgment'. 

Note 2. A part of the differences between a and a in Av. and Skt., 
as well as the variation in the Av. itself, may be explained, as said ( 1 6), 
by vowel-gradation : e. g. Av. -mna-, -mana-, ptcpl. pres. mid. = Skt. -mana-. 
The treatment of the old vowel-gradation must be sought in the compa- 
rative grammar, cf. Brugmann, Grundriss der vtrgl. Gram. 307. Examples 
in Avesta are 

Lower-grade Higher-grade 

apqm 'of waters' Spd 'waters' 

(i) da-d'-ma'de 'we give', (2) daj>ra- 'gift' datar- 'giver' 

ha u rva-fls-u- 'with full flocks' pasu 'flock, sheep' 

(i) fra-bd-a- 'fore-foot', (2) padd (ace. pi.) pdda (ace. du.) 

cafiru-gaofa- 'four-eared' ca]nuar-aspa- t cafnaSro. 

See also under guna and vrddhi 60. 

6 Phonology. 

Note 3. On the relation, Av. hStqm 'of beings' = Skt. satitm; or 
GAv. drtgv&'tl 'for the wicked', cf. YAv. drvataf, see Bartholomae, in B.B. 
x. 278 seq. ; K.Z. xxix. p. 543 = Flexionslthre p. 124. 

19. Similarly ( 18 Note i) in Av. itself, internal 
a often takes the place of a, when ca etc. is suffixed or 
the word otherwise grows by increment: 

(a) Av. katSrd 'which' but katarascif; Av. dahSka 'dragon' but 
dahakaca; Av. Sbyo 'with these' but a'-wyasca (initial <J); GAv. d'mS- 
nfm 'house' (ace.) but (gen.) d'manahya ; Av. bipa'tiltamm 'biped' 
(ace.) but bipa'tiitanay&'Vi.. 13.41. (b) Likewise a lightening of a 
to a in ablative -Sf occurs before enclitic haca: Av. yimaf kaca 
'from Yima' ; apafytaraf haca nafntSf 'from northern region" ; Aul- 
hqm.bir'tat haca fy$aeta[ 'from well-collected possessions'. 

2O. (3) Av. t, K = Skt. i, U. 

Very often, Av. z and u are found where the Skt. has 
i, u. The long vowel i, occurs most frequently in the 
vicinity off; the long vowel ii, chiefly when followed by 
epenthetic i 70. 

Av. ytfoif 'might direct, teach', cf. Skt. iify&t (\fsSs-, />-); Av. 
vtsfttn 'all' = Skt. viivam; Av. vitastim 'a span length' = Skt. 
z//7rtj//i. Av. stino 'of a dog' = Skt. sunas ; Av. yujmaf, yufmattm 
'from, of you' = Skt. yuftndt, yufmakam; Av. sruto 'heard' = Skt. 
irutds ; Av. "druta- 'run' = Skt. drutd-; Av. stuto 'of praise' = Skt. 
stufds.Av. Shuiriit (but gen. Shurdii] 'Ahurian' = Skt. asuris; Av. 
ffzit'tiJ (but gen. azutoti) 'oblation' = Skt. Shutis ; Av. stu'ti? 'praise' 
= Skt. stutis; Av. stwdi 'praise thou' = Skt. stuki; Av. yu'dye'ti 
'he fights' = Skt. yiidhyati. 

21. (4) Av. i, U = Skt. f, it. 

Sometimes Av. i and u are found where the Skt. 
shows I, u. 

Av. izye'ti 'he seeks', cf. Skt. ihati; Av. a'niktm 'face' = Skt. 

dniJtam; Av. isSnttn 'having power' = Skt. isanam; Av. hunavd 

'sons' = Skt. sundvas; Av. tanunqm 'of bodies' = Skt. tan&nam. 

Note i. In general as to /', / and u, u, the MSS. themselves often 

vacillate between the long and the short in the same passage , or in the 

same word at different places : e. g. at times Av. srfra- written instead 

of srira- 'fair'; Av. mifti a.nd~mt}ti 'with moisture 1 ; Av. viiptm for vtsf>m 

Simple Vowels. 7 

'all' ; Av. mildtm and mildim 'reward'. A v. dura- written for dura- 'far' ; 
Av. drujo and drujo 'of the Druj' ; Av. yutyta- and yu^ta- 'yoked'. 

22. GAv. shows everywhere an overwhelming pre- 
ference for long vowels, especially for { 3. 

GAv. azSm T, YAv. aztm = Skt. aham; GAv. ap?ma- 'last', 
YAv. ap>ma- = Skt. apamd- ; GAv. jfrnyaf 'might come', YAv. jam- 
yS( = Skt. gamyit; GAv. -/, //, particles, YAv. -/, / = Skt. 
cid, -id; GAv. d'jtf- 'victorious', YAv. _//-,' GAv. ratuH 'chief, Ratu' 
(nom. sg.) beside ratuL 

Note. Similarly, GAv. -it! (pada-ending) compared with YAv. -tif 
or -bi$, Skt. -bhis ; but GAv. cff etc. No rule for lengthening is laid down. 

Principal Rules for Quantity of Vowels. 
23. (i) In Avesta, original i and u are regularly 
lengthened before final nt. 

Av. paitint 'lord' (ace.) = Skt. pdtint; Av. ddhlm 
'creation* = Skt. dhdsim; Av. tdyiim 'thief = Skt. 
tdyum; Av. pitum 'food' = Skt. pitum. 

Note. Likewise i arising from reduction of ya, 63 is lengthened ; 
but the u, arising from reduction of va, appears mostly short before m: 
Av. ma'dim 'middle' (ace.) = Skt. mddhyam ; but often Av. pri$um beside 
Prijum (from *pri$-va-m) 'third'. 

24. (2) Monosyllables ending in a vowel show 
regularly the long vowel. 

Av. zl 'for' = Skt. hi; Av. ni 'down' = Skt. ni; 
Av. nu 'now' = Skt. nu, (nu) ; Av. frd 'forth' = Skt. prd, 

Note. The enclitic -fa , as united with the preceding word , does 
not regularly fall under this law. 

25. (3) Polysyllables in YAv. shorten as a 
rule all final vowels except 5. 

YAv. haena 'army' (nom. sg. fern.) = Skt. slnd; 
YAv. pita 'father' = Skt. pitd; YAv. para 'before' = 
Skt. pdrd. YAv. dfriti 'blessing' (instr. f.), cf. Skt. 
dhitt 'with devotion' ; YAv. nd'ri 'woman' = Skt. ndri. 
YAv. sure 'O mighty one' (fern.) = Skt. sure; YAv. 

8 Phonology. 

baraite 'he carries' = Skt. bhdrate. YAv. datyu 'two 
nations', cf. Skt. ddsyu; YAv. dva 9r'zu 'two fingers' 
= Skt. dvd rj'u. 

Note. Exceptions occur: YAv. pSyO. 'two protectors' = Skt. pSy& ; 
YAv. ma'nyii beside ma'nyu 'two spirits', cf. Skt. manyti; YAv. asrti 
'tears'; etc. 

26. (4) In GAv. all final vowels are long with- 
out exception. 

(a) GAv. ahurd 'O Ahura, Lord' = YAv. ahura, 
Skt. dsura; GAv. utd 'also' = YAv. uta, Skt. utd; 
GAv. kuprd 'whither' = YAv. kuj>ra, Skt. kiitra. 
GAv. ahl 'thou art' = YAv. ahi, Skt. dsi, GAv. 
yaeju 'among whom' = Skt. y/fu. (b) Even the anap- 
tyctic vowel ( 72), with trifling exceptions, is leng- 
thened : GAv. mvhar* 'they have been' = YAv. avhar*, 
cf. Skt. dsiir; GAv. vadar 3 'weapon' = YAv. vadar 3 , 
Skt. vddhar; GAv. atitar* (but also a^tar') 'within' 
= YAv. antar', Skt. antdr. 

Note. Before -cS 'que' in GAv. a vowel is sometimes found leng- 
thened, sometimes again shortened : e. g. GAv. ye/iyaca 'and of which' ; 
vacahica 'and in word'; afica 'and Ashi' (fern. ?); vohuca manavha beside 
vohti manavha 'with the Good Mind 1 . Similar fluctuations are to be ob- 
served in YAv. also. 

B. Differences in Quality between Avesta and Sanskrit 


Av. i, {) ro, ty ~ s ,>, K", )f. 
9, 3, e, e, o, 5, a, q. 

27. The above vowels are found under special con- 
ditions as representatives of Skt. a and d. 

28. Summary. The Av. ? e answers oftenest to 
Skt. a before n or m, also occasionally before v. It is 
commonly the anaptyctic vowel. The corresponding long 
is { S very frequent in GAv., more rare in YAv. The 

Simple Vowels. n 

letter n> e is commonly a shading from a after y. The 
corresponding long is ^ /. Avesta "^ o and > 5 stand some- 
times for a under influence of a labial, u, v. Av. * & is 
either Skt. as, or it answers to Skt. a before n plus stop- 
sound. Av. jf q, is nasalization of a, a before m, n; it often 
answers to Skt. a with anusvara. 

Av. j 9. 

29. Av. 9 often corresponds to Skt. a before n or 
m regularly so before the latter when final; occasionally 
also before v. 

Av. vindzn 'they found* = Skt. dvindan; Av. 
'being' = Skt. sdntam; Av. uptrnzm (beside 
'highest' = Skt. upamdm; GAv. evistl 'by 
ignorance', cf. Skt. dvitti; Av. mainyavlm 'spiritual' 
beside Av. m&nyavo; Av. swista- 'most mighty, bene- 
ficent' (beside savo) = S>kt. sdvi$tha-; Av. hvavhmim 
'blessed life' Ys. 53.1 (ace. from hvawhavya-}. 

Note. The MSS. sometimes vary between and a : e. g. Av. bar (into 
beside bannto 'carrying' ; jasaqtu beside jastytu 'let them come' ; vazanti 
beside vazttiti 'they drive'; etc. 

30. The s ( 29) arising from a before m or n, 
is often palatalized to i when either y, c , j or z, im- 
mediately precedes. 

Av. yim 'whom' = Skt. ydm; Av. vacim 'voice* 
beside ^^<?; = Skt. vdcam; Av. drujim beside dru- 
J3m 'Deceit, Fiend' = Skt. druham; Av. bujim be- 
side bujant 'absolution'; Av. bajina 'dishes' = Skt. 
bhdjana-; Av. drazimno 'holding* beside Av. dra- 

31. In GAv., 9 appears sometimes to be written 
(as a kind of dissimilation) for u or i, when in the follow- 
ing syllable an u (v) or i stands. The epenthetic vowel 
is written beside it, according to rule 70. Thus is to 

I o Phonology. 

be explained GAv. drygvant- 'wicked' (= *drugva*it- to Av. 
druj~) ; GAv. bazvant- 'advantageous' (= *buzva?it- to Skt. 
Vbhuj-}\ GAv. u$9 u ru- 'zeal' (?) see Ys. 34.7, cf. usuruye 
Ys. 32.16; GAv. Aufj'tt- 'well-being' ; GAv. ina^ti- Ys. 30.1 1 ; 
GAv. dsk^ti- Ys. 44.17. 

Note. This interchange of 3 with u and / may be added as a 
further suggestion in regard to the intermediate character of Av. \ j, 
before suggested. 

Av. { * 

32. Av. 2 is the corresponding long vowel to 9; 
it is especially common in GAv. answering to YAv. 9, a 
and sometimes to YAv. 5, q. 

GAv. azSm T = YAv. azam, Skt. ahdnt; GAv. 
ySm 'whom' (beside GAv. yim} = YAv. yim, Skt. yam; 
GAv. Smavan,t3m 'strong' = YAv. amavantem, Skt. 
dmavantam; GAv. Shma 'of us 1 Ys. 43.10 beside YAv. 
ahmd, cf. Skt. asmakam; GAv. yS 'who' = YAv. yd, 
Skt. yds; GAv. nS 'us' = YAv. no, Skt. nas. Some- 
times, GAv. starSm 'of stars' = YAv. stream; GAv. 
him 'with, together' = YAv. hqm, Skt. sdm. Also 
GAv. hvar* 'sun' = YAv. hvar 3 , Skt. svar; GAv. 
vadar 3 'weapon' = YAv. vadar 9 , Skt. vddhar. 

Note. On GYAv. > in atmji sptrjtf, and GAv. /^ (final), ^% r A (in- 
ternal) from original as, see 128, 129. 

33. In YAv., $ (not common) is used apparently 
often without fixed rule, perhaps being borrowed from GAv. ; 
it occurs most often for an, ah before b, also for a. 

YGAv. spznista- 'holiest'; YGAv. am9$t span.t3 
'Immortal Holy Ones'; YAv. yazat? beside yazata 
'divinities'; YAv. draomsbyo 'from assaults'; YAv. 
avabis 'with helps' ; YAv. raocSbyo 'to light' ; YAv. 
haenybyo(\) abl. 'from enemies' Yt. 10.93; as contrac- 
tion YAv. frjr'naof (i. e. fra-Wnaof) 'he offered'. 

Simple Vowels. j | 

Av. ro e. 

34. Av. e generally answers to Skt. a, a, after 
y, if i, i, e, e or y follows in the next syllable. 

YAv. raocayeiti 'lights up' = Skt. rocdyati; GAv. 
ty$ayehi 'thou rulest' = Skt. kfdyasi; YAv. ayeni, 
GAv. ayeni 'I shall go' = Skt. dyani; YAv. yesne, 
GAv. yesne 'in worship' = Skt. yajne; YAv. yeyhcb 
'of whom' (f.) = Skt. ydsyds; GAv. yehya 'of whom' 
(m.) = Skt. ydsya. 

Note. Observe, however, that y does not always thus change a 
to e: e.g. inSzdayasnii 'Mazdayasnian' ; yave 'for ever'; yahmi , yaAmf, 
yahmya 'in which'. Sometimes the MSS. vary. 

35. YAv. e answers to Skt. e only when final. See 
54*. 25. 

YAv. avawhe 'for help' = Skt. dvase; YAv. yaz&te 
'he worships' = Skt. ydjate. 

Note i. On Av. e for ya in reductions, see 67. 
Note 2. In the MSS. final e often interchanges with i. 

Av. ty /. 

36. Av. /, the corresponding long to e, stands: 

(i) in the combination Av. #<? = Skt. /; (2) at the end of 

monosyllables 24 ; (3) everywhere when final in GAv. 26. 

(i) GYAv. daeva- 'demon'. (2) GYAv. me 'me', 

he 'him'. (3) GAv. yaza*te 'he worships' (opp. to 

YAv. yaza,ite)\ GAv. arm&te 'O Armaiti' (opp. to 

YAv. sure 'O mighty one' fern.). 

Note. See Geldner, in K.Z. xxvii. p. 259. 

Av. "S o. 

37. Av. o occurs chiefly in the combination Av. ao 
= Skt. o, see 57. 

38. Av. o rarely corresponds to Skt. a when fol- 
lowed by , Labialization, 

1 2 Phonology. 

Av. vohu 'good' = Skt. vdsu; Av. mo$ti 'quickly' 
= Skt. makfii', Av. vohunajn 'of good things' = Skt. 

Av. > 5. 
39. Av. 5 often corresponds to Skt. a, d when 

followed by a labial vowel u, u, 5; rarely before r plus 


Av. ddmohu (beside ddmahvd) 'among creatures' 
= Skt. dhdmasu; GAv. gH^odum 'may ye hear', be- 
side GAv.gujjahvd 'hear thou* ; GAv. vtr'zyotu 'let him 
do', beside Av. var'zyanto. Av. asto.vidotus 'Bone- 
divider', beside vzddta0f=Skt. -dhdtus. GAv. 
hvd 'share thou' = Skt. bhdksasva; Av. ao 
beside aojcwhvatitam 'mighty' = Skt. ojasvantam; Av. 
tysapdhva 'in nights, at night' = Skt. *ksdpasu; so 
locatives Av. yavohva 'in granaries' variant yavahva; 
gar'mohva 'jaws', kar'$vohu 'regions', ravohu 'free- 
dom' (tf-stems). GAv. uz'mohi 'we may respect', 
influence of labial m. YAv. pivor'stdra (dual) 'de- 
ciders', beside \ h.\ . pwarstalie ; GAv. cor'f 'he made' 
= Skt. dkar (for dkarf] ; GAv. fror'ti-, beside YAv. 
frtr'ti- 'forth-coming'. 

Note. Observe GAv. vatdyotu 'let him make known' Skt. vatdyatu; 
GAv. afytoyoi 'for sickness' (for -ayoi), the first o being due to the in- 
fluence of the following </. 

40. On Av. o = Skt. as, see 120. 

41. On Av. 5 in compounds, see under Composition. 

42. Av. d (final) sometimes answers to Skt. du 

Av. garo 'on a mountain' = Skt. gir&u ; Av. dv a yaska aciltd 
'the two worst sicknesses'. 

Av. K" &. 

Av. m = Skt. as. 
43. (i) On Av. a) answering to Skt. as, see 1 21 seq. 

Simple Vowels. I 7 

Av. & = Skt. d. 

44. (2) Av. m also corresponds to Skt. d before nt. 
Av. maz&ntam 'great' = Skt. mahdntam; Av. pmrito 
'guarding', pres. ptcpl. nom. pi. = Skt. pdntas. 
Note. Similarly, Av. viro.ny&ticim 'striking men down' = Skt. nyaficam. 

Av. xr q,. 

45. (i) Av. q. presents a nasalization of a, d before 
Av. m or n. 

Av. hqm 'with, together' = Skt. sdm; Av. mqm 
'me' = Skt. mam; Av. ayqn 'they may go' = Skt. 
dyan; Av. daevqn 'demons' = Skt. devdn; Av. "rvqno 
'souls' beside Av. "rvdnwt (ace. sg.). 

Note I. In the MSS., a often stands as variant beside q: e. g. Av. 
dqmi, diimi 'creature', et al. 

Note 2. Defective writing: instances often occur in endings 
where the final nasal after q is omitted: e. g. imq haomq 'these haoma- 
offerings' = Skt. imdn soman; Av. yq 'quos' = Skt. yan. 

Note 3. Pleonastic writing: a pleonastic n is sometimes intro- 
duced after q before m: e. g. dqnmahi 'we shall give' Ys. 68.1 (variant) 
cf. Skt. ddma ; Av. hvqnmahl variant kvqmahl 'we put foward' ; Av. 
fryqnmahi variant fryqmahi 'we bless'. 

46. (2) Av. q is often a union of a (d) with nasal be- 
fore Av. sibilants (cf. Skt. anusvara); also before Av. spirants. 
Av. aflas 'backward' = Skt. dpdv; Av. hqs 'being' 
(harit-) = Skt. sdn; GAv. mqstd 'he thought' = Skt. 
amqsta; Av. qsaym 'of two parties' = Skt. qsayos; 
Av. qzo 'distress' = Skt. q,has; Av. ttqza'ti 'he sup- 
ports' = Skt. bctftate. Av. nutpram 'word, spell' = 
Skt. mdntram; Av. "dqpram 'tooth'; Av. c^nat 'reins'. 

Original r (r-sonant). 

Av. 91* t ^Vi^ = Skt. r. 

47. The Skt. r is represented in Av. by 9r 9 or 
often ar'. 

14 Phonology. 

Av. ker'nao*ti 'he makes' = Skt. krndti; Av. mar 9 - 
PyuS 'death' = Skt. mrtyiis; Av. hakar'f 'at once' = 
Skt. sakft. Av. anar'tdis 'with the untrue' = Skt. 
dnrtdis ; Av. var'&m 'wood' = Skt. vrk$dm; Av. 
arstis 'spear' = Skt. fffis. 

Note. The MSS. vary, often writing ar* for >r*. The new edition 
of the A vesta has restored many instances of tr': e. g. frasttr'ta- (where 
Westergaard frastar'ta-}. 

48. Av. ar, ar (also ar 9 , ar 9 , a*r, a u r) often = (orig. r) 
Skt. ir,ur; sometimes = (orig. f) Skt. ir, ur. See Brug- 
mann, Grundriss der vergl. Gram. I. 288 seq., 306 seq. 
Av. zaranyehe 'of golden' = Skt. hiranyasya; Av. 
gairis 'mountain' = Skt. girts; Av. mwhar 9 , (GAv. 
mvhar*) 'they have been' = Skt. asiir ; Av. ta u rva- 
iti 'he overcomes' = Skt. Y turv '> tiirv-; Av. dar 9 - 
'long' = Skt. dlrghdm. So sometimes Av. ar 9 , ra 
Skt. ra, r : Av. 9r 9 zatzm 'silver' = Skt. rajatdm ; 
Av. ratu- 'chief, point of time', cf. Skt. rtu-. 
49. Av. trq may represent original /-)-. 

GAv. nyrql (ace. pi.) 'men', cf. nfi cyautno RigVeda 10.50.4; 
GAv. madrqica (ace. pi.) 'mothers', cf. Skt. matfn RV. 10.35.2. 

Concurrence of vowels. 

Contraction and Resolution. 

50. General Remark. In Avesta, the rule for the 
union of two vowels within a word or in composition, cor- 
responds in general to the Sanskrit, (i) Two similar vowels 
coalesce into their corresponding long (sometimes short). 
(2) Two dissimilar vowels, when the first is a unite in 
giving guna 60. (3) Before dissimilar vowels, the 
z- or -vowel (simple or in diphthongs), passes over into 
the corresponding semi-vowel. (4) In Avesta compounds, 
however, hiatus is often allowed to remain. 

Concurrence of Vowels. Diphthongs. I e 

51. The following are instances of contraction 
of similar vowels. 

Av. a, S -j- a, a =3: Av. paraziti 'they drive away' = para -\- az ; 
i, J -\- i, f = i : Av. riirt 'I let go down" = ni -\- ire ; 
ti, u-\-u, a = u: Av. hu^taii 'by good words' (hu -\- u) = Skt. suktais. 
a-\- q = q: Av. nqmyqsuJ 'with pliant branches' = nqmya qsu? 46. 
Note i. Instead of the long vowel in contractions, the short vowel 
is often written: e. g. Av. frapayemi 'I shall attain to' (= fra -f- ap) ; 
Av. pa'tittm 'atoned' (== pa'ti -\- i") ; Av. anufytee 'speak after' (= anu 
+ uliti-). 

Note 2. Hiatus sometimes remains in compounds : Av. ava-afnao'ti 
'he attains'; GAv. cipra-avavhtm Ys. 34.4, beside YAv. cipravavhqm Ny. 3.10 
'manifestly aiding' ; Av. fifviwi-igu? 'having darting arrows'. 

Note 3. Metrically, contractions of like vowels are often to be re- 
solved in reading. See Geldner, Metrik, p. 13 seq. 

52. Av. i- and -vowels, simple or in diphthongs, 
before dissimilar vowels, pass over into y or v. 

(a) Av.vyano 'pursued' (|/"vf-) = Skt. vyanas ; Av. ^ayehi 'thou 
rulest' (]ffl$i-)', Av. viddyum 'anti-demoniac' (daeva-, on oi = ae 56) ; 
uifyaojano 'thus speaking' beside u'ti aj>jand ; pa'tyaptm 'up stream' 
(pa*ti -\- ap") ; nmanaya (loc. ae -j- a postpos.) 'in a house' beside 
nmane. (b) tanvo 'of body' (tanu-as) ; h&vana 'haoma-mortars' 
C\fhu) ; hvaspjm 'well-horsed' (hu -j- asptm) ; anajraefva 'among 
the infinite' (loc. -/ -f- a). (c) With lengthening after the semi- 
vowel : Av. a'wyamanqm 'of the over-mighty' (a'wi -\- am") ; a'wyS- 
vavha 'with protection* (avavh-) ; aipyufyda 'interrupted in speaking 
mispronounced' (ufyda-). 

Note i. In compounds the hiatus often remains : e.g. Av. tiii-arltfm 
'sharp-speared' ; Av. asu-asptm 'swift horsed" = Skt. (isvasvam. 

Note 2. Metrically, the resulting semi-vowel y, v is often to be re- 
stored as vowel or read iy, uv. 


53. General Remark. The Avesta vowel-combinations 

(diphthongs with triphthongs) are of four-fold origin, and 

may conveniently be divided and designated as follows: 

i. Proper diphthongs, corresponding to Sanskrit gurta 

(more rarely vrddhf) in its two-fold sense: (i) vowel- 

1 6 Phonology. 

strengthening, (2) the result of contraction of 
two dissimilar vowels. See 60 seq. 
ii. Re duct ion- diphthongs, resulting from reduction 
by contraction of two syllables. See 64 seq. 
Metrically often dissyllabic. 

iii. Improper diphthongs (and triphthongs) arising from 
epenthesis. See 70 seq. 

iv. Protraction- diphthong da, a peculiar extension of 
a or a into da in ablative singular before -ca 'que'; 
likewise in daf 'then' (abl. as adv.), GAv. bdaf 'verily' 
Ys. 35.5. Cf. Av. daevdafca 'and from the Demon' 
(daeva-)\ apdafca beside apaf 'from water', etc. 

Proper Diphthongs. 
Av. (^", *> ~* t ){ "**, > ' 
ae, di a o, zu di, du. 

54. The above are real diphthongs when they cor- 
respond to the Skt. diphthongs. The relation between the 
Av. and the Skt. diphthongs is concisely this: 
a. Skt. e is represented in Av. 

(i) chiefly by ae, (2) less often by di, (3) again 
by e, only when final, but there regularly. 
(3. Skt. 5 is represented in Av. 

(i) chiefly by ao, (2) more rarely by $u, (3) again 
by o, only when final, but there regularly, 
y. Skt. di and du are represented in Av. 
by di and du. 

Note. In some instances Skt. au (final) seems to be represented in 
Av. by 0, 42. 

Av. ae = Skt. e. 

55. The diphthong Av. ae (very common) answers to 
Skt. / (old at), initial or internal ; likewise as ending in first 
member of a compound, or again before enclitic -ca 'que' 

Sounds. 1 7 

Av. aetaf 'this' = Skt. etdt; GAv. vaedd, YAv. 
vaeda 'knows* = Skt. vda. A.v.frae<jye*ti 'he drives 
forth* (fra -f- w-^ = Skt. presyati. Av. duraedars 
'far-seeing' (loc. du*re)=Skt. dure.dfs-; Av. rapaestd- 
rtm 'warrior in chariot* = Skt. rathe$thdm (loc. rdthe}. 

Note I. Observe that in gen. ajaheca 'and of righteousness', the e 
is reduction-vowel (= ya), therefore of course no ae appears. 
Note 2. On reduction-diphthong ae, see 64. 

Av. oi = Skt. /. 

56. Av. oi, as real diphthong, also answers to 
Skt. e (old ai). It interchanges often with Av. ae, being 
of like etymological value ; but oi occurs perhaps oftenest 
in monosyllables and in declensional endings generally. 
It is especially frequent in GAv. 

GAv. voistd 'thou knowest* = Skt. vtttha; YAv. 
soire 'they lie' = Skt. sere; Av. tyoij>ni (fern.) 'shining, 
princely', beside Av. tyaeto (masc.); Av. maidyoi.paiti- 
stdna- 'to middle (loc.) of foot', beside Av. durae.sruta- 
'far (loc.) renowned'. GYAv. yoi 'who* (beside yae-cd) 
= Skt. ye; GYAv. koi 'who' (interrog.) = Skt. ke. 
YAv. azois 'of Dragon* = Skt. dhes; GAv. burois 
'of richness* = Skt. bhures; GYAv. baroif 'he might 
carry' = Skt. bhdret; Av. pairi.vaenoipe 'they two are 
seen* = Skt. vtnethe. GKv.gavoi 'for the cow', YAv. 
gave = Skt. gdve; GAv. zastoibyd 'with both hands' 
= YAv. zasta&bya; GAv. ty$aproi 'in the kingdom', 
YAv. h$abre = Skt. ksatrt. 

Av. ao = Skt. 5. 

57. Av. ao as real diphthong answers to Skt. 5 
(old au) t initial and internal. 

Av. aojo 'strength' = Skt. 6jas; Av. raod*nti 'they 
grow* = Skt. rohanti; Av. tdyaof 'of a thief* = Skt. 

1 8 Phonology. 

tdy&s. Av. fraotyto 'pronounced' (fra + w) = Skt. 
Note. On reduction-diphthong ao, see 64. 

Av. 9U = Skt. 5. 

58. The diphthong Av. Su (as strengthening of #), 
also sometimes answers to Skt. 5, internal. It occurs in 
the genitive of #-stems, and in a very few words. Observe 
the pair Su and ao as oi and ae. 

Av. tyrat5us 'of wisdom' = Skt. krdtos; Av. vawhzus 
'of the good' = Skt. vdsos; Av. mainySus 'of spirit' 
= Skt. manyos. Also in dms.sravm 'things of ill- 
repute', cf. haosravanha; dzus.manahya- 'evil-minded', 
cf. haomanawha- ; GAv. -gSu$ais 'with ears' = Skt. 

Av. at Skt. at; Av. du = Skt. du. 
59. Av. at, du when they are real diphthongs 
(i. e. not epenthetic or reduction) correspond to Skt. di, du. 
Av. mqprdis 'with words' = Skt. mdntrdis; Av. 
gdus (nom.) 'cow' = Skt. gdiis. 

i. Vowel-Strengthening a- Vowel 


60. Guna and Vrddhi. The terms guna and vrddhi 
are conveniently borrowed from the Sanskrit Grammar for 
the Avesta. In Avesta, as in Sanskrit, guna- and vrddhi- 
vowels in the fullest sense have a double origin: (i) vowel- 
strengthening in vowel-gradation; 1 (2) contraction 
of two dissimilar vowels whether in composition or in 

1 Brugmann, Grundriss der vergl. Gram. 307 seq. 

Vowel-Strengthening a-Vowel Contraction. jo 

Guna in Avesta, owing to the greater richness in the 
vowel system, has a greater variety than in Sanskrit. 
The vrddhi-increment, however, is comparatively rare, and 
is not so regularly carried out as in Sanskrit ; nor are the 
instances always certain (cf. 18 Note i); but vrddhi is 
not to be denied to the Avesta. 

Synopsis of Guna and Vrddhi modelled after the Sanskrit 

Simple Vowel 

. a, a 

ae (av), oi (ov), -f 

u, u 

ao (av), Su, -5 

ar' (ar) 



\ SS ' v * \ V J'J> 

ai Cdv) 

Su Cdv) 

\ X 

ar' CSr) 

(The forms in parentheses appear before vowels. On the interchange of 
ae, oi, see 56). 

Strengthening : 

Vrddhi: Av. ahurois 'of the Ahurian' (a/mra-) 
cf. Skt. dsures; GAv. vdci, avdci 'is spoken' (aor. 
pass.) = Skt. dvdci; Av. datyyumtx (var. ddtyyumm) 
'belonging to the region' (dafyyu-); Av. hdcayene 'I may 
cause to follow' tyhac^)\ Av. tdcaye^ti 'they cause to 
run' (ytac-} ; Av. rdmayeifi 'he makes content' = Skt. 
rdmdyatis Cf. also the patronymics in Yt. 13.97 sec l' 


Guna: Av. daesayyn 'they showed' (y~dis-}, dae- 
doist 'he showed' (intens. y~dts~)\ saete 'he lies down', 
soire 'they lie down' ( \fst-) \ tysayehe 'thou rulest' 
vidoyum 'anti-demoniac' (ace. fr. vidaeva-, fr. 
-^-Vfddhi: Av. dais 'thou sawest' (aor. l/t/z-); stao- 
mdyo 'praises' (fr. staomi-} ; prdyo 'three' (fr. pri-, but 
cf. 1 8 Note i), ndismi Ys. 12.1. 

Contraction : 

Av. upaeta- 'approached' (upa -\- Y* m )'> YAv. ^afre, 
GAv. tysaproi 'in the kingdom' (^apra-); Av. updisaym 
'they might seek' (upa-\-y is-); upditi 'he approaches' 

2O Phonology 

Cl , . -voweL 


Guna : Av. haomam 'haoma' (yhu-} ; zaotdrzm 
title of priest, cf. Skt. Hotar (Vzu-); staomi 'I praise', 
stavano 'praising' (}/ stu^) ; vawhave, vavhSus 'for, of 
the good' (yavhu-); da^havo 'countries' (da*jphu-); 
dSus.sravm 'having evil repute' (dus). Vrddhi : Av. 
srdvayois 'shouldst recite' (ysru-)\ GAv. srdvi 'he 
was heard' (ysru-}\ vavhdu 'in good' (vavhu-); 
daiyhdvo 'countries' (d&yhu-); ujra.bdzdus 'strong- 
armed' (bdeu~); fra$dupayeiti 'he propels' Yt. 8.33. 

Contraction : 

Av. fraolito 'pronounced' (fra + ufyta-) = Skt. 
proktds; so also Av. vaocaf (redupl. aor.) 'he spoke' 
= Skt. vocat, cf. Av. vaoku$e = Skt. ucu$e pf. act. 
ptcpl. yvaklc, weak form uklc. 

Strengthening : 

From Av. V3r 3 prajna- 'victory', vdr'prajni- 'vic- 
torious' ; so Av. k^r'nsm 'I cut', kar'tem 'knife' (ace.), 
karawm 'limit, dividing line' (ace.), kdraye l ti 'he cuts'. 
But see 47 Note. 

Note, (a) The Avesta sometimes has g u n a where the Skt. has a 
long vowel: Av. staortm 'bullock' = Skt. sthur&m; Av. gaozani 'he hides' 
= Skt. ^tfAfl/*. (b) Conversely, the Av. sometimes has a long vowel 
where the Skt. shows g u n a : Av. yufytar- 'yoker' = Skt. yoktdr- ; GAv. 
urupaye'ttti 'they cause pain' = Skt. rdpdyanti; GAv. "r&doyata 'he made 
lament* = Skt. roddyata. (c) The Av. has sporadically gun a where the 
Skt. has v r d d h i : Av. haomanavhim 'well-minded' = Skt. sSumanasdm ; Av. 
$yaopna- 'deed' = Skt. cySutnd-; Av. hainyo 'belonging to the army' = 
Skt. sainyds. (d) Sporadically, Av. v r d d h i , where Skt. g u n a : Av. g&vya- 
nqm beside gaoya- 'belonging to the cow' ( 18) = Skt. gavyd-. (e) Observe 
Av. diuH^ravah- 'ill-famed' ; diuH.manahya- 'evil-minded' opp. to Skt. Juhiqsa. 

ii. Changes in y- or ^-Syllables. 
61. General Remark. The syllables containing 
internal y and v often suffer reduction and abbrevia- 

Changes in y- or z/-Syllables. 21 

tion. This is partly old and due to the vowel character 
f y (i) an l v (%)'> i n P art it i s young and is to be ex- 
plained from the character of the writing the close graphic 
resemblance of i to y (ii) and > u to v (uu) often 
producing awkward accumulations of signs which are avoided. 

(a) Vocalization of y and v. 

62. In the combinations original internal vy, vn, 
vr, yv, the first element is generally vocalized to u, i. 
When a immediately precedes this u, the two are con- 
tracted according to 60 into ad. For ao an du is fre- 
quently found in GAv. 

(i) Orig. vy =; yv=Av. iv. 

Av. vawhuyco 'of the good' (fern.) = Skt. vdsvyds; 
GAv. po u ruyo 'first' = Skt. piirvyds; Av. mar$uyw 
'of the belly' (stem mar$vt?)\ Av. snduya- 'made of 
sinew', cf. Skt. sndvan-. Av. mainivm 'of the two 
Spirits' (for mainyvm 68, b). 

(2) Orig. avy = Av. aoi; avn = Av. aon (dun)] 

avr = Av. aor. 

Av. haoycpn 'the left' = Skt. savydm; Av. gaoyao 1 - 
tis 'cow-pastures' = Skt. gdvyutls. Av. vaonar 3 'they 
have won', cf. Skt. vavnt; Av. raonqm 'of valleys' 
(ravan-); Av. a$aono 'of the righteous' (a$avan-), cf. 
Skt. maghonas. GAv. vdunus 'having striven', ptcpl. 
pf. Y van '> GAv. afdune 'to the righteous' = Skt. 
rtdvne (cf. Note i); Av. apa u run- wk. stem of dpravan- 
'priest' = Skt. dtharvan-. Av. fraoirisa'ti 'he comes 
forward' (for orig. fra-vris-a^ti), cf. frao u rvaesayeni; 
Av. fraor y nta 'they confessed', cf. Skt. dvj'nita; Av. 
fraor't (i. e. *pravft] 'prone, ready'. 

22 Phonology. 

Note i. Often in YAv., aj&un- is found in the formulaic connection 
ajSungm fravafayd. The original difference is to be explained thus : Su 
= orig. 3v, and ao = orig. av; cf. Av. a/Svan = Skt. ftdvan-. 

Note 2. In YAv., pao'ryo is written for GAv. po u ruyo 'first' above. 

Note 3. A like vocalization of Av. v = Av. w (orig. 6A) 87 may 
take place: e. g. Av. voijnSuyo (for "n&vyo, wyo, a byo) 'from plagues'; Av. 
adaoyo (for adawyo) 'undeceived' = Skt. dd&bhyas; Av. nuruyo afavaoyo 
(for vyd, o-wyo, byo) 'to righteous men' Yt. 10.55 Av. f^^nooyd (for vyo, 
wyo, by6) 'to the ranks'. Perhaps Av. aoi, beside avi (for Av. a'wi) = 

(b) Reduction and Abbreviation. 

a. Reductions. 

63. The syllables ya and z/# before m 01 , espe- 
cially when final, are generally reduced to/ (t), or u (u) 
respectively a kind of samprasarana. 

Old ya = Av. i (t) ; va = Av. u (it) ^before m, n. 

Av. zaranim 'golden' (ace.) = Skt. hiran-ya-m ; Av. 
u%$tn 'they increased' (for *ufy<;-ya.-ri)\ Av. mainimna 
'thinking' (fern.) = Skt. mdn-ya-mdna; Av. p&pimnd 
'possessing' = Skt. pdt-ya-mdnas ; Av. iripiqti 'they 
die' (for irip-ya-titt). GAv. asruzdiim 'ye were heard 
of Ys. 32.3 = Skt. dsrd$h-va-m; Av. daeum 'demon' 
= Skt. de-vd-m; A.v.Jri$um 'third' (for pri$-va-ni) ; Av. 
mo u rum 'Merv' (for *mar-va-m)\ Av. tamawhuiitam 
'dark' = Skt. tdmasvant- ; Av. Jvar'navhufitsm 'glorious' 
beside hrar'nawuhaiit for hrar'navh-va-titam. 

Note i . In the ace. sg. of -pa-stems, Urn instead of um is mostly written. 

Note 2. Av. -aiva- commonly becomes -oyu- before m (cf. 60, 52 a) : 
Av. vldoyum 'anti-demoniac' ace. to indatva- (but also Av. dafum) ; Av. haro- 
ytim 'Haraeva', cf. Anc. Pers. haraiva-; Av. hoyum 'scaevum', if stem hafva-. 

Note 3. Instead of i (= ya}, an t appears in Av. madima- 'mid- 
most' = Skt. madh-ya-md-. 

64. On the same principle as 63, the syllables 
ay a and ava, reduced before m or , give rise to diph- 
thongs, ae and ao (au 62, 195). 

Changes in y- or z/-Syllables. 

Old aya = Av. ae; ava = Av. ao (also du 195) 

before m, n. 

Av. aem 'this' (nom.) = Skt. ay dm; Av. viddraem 
'I upheld' = Skt. -dhdrayam; Av. cikaen 'they atoned* 
(i. e. *cikayan) cf. Av. cikayaf. Av. yaom 'grain' = 
Skt. ydvam; Av. mahtyaom 'spiritual', ace. to mai- 
nyava-; Av. mraom 'I spake' = Skt. dbravam. Av. 
ndumo also naomo 'ninth' = Skt. navamds; Av. kar y - 
ndun (var. kar'naori) 'they made' = Skt. krndvan; Av. 
bdun also #0# 'they were' = Skt. dbhavan. 

Note. Similarly, Av. raiH-ca Ys. cf. instr. raya 'splendor'. 

65. The syllables internal dya, dva likewise reduced 
64, give rise to the diphthongs di, du. 

Orig. dya, dva = Av. di, du before m, n. 
Av. dasa.gdim 'space of ten steps' = Skt. gdyam; 
Av. avdin 'they came down' = Skt. avdyan; Av. nasdum 
'corpse' (i. e. nasdvam). 

Note. Metrically the reduced syllables aim, aom, Sum, am, Sin 
( 63, 64) are dissyllabic. 

66. Final aye is reduced to Av. $e, metrically 

Av. apa.gatSe 'for going away' = Skt. gdtaye; 
Av. paitistdtSe (beside paitistdtayae-ca) 'to withstand' 
= Skt. sthitaye; Av. drmatSe 'to Piety' ; Av. zatitu.patSe 
'for the lord of a town'. 

67. Final ya in polysyllables appears in YAv. as e 
(GAv. shows yd]. 

YAv. kahe 'of which' (GAv. kahya) = Skt. kdsya; 
YAv. gay eke 'of life' (GAv. gayehya) = Skt. gdyasya; 
YAv. a$ahe 'of Righteousness' (GAv. a$ahya) = Skt. 
rtdsya; YAv. a*re (for airy a, nom. pi.) 'the Aryans'; 
YAv. frawrase (for sya, nom. sg.) 'Franrasyan' cf. 
ace. sydwm; YAv. ma i re (for "rytf, nom. sg. fem.) 

24 Phonology. 

'deadly', cf. gen. ma*ryay<&; YAv. bdzuive 'with both 
arms' ( 853, end), beside YAv. bdsubya. 

Note. Isolated is internal e (= ya) in vahehi! 'better* (fern, pi.) 
cf. 137 = Skt. vdsyasis. 

P. Abbreviated Writing. 
Av. y (i) = iy; v (u) = uv. 

68. To avoid awkward combinations of letters, the 
original syllables iy (graphically Av. * Hi) and uv (graph. 
Av. > uuu) are respectively abbreviated in writing y 
(graph, it) and v (graph, uu). See 61. Metrically, to 
such y or v the syllabic value iy or uv is generally to 
be restored. 

(a) Av. for *. 

(i) In composition:*tyaqiu 'let them come 
to' = Skt. prdtiyantu; Av. pryafystzs 'three twigs' 
(for pri-ya^stts) c(. flaqca-yafystts. (2) Internal: Av. 
fry 5 'friend' (graphically friid iorfriiio) = Skt. priyds; 
Av. yasnyo 'worshipful' = Skt. yajniyas. (3) Initial : 

Av. yeyqn (written iieiicpi for orig. *iydydn) ; GAv. 
yadacd 'and here' Ys. 35.2 (written iiadd for Av. iiiadd}. 

(b) Av. for >. 

(i) In composition: Av. hvacawhzm 'having good 
words' = Skt. suvdcasam; Av. hviddta) 'well-built 
(houses)' Yt. 17.8 (i.e. hu-viddta- cf. Ys. 57.21); Av. 
vohvar'z- 'doing good' (i. e. vohu-\-v*). (2) Internal: 

Av. yvdnsm 'juvenem' = Skt. yuvdnam; Av. drvahe 
'firm' (gen.) = Skt. dhruvdsya; Av. hva- 'suus' (metri- 
cally huva-} cf. Skt. sva-. See Geldner, Metrik, p. 20 seq. 

Note i. Similarly when v () stands for w (= bh) 87 : Av. u 
auaeibya for uuuaeibya for uwaeibya cf. GAv. uboibyft 'with both' = Skt. 

Note 2. Instances of Av. v ())) equal Skt. tv, iv may be found: Av. 
i 'they live' = Sktjivanti; Av. cvaf 'quantum' = Skt. ktvat; Av. vidi<ti'<9 

Epenthesis, Prothesis, and Anaptyxis. 25 

'looking around' (\fdi~) = Skt. didivan; perhaps Av. jajnvtS 'having smitten" 
cf. Skt. jaghnivdn. 

Note 3. Internal ay, av are sometimes found written as an exten- 
sion of y, v (i. e. iy, uv): Av. nSvaya- 'navigable, flowing' = Skt. n&vya; 
Av. aspaya- (cf. ace. aspaSm 64) 'belonging to a horse' = Skt. dsvya-; 
Av. hava- (cf. gen. f. haoyoi) 'suus' = Skt. sva-; Av. kava variant for kva 
'where 1 = Skt. kva. 

iii. Epenthesis, Prothesis, and Anaptyxis. 

Cf. Brugmann , Grundriss der vergl, Grammatik 637 seq. ; 623 seq. 

69. Two of these viz. Epenthesis, Prothesis (and certain cases of 
Anaptyxis like sTunvata) may be considered fundamentally the same, as 
each consists in the introduction of an anticipatory parasitic sound. For 
convenience , however, in the following, Epenthesis and Prothesis will be 
distinguished thus: (i) Epenthesis an anticipatory vowel attached inter- 
nally to a vowel; (2) Prothesis an anticipatory vowel attached initially 
before a consonant. 

70. Epenthesis is one of the characteristic sound- 
phenomena of the Avesta. It consists in the insertion of 
a light anticipatory i or u, when in the following syl- 
lable respectively an i, i, e, e, y, or an u, v stands. Epen- 
thesis of i takes place before r, n, *it, t, p, pr, d, p, b, w, 
also before yh (= orig. sy). Epenthesis of u takes place 
only before r. 

Note. The epenthetic vowel attaches itself parasitically to diphthongs 
as well as to the simple vowels including a-privative. In the MSS., the 
law of epenthesis is not always consistently carried out; many times it is 
omitted: e. g. manySui beside ma'nyiuX 'of the Spirit'. 

Epenthetic *'. 

Av. bavalti 'he becomes* = Skt. bhdvati; Av. afrti 
(GAv. afrit) 'he goes' = Skt. fti; Av. inao*ti 'he 
forces, drives' = Skt. indti; Av. alpi 'unto, in' = Skt. 
dpi', Av. baraiftti 'they carry' = Skt. bhdranti; Av. 
ainitom 'face' = Skt. dnikam; Av. butri 'fullness' = Skt. 
bhuri; Av, airishm 'unhurt' = Skt. drifpam. GAv. 

26 Phonology. 

rd'tt 'with offering' = Skt. raff; GAv. a'&t (YAv. a*wi) 
'unto, to' = Skt. abhi; YAv. maldim 'middle* (ace. sg.) 
= Skt. mddhyam; Av. ba^rye^te 'they are brought' = 
Skt. bhriyante; Av. nivoiryeite 'is confined' (yvar-); 
Av. ni u rwdydt 'should How' (y~rud-}. Av. a'ryo 
'Aryan' = Skt. aryds; Av. n&ryqm 'manly' (ace. fern.) 
= Skt. ndrydm; Av. ma'nyus 'Spirit' = Skt. manyus. 
With vanishing of the y which caused the epenthesis, 
gen. sg. fern, of aem 'this' = Skt. dsyds. 

Epenthetic . 

Av. OTvaiito 'swift steeds' = Skt. drvantas; Av. 
a u runa- 'wild, fiery', cf. Skt. arund-; Av. a u rufd 'bright, 
white' = Skt. arufds; Av. pa u rvata 'two mountains' = 
Skt. pdrvatdu; Av. ta u run9m 'young' = Skt. tdruiiuzm; 
Av. hcPrvcpn 'whole' = Skt. sdrvdm ; Av. po"ru- (also 
paouru-) 'many', for paru-. 

Note i. Epenthetic / is even attached to the anaptyctic vowel ( 72): 
Av. hqm.var*'tim 'courage' Vsp. 7.3; GAv. mjr'iig**dy5i 'to destroy* Ys. 46.1 1 ; 
fraor'ifim 'confession* Ys. 13.8. 

Note 2. Epenthetic u is found also before v for w ( 87) : gi u rva- 
ye*te 'he seizes* (\fgarui- = Skt. ~\fgrabh-\ 

71. Prothesis. As intermediate between Epenthesis 
and Anaptyxis, we may distinguish Prothesis, which con- 
sists in the similar introduction of an anticipatory /' or u 
initially before a consonant. It takes place regularly 
before r followed by / or u (v). An instance is found 
also before /. 

Av. *rtnafyti 'he lets go, drives' = Skt. rindkti; 

Av. iri$ye*ti 'is hurt' = Skt. rifyati; GAv. u riipaye*iitl 

'they cause pain' = Skt. rdpdyanti; Av. *r<? 'for the 

soul', rvan- 'soul' (i. e. for ruvan 68 = Mod. Pers. 

ruvdn). Before p, Av. tyyejo 'destruction' = Skt. tydjas. 

72. Anaptyxis. An irrational vowel (Anaptyxis), 

which does not count in the metre, is often developed 

System of Consonants. 27 

in Avesta between two consonants, especially if one be 
r, and regularly after final r. The anaptyctic vowel is 
generally a (S), more rarely a, i or 5. In GAv., anaptyxis 
is still more common than in YAv. 

Av. vatydra- 'word' = Skt. vaktrd- Av. naf'draf 
'offspring' (abl. from naptar^; Av. z'mo 'of earth'; 
GAv. dad'maki 'we give' = Skt. dadmdsi; Av. ga- 
r'mo 'hot' = Skt gharmds; GAv. f'rd 'forth', YAv. 
frd 24 = Skt. prd; GAv. aejt'md 'Fury* = YAv. aemo ; 
GAv. raetynawho 'of share' = Skt. reknasas. GAv. 
d*bdvaya 'he deceived'. YAv. antar 3 'within', GAv. 
Atltar 3 = Skt. antdr ; YAv. hvar* 'sun', GAv. hvar } 
= Skt. svar. GAv. syaopana- 'deed', YAv. yaopna- 
= Skt. cydutnd-; GAv. mar a ka- 'death', YAv. mahrka- 
= Skt. markd-. GAv. ye&vl 'young' = Skt. yahvi; 
YAv. nisirinaoiti 'he delivers over'. YAv. md-vya 
'to me' = GAv. maibyd; YAv. hdvoya- 'left' = Skt. 
savyd-; GAv. duzazbm 'maledictus'. YAv. s u run- 
vata (instr.) 'worthy of being heard'. 

Note. Anaptyxis occurs sometimes between the members of a com- 
pound : e. g. GAv. du3'.ty$apra- 'evil-ruling' ; GAv. hSm'./raJta 'he questioned 
with 1 ; YAv. us'.hiJtaf 'he stood up'.^More rarely in the few instances of 
sandhi: YAv. haipaipy&s* tanvo 'of his own body'; YAv.^flj' tl 'who to thee'. 


73. General Remark. Viewing the Av. and the Skt. 
system of consonants side by side, it may be noted : (i) The 
Av. palatal series is incomplete the Av. possesses 
only c and j. (2) The Skt. cerebral series is entirely 
wanting in the Avesta. (3) The Av. has no aspirates, 
their place being in part taken by the corresponding 
spirants. (4) The nasals are only in part identical. (5) The 

28 Phonology. 

Av. is richer than the Skt. in sibilants, especially 
through the presence of the sonant sibilants z and z. 

74. Surd and Sonant (Voiceless and Voiced). For 
the distinction between surd and sonant (voiceless and 
voiced), we may refer to the Sanskrit. The law, moreover, 
that in internal combination, surd (voiceless) consonants 
stand before surd consonants, and sonant (voiced) before 
sonants, has in general the same extent as in Sanskrit. 1 
Observe that n and in part m are at times treated as surd. 2 

75. Sand hi between words ( 4) is wanting in 
Avesta, except in case of some enclitics and compounds. 

Tenues - Surd Spirants. 

Av. 9, (o, ti and \- &, i, i P. 


k, t, p and c %, p, f - - f. 

Av. k, t, p and c. 

76. The Av. tenues k , t, p and c agree mostly 
with the corresponding tenues in the Sanskrit. 

Av. katdro 'which of two* = Skt. katards; Av. 

tdpaye*ti 'makes hot' = Skt. tapdyati; Av.patetiti 'they 

fly' = Skt. pdtanti. Av. car&ti 'he moves' = Skt. 

cdrati; Av. cakana 'has been pleased' = Skt. cdkana. 

Note. In the distinction between guttural and palatal kjc, the Av. 

and the Skt. do not always agree : Av. paskSf 'from behind , behind' = 

Skt. pascal, cf. Av. pasca; Av. cicijrwa 'through the wise one' = Skt. 

cikitvd; Av.'tar- 'converter' = Skt. kartar-, cf. Av. fraio.kir'ti- ; 

Av. vaokufe dat. sg, pf. ptcpl. ~\[vaklc = Skt. ucufe, 

Av. b p, f. 

77. The surd spirants ^ p, f in Av. are of 
two -fold origin: (i) they are the representatives 

1 Cf. Whitney, Sanskrit Grammar, 156 seq. ; Stenzler, Elementar- 
buch der Sanskritspracke, 44 seq. 

s See Sievers, Grundzuge der Phonetik, pp. 114, 133. 

Tenues Surd Spirants. 2Q 

of the old surd aspirates kh, th, ph; or (2) they have 
arisen from the tenues k, t, p regularly changed 
before most consonants in Av. to corresponding fy, p, f. 
Observe that /has in general the treatment of a spirant 81. 

(i) Av. \, p, /= Skt. kh, th, ph. 
Av. fy& 'fountains' = Skt. khds ; Av. fyaram 'ass' 
= Skt. khdram; Av. hatya 'friend' = Skt. sdkhd. 
Av. haptap^m 'seventh' = Skt. saptdtham ; Av. gdp& 
'hymns' = Skt. gdthds; Av. ar'pa- 'part, portion' = 
Skt. drtha-. Av. safawho 'hoofs' = Skt. saphdsas; 
Av. kafom 'foam, slime' = Skt. kapham. 

(2) Av. %, P, f= Skt. k, t, p. 

Av. tyratus 'wisdom' = Skt. krdtus; Av. irinafyti 
'he lets go, drives' = Skt. ritf,dkti; Av. taofyma 'seed' 
= Skt. tokma; Av. tyapr*m 'rule, kingdom' = Skt. 
k$atrdm. YAv. syaopndis, GAv. jyaoj^ndis 'by deeds' 
= Skt. cydutndis] Av. haijtyo 'true' =Skt. satyds. Av. 
draf$5 'spear, banner' = Skt. drapsds; Av. hrafmm 'sleep' 
= Skt. svdpnam; YAv.frd, GKv.f'rd 'forth, before' = 
Skt. prd; Av. fraotyto 'pronounced' = Skt. proktds. 

Note I. In Av., we sometimes find ^ prefixed to /, initial or inter- 
nal, apparently without etymological value: e.g. <?-// 'up to knee', cf. 
Skt. abhi-jtiu. See Hartholomae, A.F. iii. 19 seq., and 188 below. 

Note 2. In Av., / sometimes takes the place of s (Skt. j) : e. g. Av. 
pamndvhvarit- 'healing' from ~\f/>am- = Skt. ~\fsam- 'to heal', cf. also Av. 
sSma- ; Av. ai-wipyo 'over-sleeping' (nom. pi.) with ~\[sl- = Skt. ~\fsi- 'lie, 
sleep'; Av. a'wiJ>Hrd 'very mighty'., beside Av. surd 'mighty' = Skt. s&ras; 
Av. anapa^tqm (fern.) 'whose time of delivery is not come', beside frasafytahe 
(masc.) 'whose time is come, dead" ~\fsac-. 

Note 3. Original th (Iranian /) becomes d after ^ and /. e. g. GYAv. 
utyda- 'spoken, word" = Skt. ukthd-; Av. prqf'da- 'satisfied' = Indo-Iran. 
*tramptha-; AV. ana'wi.drufydd 'not to be deceived' Yt. 10.5. See Bartho- 
lomae, K.Z. xxix. 483, 502 = Flexionslthre pp. 63, 82. 

Note 4. On Av. / apparently for earlier pv, see 95. 

30 Phonology. 

78. (a) Exception. The change of k, t, p, to 
k> A f> before consonants 77, does not take place 
when a sibilant or a written nasal (not #) immedia- 
tely precedes; nor under these circumstances, are ty,P,f, 
as answering to older aspirate 77, allowed. In all 
such cases, simple k, t, p are employed. 

Av. ustram 'camel' (-s(r-) as opposed to kupra 'where' 
(~pr-) = Skt. tistram , kiitra; Av. fyraf struts 'with 
noxious creatures'; Av. pistrwi 'bruising, wound'; 
Av. zautvo 'in this (ahmi) tribe' (-qtv- 94) as opposed 
to haozqpwa (-qpw-). Av. staoram 'bullock' = Skt. 
sthurdm (-th-); Av. sparaf 'he darted' = Skt. dsphurat, 
48; Av. skarayatit- 'springing, turning' (in nom.propr.) 
cf. Skt. skhalayati; perhaps Av. skar'na- 'turning, 
active' = Skt. skhalana-. Av. paiitamm 'path' (be- 
side Av. papo ace. pi.) = Skt. pdnthdnam, pathds. 

79. (b) Exception, (i) Similarly / remains un- 
changed; but (2) not original ptr which becomes (with 
assimilation) f'dr as original ktr becomes fydr, in both 
GAv. and YAv. 

(i}Av.hapta '7wTa' = Skt. saptd; Av. supti- 'shoulder* 
= Skt. supti-. But (2) Av. naf'dro apqm 'of offspring 
of waters', cf. Skt. ndptre ' ; Av. raf'drzm 'aid' cf. Av. 
rap-astern, rap-ako; Av. apdtydre 'in north', beside 
apdtyara-; Av. "yaotydra- 'girdle' = Skt. yoktra-. 

Note. Some further exceptions occur: Av. dd'tya- 'lawful', pritya- 
'third', bitya- 'second', see 92 Note I. Observe especially atrttn 'fire', and 
trffyaf 'may steal' for tar'fydf, ttr'fyaf see variants an abbreviated writing. 

80. On PW for original tv, see 94. 

Av. */. 

81. There can be little doubt that Av. / has in 
general a spirant value. It seems to occupy a position 

Mediae Sonant Spirants. 21 

intermediate between t, d and p, d. It is both surd and 
sonant (voiceless and voiced) ; to find a distinction palaeo- 
graphically when it- appears as surd or as sonant is not 
warranted by the MSS. It occurs chiefly as final for t, 
except when s or s precede; in that case t appears 192. 
As initial, surd and sonant, it is found in a few words, 
fkae&m 'faith, faithful'; ' fbae$d 'hatred, harm' = Skt. dv/?as, 
cf. 96. As internal it occurs in a few words, com- 
pound or in the MSS. treated as compound, and therefore 
handled as if it were final. 

Av. afdf 'from Right' = Skt. rtdt; Av. bavaf 'he 
became' = Skt. dbhavat; Av. yavaf 'how much' = 
Skt. ydvat; Av. hator't 'once' = Skt. sakft. GAv. 
haeca{.aspa- nom. propr. ; YAv. a u rva$,aspa- 'swift- 
horsed' ; Av. brvafbyqm 'both brows' ; Av. tafku$is 
'running' (MSS. taf ku<jis)\ Av. afca 'atque'. GYAv. 
feae$am 'faith, faithful'; YAv. {bae$5 'hatred, harm', 
cf. GAv. dvae$awhd = Skt. dv$as. 

Note I. Sometimes, / appears as variant of d before k: e. g. adktm 
'robe' (variant a(ktm) = Skt. dtkam. 

Note 2. In taf.aptm 'with running water' (adj.), Yt. 13.43, / stands 
for final c, cf. Av. tact a'pya 'in running water' (loc.), Vd. 6.26. 

Mediae - Sonant Spirants. 

Av - , _3, _J and K - V ,, w. 

g, d, b and j - j, d, w. 

82. The mediae g, d, b, in Av. have a two -fold 
value: (i) they represent old mediae, agreeing with the 
Skt. g, d, b] or (2) they are the representatives of the 
old sonant aspirates, gh, dh, bh; that is to say, 
originally in Av. the sonant aspirates lost their aspiration 
and fell together with the mediae. In GAv., the mediae 

22 Phonology. 

thus arising are regularly preserved unchanged 
throughout. But see 82 (a). 

The following scheme shows the standpoint of the 
Gat has in comparison with the Sanskrit. 

Skt g gh d dh b bh 

V V V 

Original- and GAv. g d b 

(1) GAv. (old) g, d, b = Skt. g, d, b. 

GAv. ugrStig 'mighty' (ace. pi.) = Skt. ugrdn; 
GAv. yadd 'when' = Skt. yadd; GAv. vidva 'know- 
ing* = Skt. vidvdn. 

(2) GAv. g, d, b = Skt. gh, dh, bh. 

GAv. dar'gSm 'long' = Skt. dirghdm; GAv. add 
'then' = Skt. ddha; GAv. advdwm 'way' = Skt. ddhvd- 
nam; GAv. uboibyd 'both', cf. Skt. ubhdbhydm; GAv. 
a'&i 'unto' = Skt. abhi. 

82 a. Observe in connection with this rule 82 that 
the sonant spirants appear before z: cf. 180. GAv. aojzd 
't* 1 i spakest' ; diwzcedydi. *$>.. 89 Bartholomae's Law. 

Note. On the sonant spirants in GAv. raf'dra- 'aid* ; ufyda- 'spoken, 
word' arising from old tenues or aspirate tenues, cf. 77 Note 3. 

83. (i) In YAv. these mediae g, d, b of double 
origin 82 are preserved unchanged when initial; or 
again when internal, if immediately preceded by a nasal 
consonant or by a sibilant. (2) Under all other cir- 
cumstances in YAv. these mediae whether represent- 
ing old mediae or old sonant aspirates are regularly 
changed to the corresponding sonant spirant (j, d, TV). 
Exceptions to the rule are not many. The secondary re- 
lation of GAv. to YAv. may thus be tabulated (cf. 82): 

GAv. g d b 

A A A 

YAv. g j d d b TO 

Mediae and Sonant Spirants. -1-5 

(1) YAv. g, d, b (GAv. g, d, b] = Skt. g, d, b. 

YAv. gcyn 'cow' (GAv. gqm) = Skt. gam ; YAv. 
griva- 'neck' = Skt. grlvd-; YAv. attgustae'bya 'toes 
of both feet', cf. Skt. an>guffhdbhydm, YAv. durdf 
'from afar' (GAv. ditrdf) = Skt. diirdt; YAv. viiyl&ti 
'may find, receive' = Skt. vinddti; YAv. hazdydf 'might 
sit' opt. pf. = Skt. sasadydt, sedydt. YAv. bar'ziste 
'on the highest' (cf. GAv. bar'zistem) = Skt. bdrhifthe. 

(2) YAv. g, d, b (GAv. g, d, d) = Skt. gk, dh, bh. 

YAv. gao&m 'ear' (cf. GAv.g3u$dis) = < Sk.\..ghd?am; 
YAv. zaiigam 'foot' = Skt. jdwghdm. YAv. ddrayaf 
'he held fast' (GAv. ddrayaf) = Skt. dhdrdyat; YAv. 
drvahe 'firm' (gen.) = Skt. dhruvdsya; YAv. 
'bond, sickness' = Skt. bandhdm; YAv. t&fcn 
= Skt. daddhi. YAv. bumim 'earth' (GAv. bumtiri) = 
Skt. bhumim; YAv ^rato 'brother' (GAv. b a rdtd] = 
Skt. bhrdtd; YAv. zsmbayadwam 'crush ye' = Skt./tfws- 

(3) YAv. /, rf, ^ (GAv. ^ d, b} = Skt. ^ d, b. 

YAv. ujrjtn 'mighty' (GAv. ugra^) = Skt. ugrdm ; 
YAv. baj^m 'portion, lot' (GAv. ##-) = Skt. bhdgam; 
YAv. nwr'jo 'bird' = Skt. mrgds. YAv. vidvm 'know- 
ing' (GAv. vidvm) = Skt. vidvdn; YAv. paidyawuha 
'set foot' = Skt. pddyasva. 

(4) YAv. /, rf, / (GAv. ^, rf, *) = Skt. gh, dh, bh. 

YAv. dar'jam 'long' (GAv. dar'gam) Skt. dlrghdm; 
YAv. maejam 'cloud' = Skt. meghdm; YAv. jajnvm 
'having smitten' = Skt. jaghnivdn. YAv. ada 'then' 
(GAv. dt^/a) = Skt. ddha; YAv. adwanzm 'way' (GAv. 
advdnam) = Skt. ddhvdnam ; YAv. ar'd^m 'side, half 
= Skt. drdham. YAv. '// 'unto' (GAv. *'*i) = Skt. 
#<^/; YAv. gar'w^m 'foetus' = Skt. gdrbham; YAv. 
awram 'cloud' = Skt. abhrdm. 

34 Phonology. 

84. Exception I. Initial j, not g, is found before : YAv. j'n&, 
'women' (GAv. gn<&) Skt. gnds ; YAv. j'nqm 'to smite' inf. to 
- = Skt. y^an-. 

85. Exception 2. Exceptions to the law for internal change 
are also found. 

(a) Commonly in the endings 6iJ, byo, bya: 

YAv. tanubyd 'to bodies' = Skt. tantibhyas ; YAv. Sfrivanaebil 
'with blessings', cf. Skt. samane-bhis, etc. But YAv. a*wyas-ca 'and 
with these' (fern, abl.) beside &byd Yt. 10.82 = Skt. abhy&s ; YAv. 
b&zuwe 'with both arms' 67 cf. Skt. bahubhyam; YAv. hinu'wyo 
'from fetters' Yt. 13.100 beside YAv. gatubyo. 

(b) The combination internal dr remains generally unchanged : 

YAv. 1$udr&l 'from seed' = Skt. kfudrat ; YAv. udrtnt 'otter' = 
Skt. udrdm; GYAv. ar'dra- 'pious',- GYAv.sadra- 'misfortune'; YAv. 
dadr&na- 'being held' ~\[dar- = Skt. "\fdhar-. 

(c) In some other instances internal d remains in YAv. unchanged : 

YAv. vadar* 'weapon', GAv. z/a</r* = Skt. vddhar ; YAv. yaza- 
ma'de 'we worship' = Skt. yajamahe, etc.; YAv. var'daptm 'growth', 
beside var*daya 'make thou grow' = Skt. vardh&ya. 

86. Instead of internal d in YAv., / is sometimes 
written; especially before u, w. 

YAv. vtpu$i, vipuim 'having knowledge' = Skt. 
vidu$l, vidu$lm, GAv. vidu$e '; YAv. carapwe 'ye go' 
Yt. 13.34 = Skt. cdradhve; YAv. dapu$o 'of creator' 
= GAv. dadu$o; YAv. ar'pwa- 'uplifted' as variant to 
zr'dwa-. So YAv. dafralti 'he gives' = Skt. dddati 
RV. 2.35.10; YAv. zgapaiti 'vanishes' beside YAv. 
zgadaiti; GAv. vaepa Ys. 5.6 'he knows', beside GAv. 
vaedd = Skt. veda. 

87. Instead of internal YAv. w, we sometimes find 
YAv. v written. 

YAv. avaroif 'should bring out' = Skt. d-bharet; 
YAv. fyjjmdvoya 'to you", beside GAv. fysm&byd, YAv. 
yu$maoyo = Skt. yusmdbhyam; YAv. mdvya 'to me', 
GAv. ma*byd; YAv. g^rvayeife 'he seizes' (for * gar- 
way e' l ti 70 Note 2) = Skt. grbhdyati] YAv. vae*bya 

Mediae and Sonant Spirants. 35 

'with both' (for uvae^bya 68 for uwa^bya), cf. Skt. 
ubhdbhydm, GAv.ubdibya; \A.v.frabavara 'he brought 
forth' = Skt. babhdra. Perhaps YAv. aiwi > avi > aoi 
'unto' = Skt. abhl. 

Note. On Av. Jrw for tv, dw for dhv, etc., see 94, 96. 

Av. $ / 

88. From the fact that the original sonant aspirates 
fell together with the mediae in Avesta, 82, and also 
from the two-fold nature of Skt. j and h see Brugmann, 
Grundriss der vergL Gram, 452, 480, 451, is to be 
explained the following relation between the Avesta and 

the Sanskrit. 


Av. >< J h > Av. z 

(1) Av. 7 = Skt. / 

YAv. jvantym, GAv. jvantd 'living' = Skt. jivan- 
tam, etc. ( 68 Note 2) ; YAv. jajnvm 'having smitten' 
= Skt.jaghnivdn; YAv. jym 'bowstrings' = Skt. jyds; 
GAv. jydtSus 'of life', cf. Skt. jlvdtos; also GYAv. 
aojisto 'strongest' = Skt. ojisfhas; GYAv. ipyejo 'de- 
struction' = Skt. tydjas. 

(2) Av. j = Skt. h. 

YAv. jantdram 'smiter' = Skt. hantdram; YAv. 
jai-nti 'he smites' = Skt. hdnti; YAv. ar'j&ti 'is worth' 
= Skt. drhati; GYAv. drujjm 'Deceit, B'iend 1 = Skt. 

Note I. According to 83, the media j when initial should in YAv. 
pass over into its corresponding sonant spirant, this spirant has in our 
alphabet fallen together with the sonant sibilant S. Hence the relation 
177, 178 below YAv. i = Skt. j ; YAv. i = Skt. h. 

Note 2. Owing to the etymological relation gjj, we sometimes find 
Av. j= Skt. g: e. g. GYAv. hatijamaaa- 'assembly' = Skt. sqgdmana- ; 

36 Phonology. 

GYAv. jatoif 'he might come' = Skt. gdchit; Av. "\fjad- 'to beseech', cf. 
Skt. Ygad-. 

Note 3. Av. j also sometimes answers to Skt. gh: e. g. Av. drSj- 
iittm 'longest' = Skt. draghiflham ; Av. </r<J/tf 'length, duration", cf. Skt. 

Bartholomae's Law. 
See Bartholomae, A. F. i. p. 3 seq. ; A. F. iii. p. 22 Note. 

89. The combination, original aspiratemediae-|-/or-}-J, had 
already in the Indo-Iranian period become m e d i a -j- dh or -j- zh ; the con- 
sonant group thus arising is then treated according to the special laws of 
the language, Indie or Iranic. In GAv. the law is carried through without 
exception (but seq 82 a, and Note). In YAv., however, the law shows a 
number of exceptions 90. Examples of the law from GAv. are: 

GAv. aog>da 'he spake' to "\faugji -j- ending ta, cf. Gk. su/ojiai, 
Skt. ohati; GAv. cagdo 'they two grant' to Yk^ig^h -f- -tas. GYAv. 
vtr'zda- 'grown great, mighty', to ~\[vardh -f- -ta-, cf. Skt. v^ddha-; 
GAv. dazde 'he makes', to ~\fdha-, pres. stem dadh -\- -tl; GYAv. 
mazd&h-, nom. mazd& 'wisdom, Mazda', to orig. ]fmandh -\ tas- 
= Skt. -mldhds-. Ghv. gjr'zdB. 'he complained', to ~\fgarg^h -j- -ta, 
cf. Skt. garhate.- With orig. s, GAv. aojla 'thou spakest', to "\faugji 
-\ sa, 2nd. sg. pret. mid. ; GAv. diw$a*dy&i 'to deceive', to orig. 
~\fdabh -f- -sa-, infin. desiderative , cf. YAy. diwiaf 'from deceit', a 
substantive from desid. stem, cf. Skt. dipsati, 

90. In YAv., as compared with GAv., this law holds good only 
in part; as for the rest, the old tenues /, or surd sibilant J, is restored 
and assimilation then takes place. Thus: 

YAv. aofyta 'he spake', to ~\faug^i -\- ending ta, beside GAv. 
aogda; YAv. drufyto 'deceived', to "\fdraugJi-\--ta-, = Skt. drugdhds. 
YAv. daste 'he makes', to ~\[dha-, pres. stem dadh -\- tl , beside 
GAv. dazdl ; YAv. mastim 'wisdom' to orig. ~\[mandh -j ti-, beside 
GAv. humqzdra-, YAv. mqzdra-. 'YAv. dapta 'deceived' nom. f. past 
ptcpl. to orig. ~\fdabh, cf. Skt. dabdhd-. With orig. s, YAv. vafata 
'he carried' (s restored 165), jrd. sg. mid. sa- aor. to ^fvagji, be- 
side YAv. vaiaf 'he carried'. 




Av. rojy (initial), y (internal); (^> v (initial), v (internal). 
91. General Remark. The semivowels ruy and i^v 
were probably spirants ; internal "y and v were apparently 
sometimes spirant, sometimes vocalic (see 92 Note i). 

Note. In a few instances " y and )) v stand as initial , when re- 
presenting iy, av: GAv. -"f^y iyadacS 'and here' 5.35.2 (pron. stem *'); 
YAv. -"j^j-^)) uva&bya 'with both', Skt. ubhabhy&m see 87, 68. 

Av. jj/ = Skt. _y. 
92. Av. y (initial and internal) corresponds to Skt. y: 

Av. yasntm 'worship' = Skt. yajndm ; Av. tSyuf 'thief = Skt. 
tSyus; GAv. ahurahyS, 'of Ahura' = Skt. dsurasya. 
Note I. (a) A possible test as to when " y is spirant or semivowel, 
may perhaps be found in the treatment of a preceding /, e. g. Aa'J>ya 'true' 
(y spirant) but d&Hya- 'lawful* (y semivowel d3*t-i-a-). (b) Moreover the 
metre shows that y is often to be read with vowel value iy 68 : GAv. 
fryo 'friend' (read fr-iy-o) = Skt. priyds; YAv. bitya- 'second' (read bit-iy-a-} 
= Skt. dvittya-. In Yt. 13.99 initial ro must be read iy in yagfa 'he has 
sought' = Skt. iyifa. 

Note 2. On Av. y = Skt. v, in tanuye etc., see 190. 

Av. V = Skt. V. 
93. Av. v (initial and internal) corresponds to Skt. v: 

Av. vastnm 'vesture' = Skt. vdstram; Av. vSto 'wind' = Skt. 
vitas; Av. tutava 'he has power' = Skt. tut&va; Av. hvaspo 'with 
good horses' = Skt.' svdfvas. 

Note i . Metrically )> v is often to be read as a vowel. Thus : Av. 
gai]>&hva 'among beings' Ys. 9.17 (loc. &hu -j- a postpos.) ; cipral}ua 'among 
seeds' ; GAv. tv5m 'thou' (read tuSm) = Skt. tv&m (tudm) ; YAv. kva 'where* 
(read kua) = Skt. kva (kua). 

Note 2. On Av. v for w, see 87. 
Note 3. On Av. v for Skt. uv see 68. 

Original v in Combination with Consonants. 

Av. representative of Skt. tv. 

94. The combination original tv (i) generally 
becomes Av. Jrw; (2) it remains unchanged when a sibilant 

2 8 Phonology. 

precedes or when v preserves its vocalic character u. 
When samprasarana with following a takes place, / remains 

(i) GYAv. tyrapwa, tyrajnuo 'by, of wisdom' = Skt. 
krdtvd, krdtvas; YAv. pwqm 'thee' = Skt. tvdm; Av. 
mqpwa- 'to be thought, thought', for *mantva-; 
(2) Av. varstva- 'to be done, act'; Av. ratvo 'O 
Master', gdtvo 'from the seat' (prob. rat-u-o, gdt-u-o}\ 
GAv. tvSm 'thou' (tuSm). YAv. turn 'thou' = Skt. tvdm. 

Original pv. 

95. The combination original pv apparently seems to become / 
in Av. : e. g. Ys. 57.29 aftttte 'they are overtaken', for earlier *Spvatite 
(cl. 8); Av. &f>nttm 'aquosum' for older *&pvatttam; Av. huHhrafa 'slumber- 
ing' nom. sg. from orig. *sufvapvan(t)-. 

Original dv, dkv. 
96. The combination original dv, dhv becomes 

(1) when initial, GAv. dv, d<*b; in YAv. ft, b (dv); 

(2) when internal, GAv. dv, in YAv. dv, dw (dv). 

(1) Initial. 

GAv. dvae$av>hd 'through hatred* (YAv. {bae$avha) 
= Skt. dv$asd; GAv. d^bi^nti 'they hate' (cf. YAv. 
{bae$aydf) = Skt. dvi$dnti; GAv. d ni bitim 'second' 
(YAv. bitzm) = Skt. dvitfyam. ^fhv.fbae^avha 'through 
hatred' = Skt. dv$$asd; YAv. fbae$aydf 'may harm 
through hatred' = Skt. dve$dydt; YAv. bitlm 'second' 
= Skt. dvitiyam. YAv. dva 'two' = Skt. dvd; Av. 
dvarsm 'door' = Skt. dvdram; Av. dvqs&ti 'rushes, 
springs' = Skt. dhvcpati. 

(2) Internal. 

GAv. advae$5 'without harm' = Skt. adve$ds; GAv. 
vidvm 'knowing', YAv. vidvce = Skt. vidvdn; GAv. 
advdnam 'path', YAv. adwawm = Skt. ddkvdnam. 

Liquid. y\ 

Av. didvae$a 'I have hated' = Skt. didve$a; YAv. 
vldvaestvo 'foe to harm'. 

Note. In YAv. vifbaijavhtm 'foe to malice' and vJdvaeltvo 'foe to 
harm', the $l>, dv is treated apparently as initial, prefix vi. 

Av. representative of Skt. sv. 

97. The combination sv (Skt.) appears in Av. as sp. 
Av. visp9m 'all' = Skt. visvam; Av. aspd 'horse' 
= Skt. dsvas; Av. spaetam 'white' = Skt. svetdm. 
98. On Av. representative of sv (Skt.), see 130. 

Av. representative of Skt. hv. 

99. The combination Skt. hv appears in Av. as zb. 

Av. zbayemi 'I invoke' = Skt. hvdydmi; GAv. duz- 

azbm 'male-dictus' cf. Skt. 


Av. > r. 

100. The Av. liquid is r; it corresponds to Skt. r 
and /, the letter / being wanting in Av. 

Av. r = Skt. r (ij> 

Av. rapjm 'wagon' = Skt. rdtham; Av. naram 
'man' = Skt. ndram; Av. srlro 'beautiful' = Skt. srt- 
rds, srilds. Av. huksr'pta- 'well-formed' = Skt. -klptd-; 
GAv. fyrapaitt 'arranges', cf. Skt. kdlpate. 

Note I. In Av., hr appears instead of simple r when immediately 
followed by k or p: YAv. vthrko 'wolf = Skt. vfkas; GYAv. kthrptm 
'corpus' = Skt. kfpam; YAv. mahrko 'death' = Skt. markfa , cf. GAv. 
mar a kag-cS 'morti-que' ; YAv. kahrkana- nomen propr., cf. Skt. kfkaya.-. 
See Bartholomae, A.F. ii-39; Brugmann, Grundriss der vergl. Gram. 260. 

Note 2. On urv- (i. e. *rv- for vr-) } see 191. 

Note 3. On r in vowel combinations ar, a'r, a*r, tr f , see 48. 

40 Phonology. 


Av. i, ,<B, , </, 4. 
, n, 10, 1}, m. 

101. General Remark. Of the nasals in Av., 
corresponds in general to Skt. m. To the Skt. n there 
correspond in Av., j n and # %, the latter, a modification 
of i n, stands before stopped consonants. The letter \ w is 
evidently guttural in Av. pawtawham 'fifth' from *pawktasva. 
Otherwise \ # stands in the combination *>h, vuh derived 
from orig. j-syllable 108. The character -u % is palaeo- 
graphically, from, the manuscripts, a modification of j ; 
it occurs for in connection with h when it is preceded 
by an i- or ^-sound 118 Note. 

1 02. Av. occurs initial, internal (except before stopped-sounds), 
and final. 

Av. nama 'name' = Skt. ndma; Av. tanuJ 'body' = Skt. tan&s ; 
Av. anyo 'another' = Skt. anyds; Av. vavanviB 'victorious' = Skt. 
vavanvdn; Av. varjnoif 'of a male' = Skt. vftftis ; Av. bartn 'they 
carried' = Skt. dbharan. 

103. Av. n occurs before k, g, c, J, t, d and -byd (for -dbyd), bya. 

Av. zaitga- 'upper part of foot' = Skt. jdvghd- ; Av. panca 'five' 

= Skl.pdAca; Av. rt^jani 'bestirs, hurries' = Skt. rqhati; Av. antar* 

'inter' = Skt. antdr ; Av. bannti 'they carry' = Skt. bhdranti; Av. 

bir*zaiibya 'for the two great ones'. 

Note. For -rig see under Sibilants 128. 

104. On Av. ) v, tf y , see above General Remark. 

105. Av. m occurs initial, internal, final. 

Av. madjmtm 'midmost' = Skt. madhyamdm ; Av. anttm 'strength' 
= Skt. dmam; Av. mraom 'I spake' = Skt. dbravam. 

Note I. The m in Av. ~\[mru- (opp. Skt |/"rfl-) is probably the 
more original. 

Note 2. On initial m = Skt. sm, see 140. 

Sibilants: Original s. A\ 


Av. M, -o, gj, ro /, no. 

f iT> > %> % 

1 06. General Remark. Of the sibilants, s, s, f, / 
are surd; and z, z are sonant. In Avesta, s corresponds 
to both Skt. s and to s. Av. / answers in general to Skt. f. 
The letter Av. s is chiefly final after i, u and consonants, 
also in some ligatures. Av. / is not so common, chiefly 
before y. 

Note. Av. /, /, / are palaeographically closely related. In most MSS., 
/ and / interchange with each other. In the younger Indian MSS., / is 
the predominant character; the Persian MSS. often (though by no means 
throughout) show a preference for / when the sound answers to orig. rt. 
In the four oldest MSS., with Pahlavi translation, / is the principal cha- 
racter, / standing as final or in ligatures. This rule is there preserved 
almost without exception. In the old Mss. ro/has a double value (i) as 
a ligature for / -}- k, hiUku 'dry', et al. ; or (2) it is a modification of /, / 
before y, 162. Younger MSS. write in the (i) first case ilk; in the (2) 
second case they have a special ligature. See Geldner, Drei Yaskt p. viii seqq. 

Av. s. 
107. General Remark. Av. s is of three-fold origin: 

1. = original s f 

2. = older palatal s (Skt. s), 

3. = developed. 

i. Original s. 

1 08. General Remark. Original s (i) under certain 
conditions remains s in Avesta (2) but generally other- 
wise becomes h (ioh). 

i. Original s remains s. 

109. Original s remains s in Avesta before initial 
k, c, t,p,n, or internal before the same letters when it 
is preceded by a, q, a, 

42 Phonology. 

Av. skambam 'scaffold' = Skt. skambhdm; Av.yds 
-tor't- 'making efforts', cf. Skt. a-yds- ; Av. sk^dsm 
'broken', scitidaye'ti 'breaks asunder', cf. Lat. scindere. 
Av. staotdrzm 'praiser* = Skt. stotdram; Av. vaste 
'he clothes' =. Skt. vdste '; Av. dste 'he sits' = Skt. 
dste; GAv. mqstd 'he thought" = Skt. arnqsta; Av. 
dqstvqm 'cunning, skill', cf. Skt. dqsas-; GAv. sp*r 3 - 
ddni 'I will strive' = Skt. spdrdhdni; Av. manaspa^rya- 
'having the mind pre-eminent'. Av. snayaeta 'should 
wash' = Skt. sndyeta; Av. dsnatdram 'priest who washes 
the utensils', cf. Skt. a-sndtdram 'dreading water'. 

ii. Original s becomes h. 

no. Original s becomes h in Av., regularly when 
initial before vowels. 

Av. hapta 'iTtra* = Skt. saptd, Lat. septem; Av. 
haca 'with, from' = Skt. sdcd ; Av. haonwm 'Haoma' 
= Skt. somam; Av. ho 'he* = Skt. sds; Av. hufyttm 
'good word' = Skt. suktdm; Av. kafor'f 'at one time' 
= Skt. sakft. 


ill. The combination old as becomes in Avesta 
(i) ah-, (2) avh-, av-, (3) -o (final). 

Old as- = (i) Av. ah-. 

112. a. Old as- = Av. ah regularly before i, i. 
YAv. ahi 'thou art', GAv. aht = Skt. dsi; GAv. 
mmaht 'in homage' = Skt. ndmasi. 
113. p. Old as- Av. ah before *', i, when the 
a becomes e y 34. 

Av. d&raythi 'thou holdest fast' = Skt. dh&rdyasi ; Av. jaidyeki 
'thou askest' ; Av. sadayeki 'thou appearest' = Skt. chaddyasi ; Av. 
aojyehJj 'more strong' (ace. pi. fern.) = Skt. ojlyasfs. 

114. y. Old as- = Av. ah-, generally before u, ii 
and their strengthenings. 

Sibilants: Original s. AT. 

Av. qzahu 'in distress' = Skt. qhasu; Av. ahursm 
'Ahura, Lord' = Skt. dsuram; Av. ahum 'life' = Skt. 

115. S. Old as~ = Av. ah-, the a before u, v then 
passing over into o, o. 

Av. vohu 'good 1 = Skt. vdsu; GAv. ba^dkv& 'distribute' = Skt. 

1 1 6. e. Old as- = Av. ah- rarely before e, cf. per- 
haps 35 Note 2. 

Av. raodahe 'thou growest' = Skt. rodhasi; Av. p&vhahe 'thou 
mayest protect' (aor. subj.) Yt. 8.1 = Skt. pdsasi. 

Old as- = (2) Av. avh-. 

117. a. Old as- = Av. fl#^-, regularly before a, 0, 
^ 9, 5, oi, q. 

Av. vawhawm 'vesture' = Skt. vdsanam; GAv. 
wmawhd 'with homage' = Skt. ndmasd. Av. vawhzus 
'of good' = Skt. vdsos. Av. avavho 'of help' = Skt. 
dvaso. GAv. r&vhakoi 'thou mayest offer' (aor. subj.) 
= Skt. rdsase; Av. u$awhqm 'of dawns' = Skt. u$dsdm. 

Note. An exception is Av. dah&kd 'Dragon', dahakaca, 

1 1 8. ^. Old as- = Av. avh-, generally before e, e, 
ae-ca, but cf. 116. 

YAv. avawhe, avawhae-ca, GAv. avawhe 'for help' 
= Skt. dvase; GAv. wmawhe 'for homage' = Skt. 

Note. Here Av. f'*- may appear instead of vh- when epenthetic i 
precedes it, or when a is shaded to e after ^ 34: YAv. ava'yhe 'for 
help' beside avaAe = S\it. dvasl; GAv. dida'yhl 'I was made wise' (redupl. 
aor.). Y Av. ytfhe 'of which' = Skt. ydsya ; GAv. srSvayeyhe 'to make heard' ; 
GAv. rSfayeyhl 'to harm' cf. the Skt. infinitives in -asl. 

119. y. Old as- = Av. <zA-, seldom before u: 

Av. vavhuif 'good' = Skt. vdsus ; Av. avhuH (beside ahQm) 'life* 
= Skt. dsus. 

44 Phonology. 

Old -as = (3) Av. -6. 

1 20. Old -as f i n a 1 = Av. -5, (GAv. often has -* 32). 
Av. pujro 'son' = Skt. putrds; Av. //#<? 'arrows' 
= Skt. ifavas; Av. darayo 'didst hold fast' = Skt. 
dhdrdyas. Cf. GAv._y/ 'who' (YAv.^J) = Skt..y<fc; 
GAv. z// 'of ye' (YAv. t/<?) = Skt. vas; GAv. wa-sr/ 
'great 1 (gen.) = Skt. mahds. 

Note. Observe that as is retained before enclitic ca 'que', etc. 
Av. ijavasca 'and arrows' = Skt. isavai-ca; Av. ifavasci/ 'even the arrows' 
= Skt. uavai-cit; Av. ^ojttz 'and who' = Skt. yds"-ca.A.v. mmas* ti 'homage 
to thee* = Skt. nAmas ti; Av. yastaf 'qui id' = Skt yds tdt. 


121. The combination old as becomes in Avesta 
(i) ah-, (2) aivh-, (3) -< (final). 

Old as- = (i) Av. ah-. 

122. Old .$- = Av. dh~ regularly before i, I, u, u. 
Av. bavdhi 'mayest thou be' = Skt. bhdvdsi; Av. 
pdhi 'thou protectest' = Skt. pdhi. Av. ddhim 'crea- 
tion' = Skt. dhdsim; GAv. rdhl 'I offer' (aor.)=Skt. 
rdsi. Av. dhurois 'of the Ahurian', cf. Skt. dsures; 
GAv. dhu loc. pi. fern, of aem 'this' = Skt. dsu. 

Old as- = (2) Av. cevh-. 

123. Old as- = Av. <a&A-, before a, a, 9, e, e, 
o, oi, q. 

Av. mvha 'has been' = Skt. dsa; Av. frravhayeite 
'he terrifies' = Skt. trdsdyate; Av. n&vhdbya 'with both 
nostrils' = Skt. ndsdbhydm; Av. mmvtom 'moon* = Skt. 
mdsam; GAv. rmvhe 'I offer' = Skt. rase; Av. &vho 
'of mouth' = Skt. dsds; Av. dawhoif 'creation' (abl.), 
cf. Skt. dhdsi-; Av. cBvfiqm 'of these' (fem.) = Skt. 
as dm. 

Sibilants: Original s. AC 

Old -as = (3) Av. -a>. 
124. Old -as final = Av. -m regularly. 

Av. buy& 'mightest be' = Skt. bhiiyds; Av. haenayco 
'of an army' = Skt. sendyas; Av. dee 'thou madest' = 
Skt. ddhds. 

Note. Before enclitics (ca etc.), orig. -as appears as -As: Av. g&- 
p&sca 'and the Gathas' = Skt. gdthSsca; Av. urvar&sca 'and trees' = Skt. 
urvdr&sca; Av. hagnaytDsca 'and of the army' = Skt. stn&y&ica; GAv. 
d&sc& 'and madest', das-t& 'thou madest' = Skt. dddica, etc. 

Original ns. 

125. The combination old internal -ans- before 
vowels becomes: (i) in YAv. -avh-, -zwh-, -a./i-; (2) in 
GAv. -9ngh-> -Sh-. 

Old -ans- = (i) YAv. -avh-, -3*>h-, -qh-, 
126. a. Old -ans- internal = YAv. -awh-, -3wh- be- 
fore a, a, ^, oi. 

YAv. savhdni 'I shall proclaim' = Skt. sqsdnt; YAv. 
dawhawha 'with cunning, skill' (Ny. i.i6) = Skt. da_sasd. 
YAv. vawhzn 'they will struggle' (Yt. 13. 154) = Skt. 
vqsan. YAv. sav/tozs 'shouldst proclaim' = Skt. sqses. 
Similarly 'VAv.jawtontu 'shall injure' (Vd. 2.22), cf. 
Skt. hisantu. 
127. p. Old -ans- = YAv. -qh-, before i, y. 

YAv. dq,hist9m 'most cunning, skilled' = Skt. daj- 
sisfam; YAv. zfyhyamnanqm 'of those who will be 
born' (Yzan- = Skt. Yjan-). 

Old -ans- = (2) GAv. -3ngh-, -Sh-. 
1 28. Old -ans- internal = (a) GAv. -Sngh- (wr,^) before 
vowels; and = ((3) GAv. -ih- before m. 

(a) GAv. sSnghdnl 'I shall proclaim' = Skt. sqsdnt; 
GAv. vSnghaf, vSn.ghm 'shall strive' (aor.) = Skt. vqsat; 

46 Phonology. 

GAv. sSrigho 'proclamation, proclaimer' = Skt. sqsas. 
GAv. m^nghl (also mSqhT) 'I thought' = Skt. mq&i. 

GAv. f$fHgkyo,f$9llghim 'thrifty' = orig. *psansyas. 

(b) mshmaidi 'we thought' (j-aor. from Y man ~)- 

129. The combination old final -ans = (i) YAv. 
-qn, or -q (-qs-ca), -z (-$s-ca); (2) GAv. -Sng, -q. 

YAv. daevqn, GAv. daevtyg 'Demons' = Skt. devdn. 
GAv. sp^fitSrig am33tig Ys. 39.3 = YAv. 
= YAv. am3$3s-ca jr/<?^?=GAv. ams^ 
am^fas-ca sp^nty (ace. pi.) = Skt. amftdn. YAv. 
aesmqn, aesmqs-ca 'wood', cf. Skt. dsvdn, dsvqsca; 
YAv. var'sas-ca 'hair'. 

Note. In some of the above examples, it might be suggested that 
YAv. } is perhaps due to Gatha influence. 

Original sv, 

130. The combination orig. sv becomes in Avesta 
or hv or ? k. Sometimes, sv when internal, becomes vuh 
(also written wK). 

(i) Orig. sv- initial = Av. hv-, hr-. 

GYAv. hva-, also ha- 'suus' = Skt. svd-; GYAv. hvar* 'sun' = 
Skt. svar ; YAv. hvaspd 'having good horses' = Skt. svdsvas. YAv. 
bavhartm 'sister' = Skt. svdsaram; GYAv. hrarn& 'splendors', cf. 
Skt. svaryara-; YAv. hnsaf 'he sweated', fr. Av. yA^'</- = Skt. "\fsvid-. 

(2) Orig. -sv- intern al = Av. -hv-, -hr-, -vhv-, -wuh- 
(Pers. MSS. -*>h-\ 

(a) It becomes hv, after & YAv. ahva 'among these' (dhu -4- a 
postpos.) = Skt. Ssu; YAv. 'un&hv'a 'in empty holes' = Skt. tinasu; 
YAv. vyar']>ahva 'in separate places' (loc.). After a GAv. gu$ahva 
'hear thou' = Skt. ghofasva; so YAv. damahva 'among creatures' 
(loc. aw-stem -\- a) = Skt. dhamasu. After o (= a 39) YAv. ba- 
ffihva 'distribute thou' = Skt. bhakfasva.^o) Becomes hr, after a 
GAv. mmahranil 'full of homage' = Skt. ndma svatis ; YAv. harahta'tim 
nom. propr. = Skt. sdrasvattm. So (see below under Composition) 
'surrounded' = Skt. parifvaklam.^(c) Becomes -;///- 

Sibilants: Original s. AJ 

(-vh- t -vhv-) GYAv. vavuhim 'good' (fern.), Pers. MSS. vavhim = Skt. 
vdsvim; YAv. pafdyavuha 'set foot, abide' = Skt. pddyasva; YAv. 
hunavuha 'press haoma-juice", cf. Skt. sunufvd; YAv. aojavuhant-, 
GAv. aojorighvatit-, aojovAvatft- 'strong' = Skt. ojasvant-.YA.v. 
vavhvqm 'of good things', beside vohunqm; YAv. kar'navhvanta 
'glorious', cf. Yt. 15.56, beside Jvar'navuharittm ; YAv. var'cavhutitim 
'brilliant' Yt. X2.I = Skt. *varcasvantam. 

Note. In raina tv&stnm orig. 'having good pastures', hr = orig. su 
+ *"> ( 68). 

Original sy. 

131. This combination, orig. sy preceded by a 
vowel, becomes somewhat complicated in Av., owing to 
the varied treatment of y, as y sometimes remains after 
s has become an /t-sound, or ^ sometimes vanishes, with 
or without leaving a trace of epenthesis. In GAv., y is 
generally retained, in YAv. y generally vanishes. 

(A) / remains. 

132. Orig. sy = (i) Av. hy (the y remaining); 
mostly GAv., more rare YAv. 

(a) YAv. hy5$ 'might be' = Skt. syat; YAv. uzdahyamnanqm 'of 
offerings to be elevated', cf. Skt. dha-sy-ati ; YAv. m&hya&byo 'to 
lords of the month' = Skt. mdsylbhyas ; YAv. manahyd 'spiritual' 
(nom. sg.) for *saanasyas. (b') GAv. ahurahya 'of Ahura, Lord' = 
Skt. dsurasya; GAv. ahya *x>f this' = Skt. asyd; GAv. vahyo 'better' 
= Skt. vdsyas. 

133. Orig. sy = (2) Av. fyy } mostly GAv., rarely YAv. 

(a) YAv. daJiyunqm 'of countries', cf. Skt. ddsyu- ; and YAv. 
fiyaona-, fiyaonya- nom. propr.^(b) GAv. vaJiy& 'melior' = Skt. vdsyan; 
GAv. afiyaca 'ejus-que' (beside ahyf) = Skt. asyd. Cf. Geldner, 
Studien zum Avesta p. 141. 

(B) y vanishes. 

134. Orig. -sy- internal = (i) Av. -vh-, thej vanishing 
without leaving epenthesis. 

YAv. vavho 'melius' = Skt. vdsyas; YAv. afvav/itS gen. sg. fern, 
(orig. -.tySs) from afva~ 'one'. 

48 Phonology. 

135. Orig. -sy- internal = (2) Av. -*y&-, the y vanishes 
but leaves epenthesis. 

YAv. aiyfu (also ayha>] 'of this' (fern.) = Skt. asyds; YAv. 
Ja'yhiui 'of country', cf. Skt. dasyu-. 

1 36. Orig. -sy- internal = (3) Av. -yk-, the y with a 
following a becoming e. 

(a) With, epenthesis YAv. a^he 'of this' = Skt. 
asyd. (b) Without epenthesis YAv. yeqhe 'of whom' 
= Skt. ydsya. 

137. Orig. -sy- internal = (4) Av. h, the y with a 
following a having become e, 67. Very common in YAv. 
genitive singular. 

YAv. ahe 'of this' = Skt. asyd; YAv. ahurahe (beside 
GAv. ahurahya) 'of Ahura' = Skt. dsurasya. Isolated 
GYAv. vahehis 'the better ones' (fern.) = Skt. vdsyasis. 

Original sr. 

138. Orig. sr- initial = (?) Av. r- (the instances are uncertain). 
GAv. r&vhaytn 'they made fall', cf. Skt. srqsayan; YAv. ravh& 
'the lame', cf. Skt. "\fsras-, srqs-; Av. ramtm 'sickness' = Skt. 

1 39. Orig. -sr- internal = Av. -vr-. 

Av. hazawram 'thousand' = Skt. sahdsram; Av. 
dawro 'cunning, wise'=Skt. dasrds; ZPhl.Gloss. vavri-, 
vavra- 'spring', cf. Skt. vasantd-; Av. awro m&nyus 
'the Evil Spirit'. 

Note. In GAv. -ngr- is also written : GAv. dattgra-, arigra-. 

Original sm. 
140. Orig. sm- initial = Av. m, through loss of h, 

Av. maf 'with' = Skt. smdt; YAv. mahi, GAv. mahi 'sumus' = 
Skt. smdsi. 

141. Orig. sm- internal = Av. km. 

Av. kahmdi 'to whom' = Skt. kdsmai; YAv. ahnti, GAv. ahmi 
'sum' = Skt. dsmi. 

Sibilants : Older palatal /. AQ 

Original ski. 

142. Orig. sk l = Av. s (cf. Skt. ch). 

Av. jasa*ti 'he comes' = Skt. gdchati, cf. (Jdoxet, ; Av. isa*ti 'he 
desires' = Skt. ichati ; Av. yasaiti 'holds' = Skt. ydchati. 

Original ts. 

143. Orig. / -f s = Skt. s (through intermediate ss 
185, 1 86). 

GAv. ty$mavasu (loc. pi.) 'belonging to you' = Skt. 
yusmdvatsu; GAv. dr^gvasu 'among the wicked' 
(drjgvat-\-su); YAv. masyo 'fish' = Skt. mdtsyas; 
YAv. asava.tysnus 'rejoicing the righteous' (Yt. 13.63 
nom. sing. /4- j), cf. Av. fysnutam 'joy'; YAv. faisaf 
'he sweated' (<*[=/] + .$ 74), cf. Skt. ysvid-; YAv. 
nz0j^ 'thou growest', cf. Av. raodahe, raosta; GAv. 
stavas 'praising' (nom. sg. stavatit-}, cf. Lat. aman(t)s; 
GAv. dasva 'give thou' = Skt. datsva; GAv. piyasu 
loc. plur. stem piyaiit- 'beholding'. 

Original /J. 
144. Orig. ps = Av. /& except before r, tr. 

YAv. draf5 'spear, banner' = Skt. drapsds; GAv. 
haf$l 'thou extendest', cf. GAv. hapti from Y^ a P' = 
Skt. jAra/-; GAv. nafsii 'among children', cf. napdhm, 
naptyaesu 187 (5); YAv. hangar'f^dne 'I will seize' 
(j-aor.), beside g9r*pt9m, Ys arw " Skt. ygar&A-. 

Note I. Observe J remains unchanged before r, tr: Av. fs'ratu- 
'fruit, reward", Av. fyrafstra- 'noxious creature". 

Note 2. Observe that s (= sk^ cf. 142) remains unchanged in the 
examples tafsa( (YAv.) 'grew warm', wr/sa*ti (GAv.) 'it wanes'. 

2. Older palatal s (Skt. s). 

145. General Remark. Older palatal s (Skt. s) 
commonly appears as Av. s. In certain combinations 
it is changed to s. 

JO Phonology. 

i. Older palatal s (= Skt. s) = Av. s. 

146. Older palatal 3 (= Skt. s) = Av. s before vowels, 
semivowels, and most consonants. 

Av. saf&who 'hoofs' = Skt. saphdsas; Av. qsaya 
'of two parties' = Skt. qsayos; GAv. sdsti 'he teaches' 
= Skt. sdsti; Av. pasum 'pecus' = Skt. pasum; Av. 
spaso 'spies' = Skt. spdsas; Av. nasye'ti 'he vanishes' 
= Skt. ndsyati; Av. usyaf 'he might wish' = Skt. usydt; 
Av. isvan- 'having power', cf. Skt. isvard; Av. 
vlspwtis 'village-lord' = Skt. vispdtis; Av. nsmahi 
'we wish' = Skt. usmdsi; Av. sraesta- 'fairest' = Skt. 

Note i. On Av. / instead of Av. s (= Skt. -f), see 77 Note 2. 

Note 2. On older palatal j retained in Av. before n, see 1 60 Note. 

Note 3. On older palatal s in sv = Av. sp, see 97. 

Note 4. On Av. salna- 'eagle' = Skt. sycna-, see 187 (3). 

ii. Older palatal s = Av. s. 

147. Older palatal s (= Skt. s) before t becomes 
Av. s (= Skt. ft)- For examples see 1 59. 

148. Older palatal s (= Skt. s) before n generally 
becomes Av. / (= Skt. sn). For examples see 160. 

149. Older palatal s (= Skt. s) after Av. /(= orig./) 
becomes /. For examples see 161. 

iii. Older palatal y = Av. i. 

150. Older palatal s (= Skt. s) becomes Av. i before sonants. 
For examples see 182. 

3. Developed Av. s. 

151. Av. s sometimes results from the dentals / Q), 
d (d) becoming s before t. 

Av. cistis 'wisdom' = Skt. cittis; Av. amavastara- 
'stronger' (amavaqt) = Skt. dmavattara-; Av. iristahe 
'of the dead' (|/"'Vf/-)> ^ tV> aiwi-sastar- 'one who sits' 

Sibilants: Av. /. 51 

\ad-} = Skt. sdttar-; Av. raosta 'has grown up', 
cf. Av. raofonti, Skt. y~rudh-. 

Note. Sometimes / (f) becomes s before f: Av. ralvascipra- 'of 
splendid family* (raSvattt- -j- cipra-) ; Av. yasca 'and when' (ya[ -j- ca). 

152. Av. s sometimes results from Av. z becoming 
s before m. 

Av. upasmqm 'upon earth* (ace. fern.), beside Av. 
zqm, z'mo; Av. rasmancpn 'of battle ranks', cf. Av. 
rdzayeifite 'they arrange in ranks' (y~rdz- = Skt. j/Vtf/-'); 
Av. maesmana 'with urine', cf. Av. maezafiti 'they 
make urine' (y~miz- = Skt. '[fmih-]', Av. bar'smana 
'with barsom', cf. Av. j/^drtf- 'grow up, be high, great' 
(= Skt. ybarh-\ 

153. Av. s more rarely results from Av. z becoming 
s before n. See also 164 Note i. 

Av. asnya- 'belonging to the day' (from azan-} Skt. tiro-ahnya- 
(fr. Man-) ; Av. yasmm 'worship' (\fyaz- = Skt. ~\fyaj-}. 

Av. $, /, s- 

154. General Remark. Av. / (j, j) stands either for an original 
s after i, u and certain consonants ; or for an earlier palatal i under special 

Av. $ (f, $ = Skt. f. 

155. Av. s ($, $) answers to Skt. f after i, u, and 
their strengthenings, and after ^ and r. Cf. Whitney, Skt. 
Gram. 180. 

Av. ifavo 'arrows' = Skt. ifavas; Av. vahisto 'best' 
= Skt. vdsitfkas; Av. raejjaydf 'may wound' = Skt. 
re$dydt; Av. srae$yeiti 'it clings', cf. Skt. slifyati. 
Av. duS.tor'tjm 'ill-done' = Skt. du$-krtdm; Av. muSti- 
'fist' = Skt. mufft-; Av. gao&m 'ear' = Skt. ghdfam; 
Av. tao$ayeiti 'makes still' (Yt. 10.48) = Skt. tdfdyati. 
Av. usdiwm 'bull' = Skt. uk$dnam; GAv. 

ij 2 Phonology. 

'I will speak' = Skt. vak$ydmi. Av. var$nois 'of a 
ram* = Skt. vffn/s; Av. tar$no 'thirst' = Skt. fffyd-. 

Note I. Before r we find s not / though / or precede: GAv. 
Pwisra- 'glancing', cf. Skt. ~\ftvif-; YAv. kusra-, pisra-. Similarly in Skt. 
usra-, tamisra-, cf. Whitney, Sanskrit Grammar 1 8 1 a. 

Note 2. Sometimes, / is written for / before y: GAv. fratjyamahi 
'we send forth' = Skt. prifySmasi ; YAv. bajjyatitqm 'of those to be' = Skt. 
bhavijy&tam, etc. 

156. Av. -s from orig. s, appears similarly ( 155) 
when final after?'-, w-vowels and their strengthenings, also 
after ^ and r, cf. 192(3). 

Av. azis 'Dragon' (nom. sg.); ga'rls 'mountains' 
(ace. pi.); tanus 'body'; vawhits 'good' (ace. pi.); 
rasnaos 'of Rashnu, Justice' ; vawhzus 'of the good' ; 
barois 'thou shouldst bear' ; gdus 'cow' ; utyddis 'with 
words'. dru^s 'fiend'; dnus./iafys 'following'; paro- 
dar's 'Fore-seer' 192 (3). 

157. On Av. /jf from orig. ps, see 144. 

1 58. Av. / (=; older palatal s -f- s = Indog. k\.s) = Skt. fcf. 
Av. va$i 'thou wilt' = Skt. vdk$i (]/ r vas-')\ Av. 
dtsydf 'should show' (opt. aor.), cf.Skt. adik$at(ydis-}\ 
Av. ndfd'fi 'may vanish' (aor. subj.), \fnas~; Av. 
parodar's 'Fore-seer, the cock' (-dars -4- s nom. sg.); 
GAv. ndju loc. pi. from nds- 'loss, mishap'. So Av. 
faett 'he dwells' = Skt. kftti; Av. mofu 'quickly' = 
Skt. mak$u, cf. Lat. mox. Similarly Av. da$ina- 'right, 
dexter" = Skt. ddk$ina-; Av. y^fas- 'to fabricate' = 
Skt. takf-. 

Note I. Indog. k^s appears in Av. as ^/. In Skt. orig. k^s and k^s 
fell together in kf; but Av. still holds them apart as respectively / and /. 
See Hiibschmann, Z.D.M.G. 38 p. 428. The same distinction between the 
two original sounds is to be remarked in Prakrit and Pali as observed by 
Pischel, Gott. gel. Anz. 1881, p. 1322. 

Note 2. On ^maktm. 'of you' and a$fna! 'up to the knees', cf. 77 
Note I, 1 88. 

Sibilants: Av. /. 


1 59. Av. s appears for older palatal s (= Skt. s) 
before / (= Skt. ft), cf. 147. 

Av. nasto 'made to vanish' = Skt. na?tds (ynas-) ; 
GAv. vasti 'he wishes' = Skt. vdtfi (yvas-}\ Av. darSti- 
'seeing, sight' = Skt. df?ti-; Av. parsta- 'question' = 
Skt. pr$td- (ypras-}\ GAv. daedoist redupl. aor. 3 sg. 
mid. Av. ydis- 'show' = Skt. ydis-. 
1 60. Av. / appears for older palatal s (= Skt. s) 
before n = Skt. sn, cf. 148. 

Av. asnaoiti 'he attains' = Skt. asnoti; Av. fra$no 
'question' = Skt. prasnds; Av. spa^naof 'he espied' 
Yspas- = Skt. yspas-. 

Note. Sometimes Av. s appears instead of the above / before , 
cf. 146, and Note 2: Av. snapa- 'smiting, wounding', to ~\[ sna- = Skt. 
snath-; Av. vasna 'by will', "\fvas- = Skt. "\fvas-. 

161. Av. / appears for old palatal s (= Skt. j) after Av. f 
(= orig. /), cf. similarly, orig. ps (dental) 144. 

A v. //,#*/ 'with fetters', cf. Skt. 2pai- 'to bind'; Av. ha*rva-f$-avo 
'having whole flocks' (pasu- = Skt. fasti-}. 
Note. On Av. tafsaf, nr*/sa*ti see 144 Note 2. 

162. Av. $y (or sometimes simply /) appears for 
older cy. In GAv. the y is mostly retained; in YAv. the 
y is mostly dropped. 

YAv. gyaopmm, GAv. jyaopfltDin 'deed' = Skt. cy&utndm; GAv. 
a$yo, YAv. flr/J 'worse', comparat. to aka- (superl. aciXla-') , cf. Skt. 
aka-; YAv. jfivaydif 'might cause to go' (l/^/-) = Skt. cySvdyil 
{\f c y u ~)> GAv. /yetfii 'they abide, repose', YAv. j&ifini 'repose, joy', 
cf. Lat. quits; GYAv. frafa- 'forward, prone, ready' = Skt. pr&cyd-; 
GAv. vajye'tg 'is spoken' = Skt. ucyatl. See Hiibschmann, Z.D.M.G. 
xxxviii. p. 431. 

163. Av./tf; = Skt.r/. SeeBartholomae.^.F.ii.p.SQ. 

Av. atrnfrm 'immortal' = Skt. amrtam; Av. plants 

'battles' = Skt. pftands; Av. magyehe 'of mortal' = 

Skt. mdrtyasya; Av. ba$dram 'rider' = Skt. bhdrtdram. 

Likewise Av. a^avan^m 'the righteous' = Skt. ftd- 

(J4 Phonology. 

vanam; Av. a&m 'Right, righteousness', beside Av. 
an-ar'tdis = Skt. ftdm ; Av. Pwa&m 'quickly' = Skt. 
turtdm, et al. 

Note. As a rule, Av. /=Skt. Art, ft (observe accent), and AT. tr*t 
= Skt. ft (observe unaccented) : e. g. Av. m?rto 'dead' = Skt. mftds ; 
Av. b>r*ttm 'carried' = Skt. bhftdm; Av. fra-birt&rtm title of priest = 
Skt. -bhart&ram. Allowing a shift of accent would explain a number of 
apparent anomalies where the law as to accent appears not to hold. 

164. Av. / results from Av. z changed to / before . 
Av. ranqm 'of ordinances', from stem rdzan-; Av. 
ra$num 'Justice', beside raz-istam 'most just', Skt. 
rdj-iftham; Av. bar'navo 'heights' beside bsr'z-ato 
'of the high', Skt. bfhatds; Av. duzvar 3 $navho 'evil- 
doers' (varz-); Av. d-%-$nus 'up to the knees', beside 
zanva 'knees', cf. Skt. abhi-jnit, 188. 

Note I. Observe, however, that sometimes Av. s instead of / (for 
Av. 2) before n is found, cf. 153: Av. asni 'by day' (azan-J = Skt. dhni 
(dhan-); Av. paro.asna- 'beyond the day, future', cf. Skt. aparShyd- 'after 
mid-day' ; Av. yasntm 'worship' (beside yaz-afte) = Skt. yajtidm ; Av. Ssna- 
'in-born* (d -\- ~\fzan- 'to bear 1 ). 

Note 2. Observe i in Av. inStar- (^zan- 'know') = SkL fi&tdr ; 
Av. intim 'knee', alnubyascif 'even to the knees'. 

165. Av. / sometimes results from Av. z (= Skt./ 
or Ji) being changed to / before s. See 185, 186. 

GAv. *rvja 'shall proceed' (j-aor.), y"waz- = Skt. vraj-; GAv. 
var'jafti 'may do' (.r-aor.), \fvarz-, cf. Skt. \~varj-; GAv. var*I-ci 
2 sg. aor. ("z -\- s) ; Av. kvar*il 'well-doing' nom. sg. (z -j- s) ; Av. 
har>$yamna- 'about to be imbrued' (2 -\- s~\[harz- = SkL sarj-). 
Note. Perhaps here Av. ajaita 'might be led' beside Av. aaa*ti, 
Skt. djati. 

166. Av.-j sometimes results from Av. e (=S\A.f) 
being changed to s before / (cf. Skt. ff). 

Av. "marilo 'rubbed' (]fmarz-) = Skt. mrf(ds (\fmarj-) ; Av. 
"harJta- 'imbrued' (\fharz^) = SkL srf(d- {]/"sarJ-}; Av. yaltar- 
'worshipper 1 (\fyaz-~) = SkL yaffdr- 

Sibilants: Av. z. 


Av. e. 

167. General Remark. Av. z appears either as the 
representative of Skt. j or h, see 88 ; or it is the cor- 
responding sonant to s, 106, 74. 
1 68. Av. * = Skt. / 

Av. zao&m 'wish' = Skt. j'ofam; Av. zato 'born' = 
Skt. jdtas; Av. Z9mbayadw9m 'ye knock together* = 
Sk!t.jambhdyadhvam; Av. zindf 'may take violently' 
= Skt. jindt; Av. zrayo 'sea' = Skt. jrdyas. Av. 
azalti 'he drives' = Skt. djati; Av. yazaite 'he wor- 
ships' = Skt. ydjate; Av. har'zariti 'they send forth' 
= Skt. srjdnti; Av. vazrzm 'club' = Skt. vdjram. 
169. Av. r = Skt. //. 

Av. zasta- 'hand' = Skt. hdsta-; Av. zarois 'of the 

golden' = Skt. hares; Av. zt' for' = Skt. ///. Av. azzm 

'sycu' = Skt. ahdm; Av. mazisto 'i/iy-wro;' = Skt. w- 

hifthas; Av. bdzus *7r?i^u?' = Skt. bdhus; Av. bfr'zai&m 

'great, high' = Skt. brhdntam ; Av. maezanti 'mingunt' 

= Skt. mehanti; Av. izyeHi 'he seeks', cf. Skt. ihate. 

170. Av. ^r results often from A- being sonantized 

before sonant consonants. 

Av. azgato 'unmatched, unconquered' Yt. 13.107, 
yhag-, orig. j^- = Skt. ysagA-; Av. vawhazdcs 'giving 
the best' (comparat. to vawhu- -\- \fdd), cf. Anc. Pers. 
vahyazddta- nom. propr.; Av. mdzdrdjahya- 'a month 
long', cf. Skt. mas- ; Av. azd'bls 'with bones' = (stem 
asf-)\ GAv. zdi 'be thou', cf. Av. as-ti 'he is'. Cf. Brug- 
mann, Grundriss der vergl. Gram. 589 seq. 

171. Av. z (similarly 170) in combination z</=Skt. (l)dh, (&)dh. 
See above (Bartholomae's Law) 89 ; and Brugmann, Grundriss der vcrgl. 
Gram. 476, 591. 

Av. mazdSh- 'wisdom, Mazda' = Skt. "mldhas ; GAv. 
'ye protected' (j-aor. from "\fprS-) = Skt. tr&dkvam; et al. 

5 6 Phonology. 

Original Av. 2 changed to s, /. 

172. Av. z before becomes s (/}, see 153, 164 for examples. 
173. Av. z before m becomes j, see 152 examples. 
174. Av. 2 before t becomes /, see 166 examples. 
175. Av. 2 before s becomes /, see 165 examples. 

Av. i. 

1 76. General Remark. Av. z is the corresponding 
sonant to s as Av. z is to s. Sometimes (though more 
rarely) it answers like z to Skt. j, h. 

177. Av. 1 (more rarely) = Skt. j. See 88 Note I. 

Av. "tagitm 'sharpness, edge', cf. Skt. tijas (]ftij-)\ Av. 6a$a 
'he distributed, offered" = Skt. bhdjat. 
178. Av. * (more rarely) = Skt. h. See 88 Note I. 

Av. alii 'Dragon' = Skt. ahis ; Av. datefti 'it burns' = Skt. daliati. 

179. Av. z most commonly results from Av. /being 
sonantized before sonant consonants. 

GAv. asruzdum 'ye were heard of (Ys. 32.3, .r-aor. 
mid.-pass. Y sru ~) = Skt. asrodhvam, beside Av. s'rao- 
fdne, sraosa-; Av. sna^izbya 'with two weapons' from 
stem Av. snails-; Av. awzddta- 'laid in the waters', 
beside Av. afscipra- 'having the seed of waters' ; Av. 
yaozdapanhm 'making pure', beside Av. yaos = Skt. 
yds. Av. duzutytam 'ill-spoken' = Skt. duruktdm; Av. 
duzvacawho 'ill-speaking', beside Av. duskwtom 'ill 
done' = Skt. durvacas, du$krtdm; Av. dusmanawhe 
'to the evil-minded' (here w-surd) = Skt. durmanase. 

Note. Exceptioas occur: GAv. tr?vaca 'true-speaking' et al. ; cf. 
Bartholomae, B.B, xiii. p. 77. 

1 80. Av. wi (= orig. bh-\- s) = Skt. ps. See 89. 

YAv. diwiaf 'from deceit', GAv. diwlaidyai 'to deceive', cf. Skt. 

181. YAv. I (= Av. 2 [= Skt. A] -f j) = Skt. k f . Cf. 165. 
YAv. uz-vaiaf 'he carried forth' (j-aor. from YVOZ-) = Skt. vdkfat 

Some Additional Rules as to Consonants. 


Note I. On i in GAv. ajldnvanimm 'unharmed' cf. Skt. ~\fkfan-, see 89. 
Note 2. GAv. Siuf Ys. 53.7 is uncertain. Uncertain also GYAv. iia- 
'zeal, striving" to ~\ffz- = Skt. "\flli- (?). 

182. Av. i appears for old palatal j' (= Skt. j) before sonants. 

GAv. Sidydi 'to attain', YOS- = Skt. YOS-; GYAv. vit'fyo 'to, 
from villages' (vis-) = Skt. viiibhyds (vii-). 

183. Av. &/ = Skt. ^//, or </. See Brugmann, Grundriss 591. 
Av. mildim I |ito8dv' = Skt. unchain; Av. mtr'^diktm 'mercy' (if 
from y/<zr/-, cf. 179) = Skt. mfilikam. Here again GAv. asriildum 
Ys. 32.3 ( 1 79)= Skt. asrd<}hvam. 


A V - or, c;, r. 
A, h, hr. 

184. These are all derived from an original ^-sound, 
and have been treated, in particulars, under the sibilants 

Some Additional Rules as to Consonants. 

185. In Av., assimilation of consonants is some- 
times found. 

YAv. nmawm 'house' = GAv. d'mdnsm; Av. kamnsm 
'few' (for*kabn3m or kambnam 186), cf. kambistzm. 
Total assimilation, Av. bimam 'foundation' (for bunmm 
1 86) = Skt. budhndm; Av. sanaf 'it appeared' Yt. 14.7 
(i. e. sannaf, sad-naf). 

1 86. In Av., double consonants (i.e. the same 
consonant repeated) are not allowed. If owing to total 
assimilation 185 they should occur, the combination is 
then reduced in writing to a single consonant. 

Av. masyo 'fish' (for massy o 185) = Skt. mdtsyas; 
Av. usndlti- 'ablution' (for ussnditi-, i. e. ud-snd'ti- 
1 85, cf. Av. us tanum snayaetd) ; Av. du$iti- 'distress' 
(i. e. dus-$iti-, cf. Skt. suksiti-}; Av. h^mipydf from 

58 Phonology. 

hsm -f ymip- 'to change', Ys. 53.9; GAv. dr*gvasii 
'among the wicked' (for dragvassii); Av. u$ahva 'at 
dawn' (for u$ah-hva)\ Av. ajavar's 'evil-doing' (nom. 
sg. var'z-s, from Y varz ~ ^S); Av. buwm 185 end. 
187. A consonant sometimes falls out. Seei86. 

(1) before v falls out in YAv. 

YAv. drivyms-ca 'poor' (gen. fern.), beside YAv. 
drijaos (gen. masc. driju-}\ YAv. drvatitem 'wicked', 
beside GAv. drzgvaritam, cf. Skt. druhvan-; YAv. 
hvovo nomen propr. beside GAv. hvogvo. 

(2) d between consonants falls out. 

Av. bwzatibya 'great* (dat. dual for older andbhy}. 

(3) y after initial older j-palatal (= Skt . s) sometimes falls out. 

Av. sdmahe 'of black' = Skt. syamdsya ; Av. saen 5 
'eagle' = Skt. syends. 

(4) h (= original s) is dropped before m (initial) and r 
140, I38seq. 

(5) k (fy) seems sometimes to fall out. 

Av. tu'rya- 'quartus' for *kturya- cf. S-fcu'rya- 'four times' , Av. 
ava<[ata 'he spake', if these forms are from ~\fvac-. 

(6) t seems sometimes to fall out. 

GAv. nafju loc. pi. for *napt-su from Av. nap&t-, napt- 'off- 
spring', cf. 185 seq. 

1 88. Av. ^ is sometimes introduced before /. 

Av. dfy$nus 'knee-high', cf. Skt. abhi-jnu; Av. ty$md- 
kam, fyjjmat 'of, from you'. 

189. On s (= Skt. s f s} retained before -ca etc., see 
120 Note; 124 Note; 129. 

190. In Av., y takes the place of v between u and e. 
Av. duye 'two' = Skt. dvt; Av. upa.mruye 'I invoke' 
= Skt. upa-bruve; Av. tanuye 'for the body' = Skt. 
tanvt; Av. buye 'to be' = Skt. bhuvt. 

Note. Similarly Av. uye 'both' (for *uve, uwe 68 Note i) = Skt. ul>/ii. 

Some Additional Rules as to Consonants. en 

191. In Av., metathesis of r often takes place; 
Skt. vr (vl) becomes with prothesis 71, Av. rv. 

Av. aprava 'priest' = Skt. dtharvd; Av. caprudaso 
'fourteenth* = Skt. caturdasds; Av. brdtwryo 'uncle' 
(for brdtvryo 62) = Skt. bhrdtrvyas; Av. "rvdtdis 
'with doctrines', cf. Skt. vrdtdis; Av. "rvapo 'faithful, 
friend* (J/zw-). 

192. As final consonants in Av., the following 
may stand: (i) nasal, n and m, (2) dental / (or t when 
preceded by developed s or by /), (3) sibilant s and s. 
Two consonants may stand in the case of tys, fs, st, st 
and QAv. i%g. 

(i) bar an 'they carried'; azzm T; (2) p^r'saf 'he 
asked' ; amava$ 'strong' ; (3) hizubls 'with tongues' ; 
tanus 'body'; ha u rvatds 'perfection' (nom. sg. -tdt-s)\ 
tysayqs 'ruling' (nom. sg. -ant-s). drills 'fiend, Druj"; 
dfs 'water'; far'fs 'corpse'; coist 'he promised, an- 
nounced'; aibLmdist 'he turned toward'. GAv. ma- 
SySng 'mortals' ace. pi. 

Note. When orig. s precedes final / the latter is dropped: e. g. 
Av. -tts (i. e. *Ss-t) 'was 1 = Skt. astt; Av. etnas (i. e. *cinast 109) 'thou 
didst promise', opp. to coiit or to moist (mif-). 

193. Av. m appears instead of final n in voca- 
tives of #-stems. 

Av. asdum 'O righteous one' = Skt. ftdvan; Av. 
dpraom 'O priest' = Skt. dtharvan; Av. yum (for 
*yuvari) 'O youth' = Skt. yuvan; Av. prizafam 'O 
triple-jawed' (cf. ace. prizafamm). 

Note I. The MSS. often fluctuate between final m and n in endings, 
q, qn, qm, e. g. haomq, haomqn, haomqm 'haoma-offerings' (ace. pi.) Yt. 10.92 
= Skt. som&n, cf. 45 Note 2. So apparently, Av. cajmqm 'in eye', cf. 
Skt. jdnrnan. 

Note 2. Observe other MS. fluctuations (cons, and vowel) : c j; 
j z; p d; d O>; & au; & &f; at al; i u dapqm, dadqm ; mazda, mazd&; 
fyratat tau; vastrto trdf. 

6"o Phonology. 

194. Av. avoids generally a repetition of the 
same syllable. 

Av. Hutdy&rytkt 'of Mid- Year' (formaidya-ydiryehe) ; 
huyairy 'of good harvest' (for huyatryaym) ; Av. fra- 
e, frazinta 'they are, were plundered' (for *fra- 
*frazinJtita), cf. Skt. prajindte; Av. Ivar'na 
hacimno for *har'nawha hacimno attended with glory 
Yt. 10.121. 


Principal differences between Sanskrit and Avesta 
in Phonology. 


195. GAv. lengthens all final vowels, YAv. lengthens them in 
monosyllables, shortens them in polysyllables ( 24 26). 

196. Original f and & are lengthened before final m in Av. ( 23). 

1 97. Av. { ) generally answers to Skt. a before m or . Av. 
Car'} = Skt. r ( 29, 47). 

198. Av. R) e, commonly a modification of internal a after y. 
Sometimes equals final ya ( 34, 67). 

199. Av. >> o chiefly equals final Skt. as (6) 120. 

200. Av. ** A chiefly equals Skt. Ss ; more rarely SkL & -\- 
stop-sound ( 121 124, 44)- 

201. Av. >p q is a nasalization of a (&) before m. or . It often 
equals Skt. a with anusvara ( 45, 46). 


202. The Skt. I is represented by Av. al, oi, or (when final) t; 
the Skt. by Av. ao, 3u, or (when final) d ( 55 58, 35, 41). 

203. A striking peculiarity in Av. is Epenthesis ( 70) and Anaptyxis 
( 72) and the frequent Reductions (samprasarana etc.) 63 seq. 


204. The voiceless spirants Av. , /, / are chiefly sprung 
from old tenues k, t, p before consonants; sometimes they represent 
old voiceless aspirates (77 seq.). 

Resum of principal Phonetic Laws. 6 1 

205. The original voiced aspirates gh, dh, bh fell primarily to- 
gether with the mediae in Av. ( 82). 

206. The voiced spirants Av. j, d, w are developments 
from these earlier two-fold mediae ( 83). 

207. Skt. j is often represented by Av. z ( 168). 

208. Skt. h is represented sometimes by Av. j, sometimes by 

Av. , ( 88, 169). 

209. Skt. s generally becomes h in Av. ( no seq.). 

210. Skt. as (internal) becomes avh, ah; or (final) d ( in 1 20). 

21 1. Av. as (internal) becomes (S//, ah; or (final) # ( 121 124). 

212. Skt. J is represented in Av. by j ( 146). 

213. Skt. sv is represented in Av. by sp ( 97). 

214. Skt. ch is represented in Av. by s ( 142). 

215. Dentals before dentals are changed to s in Av. ( 151). 

216. Av. z and s (= Skt. j) before voiceless consonants generally 

become / ( 164 166, 160). 

217. Skt. rt is often represented in Av. by / ( 163). 

2 1 8. Skt. kf is represented by Av. f or / ( 158 Note i). 



219. Nominal declension includes nouns and adjec- 
tives ; these may be conveniently taken together in Avesta 
and divided into two great classes of declension (a) the 
vowel class, and (b) the consonant class according as 
the stem ends in a vowel or in a consonant. 

For a summary of Avesta declension in a tabular form, 
see opposite page. 

220. Case, Number, Gender. The Avesta agrees 
with the Sanskrit in its eight cases, nominative, accusa- 
tive, instrumental, dative, ablative, genitive, locative, voca- 
tive; three numbers, singular, dual, plural; and in the 
three genders, masculine, feminine, and neuter. 

The uses of the cases are in general the same as in 
Skt, but see 233. The Av. dual is interesting as show- 
ing a distinct form for the locative case, see 223, 236, 262. 
In Avesta, a substantive has commonly the same gender 
that it has in Sanskrit. 

Note I. As to gender, however, some individual peculiarities occur, 
as a few words in Av. show a different gender from that which they 
have in Skt. : e. g. Av. vdc- (masc.) 'vox' = Skt. v&c (fern.) but observe 
the compound pa^tivac- is fern. ; Av. tarjna- (masc.) 'thirst 1 = Skt. tffV&- 
(fem.); Av. ea^ga- (masc.) 'leg' = Skt. jdvghd- (fern.); Av. sti- (fern.) 
'existence, creation' = Skt. sti- (masc.) This occasional phenomenon is 
sometimes important to observe in the matter of exegesis. 

Note 2. On fern, and neut. plur. forms interchanging with each other, 
see 232. 

Synopsis of declension of Nouns and Adjectives. 

B. Consonant Stems. 

A. Vowel Stems. 

3 35 
w *> d 
I 8.3. 

i g-* 

f 1* 

. 3 S 
5 w 

(C) Derivative ste 

(A) Stems withou 
(B) Derivative ste 

Stems in u and i 
Diphthongal stem 










r s 

1 3 

) CO 

r 5* 


5" -. 3 

JL 3 w 











^ a 5' 



cr P p cr 

Cfl W Jd C 













cr P 3 S' 
o. ' 

7$ D i 

- S 


" HI 








& 3 - * 



S 3 < 

r-*- ^ 






"' P 














2 ... g 

I 1 1 B 

B " " o 

5 5 ' 3 <g- 

f . . I' 

5- :* 




64 Inflection: Declension of Nouns and Adjectives. 

221. Endings. Here may be enumerated the nor- 
mal endings which are added to the stem in formation 
of the various cases. The stem itself, moreover, some- 
times varies in assuming these endings, as it often appears 
in a stronger form in certain cases, and in a weaker form 
in others. Connecting elements as in Skt. seem at times 
to be introduced between stem and ending. 

The normal endings (but observe 25, 26) are: 


Av. Singular: cf. SkL 

N. -S (-$), -S, 

A. -(a)m -(a)m 

I. -a -a 

D. -e -/ 

Abl. -(a)f -at 

G. (-as 9 ) -5; -s (-s); -he, -hyd .... -as; -s; -sya 

L. -i -* 



N.A.V. -a -d (Ved.) 

I.D.Abl.-j0 -bhydm 

G. -& -os 

L. ~o see gen. 


N.V.(-as") -5, d -as 

A. (-nr) t (-as) -d; d (-ns) -as 

I. -bis -bhis 

D. (-by as 9 ) -by 5 -bhyas 

G. -qm -dm 

L. -su, $u, hu -su 

ii. NEUTER (Separate Forms). 

Sg. N.A.V. , -m , -m 

Du. N.A.V. ,--* -i 

PL N.A.V. , -i -i 

Remarks on the Endings. 65 

General Remarks on the Endings. 

222. Singular: 

Nominative: The typical ending -s is disguised by entering into euphonic 
combinations with vowels and consonants ; it assumes especially 
often the form -/, 156. Often it is wanting e.g. cf. derivative 
stems in orig. 5 and t. 

Accusative: The typical ending -m appears after vowels; the ending 
3tn (= -am = -mm) after consonants. Cf. also 23. 

Instrumental: Regularly &, a, 25. This is sometimes disguised by 
combining with a preceding y to e, 67. The fern, ^-declension, 
as in Skt., shows a fuller form, making the case end in -aya (-ay a) 
beside the simpler normal form in a. 

Dative: YAv. -e (orig. -at), GAv. -g, -oi, 56. Notice of course Av. 
-ae-ca. In the 0-declension, the g (orig. af) unites with the stem 
vowel into 5,1, cf. Gr. <p, 60. The feminine derivative 5-stems 
and f-stems show a fuller ending ai, which in the 5-stems is pre- 
ceded by a y, as in Skt. also. 

Ablative: The typical ending is -/, or -(a)f (consonant decl.), -at (in 
0-decl.). Observe, this is not confined, as in Skt., simply to the a- 
declension, but appears in all the declensions (5, t, u and cons.). 
Instances of interchanges between -af and -/ are not infrequent. 
Observe before -ca, the form -aatca, 53 iv. The ending -(a)f is 
often followed by the enclitic postposition a, thus giving 
~(a)da.ln GAv., the /-ablative is found, as in Skt., only with the 
a-declension, e. g. fyHapraf, ak5(; otherwise, as in Skt., the genitive 
is used with ablative force. The feminine a- and f-stems, unlike 
the Skt., both show -Sf which in the <J-stems is preceded by y. 

Genitive: The common ending, as in Skt., is o, -asca; it occurs chiefly 
in the consonant declension. The ending, simple (s) /is also found, 
e. g. throughout the i- and -stems, the stem vowel being generally 
strengthened before it. In the a-stems, the ending -he (Skt. -sya, 
67), GAv. -hya, -fyaca (on 4 cf. 133) is regularly found. In 
feminine a- and J-stems a fuller ending -, -Asca (= Skt. Ss) is 
found , which in the 5-declension is preceded by y as in Skt. 
see dative above. 

Locative: The normal form, as in Skt., is -/. In the 0-declension, this 
coalesces with the stem vowel to -e, -ai-ca.^ Sometimes the loc. is 
without ending the stem being simply strengthened, e. g. cf. //-stems 
and some aw-forms. To the locative ending, an enclitic post- 
positive a is often attached , giving rise to forms in -ya (-aya), 


66 Inflection: Declension of Nouns and Adjectives. 

.^The feminine J-stems show -aya (perhaps orig. instr., or ya- 
suffix advl.) answering to Skt. -Oyam. 

Vocative: Commonly, simple stem without ending. Often the nom. 

stands instead of the vocative. 
223. Dual: 

Nom. Ace. Voc. : The prevailing form for the consonant and the a- 
declension is 5 (a), cf. Vedic Skt. a. The <f-stems show i (t). The 
masc. fern. /- and #-stem.s simply lengthen (then YAv., cf. 25 and 
Note, shorten) their stem vowels. 

Instr. Dat. A bl. : The normal ending in Av. is -bya (-bya). The form -byqm, 
which exactly corresponds to Skt. -bhyam, is only once found, in 
Av. brvafbyqm 'both brows'. Instead of YAv. -bya, the form written 
-we ( 67, 87) often appears. 

Genitive: Regularly-*, -tSsca answering to Skt. -6s a preceding vowel 
being treated as in Skt. 

Locative: The ending o occurs in zastayo (YAv.) from zasta- 'hand', in 
uboyo (GAv.) from uba- 'both', and avhvo (GAv.) Ys. 41.2 from 
avhu- 'world, life'. 
224. Plural: 

Nom. Voc.: The typical form orig. as occurs both in the vowel and the 
consonant classes of declension. But beside this, in the masculine 
of both classes the ending 5 (a) is common, especially in YAv. Its 
occurrence in the consonant, declension is probably due to borrow- 
ing from the fl-decl.^In the a-declension , the normal orig. -as 
unites, as iu Skt., with the stem vowel, thus giving -* (= orig. -as, 
124) which is, however, less common than the ending a (a). Often 
the a-stems have -&vho, cf. Vedic Skt. -asas. In the /-stems, the 
usual nom. pi., as in Vedic Skt., is -il instead of -yd, -yasca. 

Accusative: The original ending -us (seen in -qsca from a-stems) appears 
in the consonant stems as -o, -as (i. e. orig. -ns). Beside this, in the 
masculine of both classes the ending a (a} is found, cf. nom. above. 

In the rt-declension the normal orig. -us combines with the a of 
the stem into YAv. -q(n), -qsca, GAv. ~Sttg, -qsca sometimes also 
YAv. -3, -Jlca. The fern, a-stems show -<*, -&sca. The masc. fern. 
i- and w-stems show generally -//, -/. 

Instrumental: Everywhere the ending -bii, -t>i! ( 21 Note), except in 

the -stems which show -3ii. 
Dat. Abl. : The regular form is -tyo, -byasca, or written -wyO, -iyo, -uyo, 

83 (4), 87, 62 Note 3- 
Genitive: Universally -qui, which is often dissyllabic as in Vedic Skt. 

In the vowel stems an is usually inserted before this -qm. 

Remarks on the Endings, Cases and Forms. 67 

Locative: The normal form is -hu, -/u. To this ending, an enclitic 
postpositive a in YAv. is often attached, thus giving -hva, -fva, 
cf. Skt. v&nlfv S RV. 9.62.8. 

ii. NEUTER (Separate Forms). 

The neuter shows in general the same endings as the masculine. Its 
special forms, however, are worthy of note in the following cases: 

225. Singular: 

N o m. A c c. V o c. : In general no ending the case is simply the bare 
stem in its weak form, if the stem have a weak form. The a-stems 
have m as in the accusative masculine. 
226. Dual: 

Nom. Ace. Voc. : The ending orig. -t is to be recognized in the a-stems, 
where it is combined with the stem vowel preceding it, into e, e. g. 
duy-e sa't-e 'two hundred'. Sometimes the simple stem (or like 
nom. sing.) seems to be used, e. g. va, dqma Yt. 15.43, a $* ' two 
eyes' Yt. 11.2. 
227. Plural: 

Nom. Ace. Voc.: Commonly the ending is wanting i. e. the case-form 
is the simple stem, or if consonantal it is the strongest form of the 
stem (cf. afsmanivqn i. e. orig. "&nt ; or again man from cA-stem). 
Seldom the ending is -i: ndmini, cf. Skt. ndm&ni. Sometimes 
in the consonant declension , the endings -a, -A of the vowel CO- 
OT &-) declension are found, cf. 234, e. g. dagmSna, masana, 
malsma to stems dolman- 'eye, glance', masan- 'greatness', magsman- 
'urine', but see 308. 
228. General Plural Case. 

The plural in Av. occasionally shows a certain instability which is 
exhibited in the transfer or rather generalization of some of its case-forms. 
This is especially true of the neuter plural; and in general it may be 
added that the tendency to fluctuation increases in proportion to the late- 
ness of the text. See also, Johannes Schmidt, Pluralbildungen der indo- 
germanischen Neutra pp. 259 seq., 98 seq. 

229. (i) The instrumental plural in -6i?, -Si! is occasionally used 
in YAv. as general plural case, e.g. azdbiH (as ace. neut. Vd. 6.49) 
vlspHii (nom. Yt. 8.48), sragftaif (Yt. 22.9), fyrafstrai! (as ace. Ys. 19.2), etc. 
230. (2) The a-stems have also the neuter plural in q(n) some- 
times used as general plural case, see 308. 

231. (3) An ending -tf, -a? (like orig. fern, pi.) is sometimes 
employed in nouns and adjectives as general plural case, ace. as well 
as instr., e. g. GYAv. n&nUni:! (as ace.) Yt. x.u and (as instr.) Ys. 51.22 

68 Inflection : Declension of Nouns and Adjectives. 

= Ys. 15.2, \Av.afaoni? Vsp. 21.3, savav/ta'tl? Vd. 19.37; vaaAaf Vsp. 6.1, 
GAv. avavAa? (as instr.) Ys. 12.4, y&Mit Ys. 12.4. 

232. Interchange of Neuter with Feminine forms. 
Closely connected with this instability in the plural (espe- 
cially neuter) is the interchange between neuter and femi- 
nine forms, as the neuter plural (occasionally also the sin- 
gular) often shows the closest analogy to the feminine. 
Instances of this interchange are abundant, e.g. tf-decl. 
nmdnwi (nom. ace. sg. neut.) 'house', beside which nmana* 
(ace. pi., cf. fern.), nmdnahu (loc. pi., cf. fern.); aivrsm (nom. 
ace. sg. neut.) 'cloud', awrai (nom. pi., cf. fern.). aA-stem 
avawho (gen. sg.) 'of aid', GYAv. avafyyai (dat. sg. fern.). 
Similarly stem bar'zah- (neut.) beside bar'zd- 'height', et al. 
Adjective combinations ti$aro sata 'three hundred', vispdhu 
karvohu 'in all climes', ^rasca^tis Jvar'pm 'steaming viands'. 
See also, Johannes Schmidt, Pluralbildungen p. 29 seq. 

233. Interchange of cases in their functions. The 
cases in their usage are not always so sharply distinguished 
in YAv. as in Sanskrit. Sometimes a case may take upon 
itself the functions that belong properly to another, e. g. 
dative in genitive sense, etc. A discussion of the question, 
however, belongs to Syntax. 

234. Transition in Declension. Transfers of in- 
flection in parts of some words from one declension to 
another, especially in general from the consonant declen- 
sion to the rt-declension, are not infrequent in Avesta. A 
word may thus follow one declension in the majority of 
its cases, but occasionally make up certain of its forms 
quite after another declension. Examples are numerous 
and are of two kinds. 

(a) The simple unchanged stem is used, but given 
the endings of another declension much the commonest 
case, e.g. &temja*dyaitt- 'imploring' with dat. sg. jaidyaiit-di 
(tf-decl.) instead of *jaidyant-e; tacint-qm ace. sg. f., et al. 

Vowel Class: (i) Stems in a. 5Q 

(b) The stem itself is remodelled and made to con- 
form to another declension, thus really giving a new stem, 
e. g. sravah- 'word' with iristr. pi. sravdis (stem srava-} 
instead of *sravabis cf. gen. pi. sravawhqm. The case is 
much less common. 

235. Stem-gradation. In Avesta, as in Sanskrit 
cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 311 the stem of a noun or ad- 
jective, especially in the consonant declension, often shows 
vowel-variation, strongest, middle or strong, and weak 


a, a, , 

-ay-, -ay-, -i-; 

-du~, -ao-, -u-; 

-dr 3 -, -ar 3 -, -r-, -zr 3 -; 

-cant-, -znt-, -at- lnt]; 

-an-, -an-, -n-; etc. (cf. 60). 

The strong and strongest forms appear commonly in 
Singular Nom. Ace. Loc., in Dual Nom. Ace., and in 
Plural Nom., of the Masc. and Fern., and in the Plural 
Nom. Ace. of the Neuter. The remaining cases are weak, 
but there is much overlapping in this matter of stem- 
gradation. The distinctions are not always so sharply 
drawn as in Sanskrit. 

i. Stems in a. 

Masculine and Neuter (cf. Whitney, Skt. Grain. 330). 

236. Av. -ti*"ro yasna- m. 'worship, sacrifice' = Skt. 


Av. mazda-yasna-,* daiva-yasna-^ 'worshipper of Mazda, of 
Demons'; ahura- 'Lord, Ahura'; vlra- 'man'; haoma- 'haoma-plant'. 

1 The forms with e. g. "yasna are from mazda-yasna-, daiva-yasna-. 
The forms in parentheses do not actually occur, but are made up after 
the forms beside them so throughout below. 

70 Inflection: Declension of Nouns and Adjectives. 

Av. Singular: cf. Skt 

N. yasn-o ........... yajA-ds 

A. yasn-3m .......... yajA-din 

I. yasn-a ........... ya jA-d (Ved.) 

D. yasn-dt .......... yajA-dya 

G. yasn-ahe .......... yajA-dsya 

L. yesn-e l ........... ya jA-i 

V. (yasn-a) ahura ........ ydjn-a 

N.A.V. (yasn-a) vlra ........ yajA-d (Ved.) 

I.D.Abl. (yasn-aeibyd) viralibya ...... yajn-abhyam 

G. (yasn-aya)) viray& ..... . . yajti-dyos 

L. (yasn-ayo) zastayo ....... 

N.V. yasn-a ...... .... 

A. (yasn-aj haomq . . ...... yajA-itt 

I. yasn-ais .......... yajA-ais 

D.Abl. "yasn-aeibyo ......... yajA-tbhya* 

G. yasn-anqm ......... yajA-dnSm 

L. (yasn-ae$u) vtrag/u ....... yajA-tfU 

ii. NEUTER (Separate Forms). 
237. Av. vastra- 'garment' = Skt. vdstra-; Av. havuhar'na- 'jaw'. 

Av. cf. Skt. 

Sg. N.A.V. VttStr-am ......... vdstr-am 

Du. N.A.V. (vastr-e) havuhar'nc ...... vdstr-g 

PL N.A.V. vastr-a . ........ vdstr-a (Ved.) 

Forms to be observed in GAv. and YAv. 
238. In general, GAv. has the same forms as above, 
with long final vowel, cf. 26. 

1 cf. 34- 

Vowel Class: (i) Stems in a. 7j 

239. Singular: 

Nom. : YGAv. yasnas-ca. Quite late , the forms of nom. sg. in -a, -e 
Yt. I.8,l2seqq. and occasionally in the Vd. 

Ace. : YAv. also ma/im 'mortal' (i. e. -ya-tn, 63) ; dacum 'demon' (i. e. 
-va-m 63). GAv. also uiafi/ti 'mortal' (i.e. -ya-ni); also anylin, 
32, 29, beside a'ntm 'alium' ; fra$3m 'prone, ready'. 

Instr. : YAv. also haepaipe 'with own' (-e = -ya, 67). 

Abl. : YAv. yasnaa^-ca ( 53 iv). Also iniprada 'from Mithra' (-/-(-, 222) 
Yt. 10.42; sraoj&da'hom obedience'; Ji$aprada 'by the sovereignty' 
Ys. 9.4. Also hupa^(S( haca panvana} 'from well-drawn bow' 19. 

Gen. : YAv. vastryeke 'of a husbandman' ( 34). GAv. has only -hyd e. g. 
yasnahya, vastryehyS, or -fyya (before -ca 'que' 133) e. g. a$aJiyd-cd. 

Loc. : YAv. zqpae-ca 'and in birth' ( 55). With postpos. a 222, nm&naya 
'in the house' (-ae-\-a). Also (sporadic) ra'pya 'in a chariot' Yt. 17.17. 
Again (rare) ma'dyoi 'in medio' Vd. 15.47; but (often in com- 
pounds 56) wa'tfyvi. GAv. yesne, as above. Also (common) zqpoi 
'in birth' 56. 
240. Dual: 

N.A.V. : YAv. also (but not common) gavo 'both hands', yasko 'two sick- 
nesses', 42. 

I.D.Abl: YAv. also gao$cfaot beside gao$aiwe 'with both ears' ( 85, 67), 
padave 'with both feet' ( 87, 67). GAv. r&noiby& 'with both allies'. 

Gen. : YAv. havanay&s-ca 'of both haoma-mortars'. 
241. Plural: 

Nom. : YAv. also (not common) anif/tS 'immortals' (-<B = Skt. -3s). Ob- 
serve YAv. a^re 'Aryans' (~e -ya, 67). 

Ace.: \Av.yasnqs-ca; also daevqn 'Demons'. Sometimes yazatS 'divinities' 
( 33); daevSs-ca 'and Demons'. Again like nom. yazata 'divinities', 
mqprA 'words'. GAv. (regularly) majying /mortals' ; also yasnqs-cS 
'and sacrifices'. Like nom. (rare) mqpr& 'words'. 

Instr. : YAv. also (rare) a/rivanae'biZ 'with blessings'. 

Dat. Abl. : YAv. mazdayastialibyas-ca. GAv. also yasnoi/>yu 'with sacrifices'. 

Gen.: YAv. also (isolated) niajy&nqm 'of mortals' (&). Occasionally without 
inserted n var'sqm 'of hairs' (qm for anqm), sufirqw, m&prqm. 

Loc. : GAv. (only ti) ma/yaffii 'among mortals'. 

U. NEUTER (Separate Forms). 
242. Plural: 

N.A.V. : YAv. also vastra (a-decl., 232). 
Loc. : YAv. also nman&hu 'in houses' (<J-decl., 232). 

72 Inflection : Declension of Nouns and Adjectives. 

2. Stems in a. 

Feminine (cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 364). 
243. Av. --M-I^ daend- f. 'conscience, religion'. 

Av. urvara- 'tree', grtvtt- 'neck', nS'riktt- 'woman', gaps- 'hymn'. 

A. Derivative Stems in a. 

Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

N. daen-a .......... sin-s 

A. daen-q,m .......... sin-am 

I. daen-aya .......... sin-aya. 

D. daen-aydi ......... sin-nyiu 

Abl. (daen-aydf) urvaraySf ...... see gen. 

G. daen-aym ... ...... stn-aySs 

L. (daen-aya) grlvaya ....... sin-SySm 

V. daen-e .......... 


N.A.V. (daen-e) urvaire ........ sin-g 

I.D.Abl.(daen-dfya) vqfnuabya ...... sin-abhyUm 

G. (daen-aym) nairikaya ' ...... stn-ayds 

N.V. daen-00 .......... sin-as 

A. daen-d) .......... stn-5s 

I. daen-dbls ......... 

D.Abl. daen-dbyo ......... 

G. (daen-anqm) urvaranqm ..... sin-SnSm 
L. (daen-dku) uruar&hu ...... stn-dsu 

-dhva g&pahva ....... 

Forms to be observed in GAv. and YAv. 
244. In general, GAv. has the same forms as above, 
with the long final vowel, cf. 26. 

245. Singular: 
Nom. : YAv. also na're 'manly' (fern, adj., -e = -ya, 67) = Skt. ndryd. 

1 See Haug, Zand-Pahlavi Glossary p. 100 1. 23. 

Vowel Class : (2) Stems in &, yi 

Again some adjs. and nouns, like the pronominal declension, have 
-e for ~a: Av. na'rike (nom.) beside n&rika 'woman', apir'n&yUke 
'maiden', ptr'ne 'plena' beside ace. pfr'nqm. Ghv. also bir'fydl 
'dear, welcome 1 . 

Instr. : YAv. also daina. Also (isolated) suwrya 'with a ring* beside ace. 
suwrqm, cf. Skt. SubhrayS, subhrdm. GKv. daena; also sSsnayS 
'by command'. 

Dat. : YAv. also (rare) gaepydi 'for the world 1 Ys. 9.3 seq. 

Abl. : In GAv. wanting its place supplied by gen. 

Gen.: YAv. dainay&s-ca 124 Note. GAv. (exceptional) vairy& Ys. 43.13 
from vairya- 'desirable' (for Tjairyay& 194 trissyllable). 

Voc. : GAv. po*rucista 'O Pourucista', spen,ta 'O holy one'. 
246. Dual: 

Ace.: YAv. (rare) vqpwa 'flocks' (a-decl.). 
247. Plural: 

N.A.V. : YGAv. dalntSs-ca. 

Dat. (Abl.) : YAv. urvar&byas-ca 'and from trees'. Also gaep&vyd 'from 
beings', voijn&uyo 'from plagues' Ys. 6$. 13, 62 Note 3. Again 
(but uncommon) hatnSbyd 'from hosts' Yt. 10.93 (analogy to the 
following word draomSbyo). 

Gen. : YAv. (not common) j'nqnqm 'of woman' (-q- 45). Without in- 
serted n (-qm for -anqm) nS>rikqm 'of woman'. 

Loc. : GAv. (only -Ati) adSha 'in rewards'. 

B. Radical Steins in a. 

248. Stems with radical a, so far as they have not 
gone over to the ordinary a, a declension, are represented 
by a few forms (a) masculine and neuter, (b) feminine. 

(i) Masculine and Neuter (cf. Lanman , Noun Inflection in the Veda 

p. 443 seq.). 

249. Declension of Av. ra^agjftS- m. 'warrior standing in chariot' 
= Skt. rathgf(hd- (part of its forms, however, are from the stem rapai$tar- t 
cf. Skt. savylf(hdr-). The forms from radical rafae-ft&- are: Singular. 
Nom. rafagjft<B; Ace. rapagitqm; Dat. rapoiSte (cf. Skt. dhiyq-dht, and on 
oi cf. 56), rapalilSi (a-decl., cf. Skt. rathlfthdyd); Gen. rapae$t&. 
Plural. Ace. rapalSt&s-cH. 

Note I. The forms from stem rafialStar- are enumerated at 330. 

Note 2. Similar, dat. sg. n e u t. pdi 'for protecting' ; cf. also vti. 

74 Inflection: Declension of Nouns and Adjectives. 

(ii) Feminine (cf. Whitney, S&t. Gram. 351). 
250. Here belong a few forms : Singular. Nom. /< 'joyous', 
&k& 'judgment'; Ace. tnqm 'measure' Vd. 5.61; Yt. 5.127; Instr. jya 'with 
bowstring'. Plural. Nom. jytS 'bowstrings'. 

3. Stems in i and *. 

Masculine, Feminine and Neuter (cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 339, 364). 

A. Derivative Stems in original i. 


251. Av. .A'*>c gairi- m. 'mountain' = Skt. girt-. 

Av. a$ti- {. 'sickness', fa'tiftd'ti- f. 'opposition','li- m. 
'lord of house', acpra.paiti- m. 'teacher', aSi- f. 'Rectitude, Blessing', 
afi- n. 'eye'. 

Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

N. gair-is fir-is 

A. gair-im gir-im 

I. (g&r-i) atyi gir-t (Ved.) 

D. (gar-Je) paitm&tse gir-Ayl 

Abl. gar-oif see gen. 

G. gar-ois s ir-is 

L. gar-a gir-d (Ved.) 

V. (g&r-e) nm&nd.pafte gir-i 

-i aJi 


N.A.V. (gdir-i) alpra.paHi gir-t 

I.D.Abl. (g&r-ibya) aSibya gir-MySm 

N. gar-ayo gir-dyas 

A. gair-tS gir-in m., -Is f. 

D.Abl. gair-ibyo . gir-ibhyo 

G. galr-inqm . . . gir-i^dm 

H. NEUTER (Separate Forms). 
252. Av. fiti'ri- n. 'richness', zarapuStri- (adj.) 'Zoroastrian'. 

Sg. N.A.V. bitir-i cf. Skt. bh&r-i 

PI. N.A.V. (bwr-i) zarapuStri bh&r-i 

Vowel Class: (3) Stems in / and i. jr 

Forms to be observed in GAv. and YAv. 

253. In general, GAv. has the same forms as above, 
with the long final vowel, cf. 26. 
254. Singular: 

Ace. : In metrical passages , -im (cf. 23) is sometimes dissyllabic , cf. 
Geldner, Metrik p. 15. 

Dat. : YAv. paitiittitayae-ca 'and for withstanding'. GAv. has -aydi (= YAv. 
-aye- 56) e. g. afytoydi 'for sickness' (on o see 39 Note). Also 
from weak stem GAv. pafpyat-cli (YAv. paipe Yt. 17.58) 'and to the 
husband' = Skt. pdtyl, cf. Lanman , Noun Inflection p. 400. Also 
inf. GAv. mru*t2 'to speak', stdi 'for being', YAv. sti 'for being', 
taroidlt: and taroiditi 'for despising'. 

Abl. : In GAv. wanting i. e. its place supplied by gen. 

Gen. : YAv. seldom &hity<& 'of sickness' (like f-decl., but variant Shitayaf). 

Also darjyoiS 'of daring' Yt. 14.2. 
Loc. : YAv. likewise garo 'on the mountain' Vd. 21.5 = Skt. girSu (on o 

see 42). GAv. regularly vid&ta 'at the judgment*. 

255. Plural: 

Norn. : YAv. also (from strongest stem) staomSyd 'praises'. 
Ace.: YAv. also (-tf for -?/, 21 Note i) tftijf-ca 'and wishes' et al. Also 

(from middle stem) garayd. GAv. also (from middle stem) drmatayd 

likewise (with -W) ujfttjf 'desires'. 
Gen. : YAv. also (from weak stem without inserted ) kaoyqm (i. e. *kav- 

y-qm, 224) 'of Kavis'. 

256. Observe also the declension of hafyi- m. 'friend' 
= Skt. sdkhi-, cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 3433. Strong 
stem -ay-, mid. st. -ay-, wk. st. -y-. 

Singular. Nom. ha^a ; Ace. ha^Him (i.e.-Syfnt, 65) Ys. 46.13; 
Instr. haja ( 162); Dat. hale. Dual. N.A.V. haja. Plural. Nom. 
hafyayo, ha^aya; Ace. hafyayo, hafyaya; Gen. /ia/qm ( 162). 

Note. Transfers from the /-declension to the a-declension 
occur: e.g. from Av. vi- m. 'bird' = Skt. vl- t Du. Instrum. vayaeibya. 
PL Abl. vayaeibyas-ca ; Gen. vayanqm (beside the regular i-decl. forms vif, 
vi! nom. sg. Yt. 13.3; Vd. 2.42; vayo nom. pi. and vayqm gen. pi.). 

76 Inflection : Declension of Nouns and Adjectives. 

, B. Derivative Stems in original z. 
(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 364.) 


257. Av. .j>"Q" a$aoni- fern, to asavan- 'righteous'. 

Av. tr'jaiti- f. 'dark, dreadful' (>r'jant-), bar'pn- f. 'bearer, mother', 
ffaont f. 'fatness', SzizanS'ti f. 'giving birth', %?aj>ri- f. 'female'. 

Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

N. a$aon-i .......... d*v-t 

A. a$aon-im .......... dtv-im 

I. (a$aon-ya) trja'tya ....... dlv-yd 

D. a$aon-yai ......... dtv-ysi 

Abl. (a$aon-yd) l>arprya{ ...... see gen. 

G. a$aon-ym .......... div-yds 

L. a$avan- a ya (f) 1 ....... dev-ytm 

V. a$aon-i .......... div-i 

N.A.V. (afaon-t) J$aoni ........ dev-i (Ved.) 

I.D.Abl. (a$aon-ibya) fjaonifya ...... dev-ibhyam 

Plural : 
N. a$aon-is .......... div-is (Ved.) 

A. a$aon-is .......... div-is 

I. (ajjaon-iblS) azizananibiS ..... dtv-tbhis 

D.Abl. a$aon-ibyo ......... dev-tbhyas 

G. a$aon-inqm ......... div-in&ni 

L. (a<[aon-i$U) /ijapriju ....... dSv-tfu 

Forms to be observed in GAv. and YAv. 
258. In general, GAv. has the same forms as above, 
with the long final vowel, cf. 26. 
259. Singular: 

On varying t, i see 21 Note i. 
Norn. : GAv. has a}aum Ys. 53.4. 

Instr. : So GAv. vavhttyd 'with good', vaheliyd 'with better', and ma'iiya 
'with thought', cf. Dat. mahiyai Ys. 43.9. 

1 Yt. 5.54, uncertain, cf. 68 Note 3. 

Vowel Class: (4) Stems in u and v. jj 

Gen. : YAv. drvaty&s-ca 'and of the wicked* (fern.) ; also astva'jbyo 'of the 

corporeal' (according to cons. decl.). 
Voc. : YAv. sometimes (e according to /-decl.): agaone; ahurant 'O Ahuran'. 

260. Plural: 
Norn. Ace.: YAv. also -li (cf. 21 Note) barj^tiS 'bearing' Yt. 8.40, fyrvi- 

fye'tiJ! 'havocking, bloody' Yt. 10.47. Also (like Skt. dlvyas) tiStryenyo, 

tijtryenyas-ca 'wives of Tishtrya'. 
Gen. : YAv. vavuhlnqm 'of the good' (observe f) is sometimes written. 

C. Radical Stems in original z. 

Feminine Nouns and Adjective Compounds m. f. n. (cf. Whitney, Skt. Gr. 

35'- 352). 

261. Here belong a few words chiefly monosyllables mostly mere 
roots: Singular. Norn. byr*zai-dis 'high-spirited', Wl'-jiS 'right-living' ; Ace. 
yaval-jim 'ever-living' ; Instr. sraya 'by beauty' ; Dat. yr f S'-JyHi 'for the right- 
living' ; Gen. sraytB 'of beauty', tySyO, fyjtayas-ca 'of destruction' ; Loc. ayaoz- 
dya (?) 'in impurity'. Plural. Nom. fryo 'blessings'; Ace. var$a-ji3 (m.) 
'buds', yavae-jyo 'ever-living' ; Dat. yavai-jibyo. 

4. Stems in u and . 

Masculine, Feminine and. Neuter (cf. Whitney, Skt. Gr. 341, 364). 

A. Derivative Stems in original u. 


262. Av. -))"*$ m&nyu- m. 'Spirit' = Skt. manyu-. 

Av. zaytu- m. 'tribe', rajtnu- m. 'justice', vavhu- 'good', pasu- m. 
'small cattle', avAu- m. 'life', bar$nu- f. 'head, top', gStu- m. 'place, bed'. 

Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

N. mainy-U$ ......... many-us 

A. wainy-um ........ many-urn 

I. \Qna i ny-U) zayfu ....... many-tins, -vS 

D. m&ny-ave ........ many-dve 

Abl. inainy-aof ........ see gen. 

f ma'nv-ms ........ } 

(j. v } many-os 

-aos ra$nao$ ...... J 

L. (mainy-du) va//Su (GAv.) .... many-ati 

V. ma*ny-o ......... mdny-o 

78 Inflection: Declension of Nouns and Adjectives. 

Av. Dual: cf. Skt. 

N.A.V. mainy-ii, -u ........ many-a 

I.D.Abl. (m&ny-ubya) pasubya ..... many-ubhy&m 

G. ma'ni-VO> 1 ........ many-vos 

L. (malni-vo) avkvo (GAv.) ..... 


Plural : 

N. (ntdiny-aVO) barjnavd ..... many-dvas 

A. (m&ny-US) barSnut ...... many-tin m., -/ f. 

D.Abl. (mainy-ubyd) g&tubyo ..... many-ubhyas 

G. (ntainy-Unqm.) zaqtunqm .... many-unam 

L. (ma'ny-UfU) vavhu$u ..... many-ufu 

H. NEUTER (Separate Forms). 

263. Av. vohu- 'good' = Skt. vdsu-. cf. Skt. 

Sg. N.A.V. Voh-U .......... vds-u 

PL N.A.V. Voh-U .......... vds-u, -u 

Forms to be observed in GAv. and YAv. 
264. In general, GAv. has the same forms as above, 
with the long final vowel, cf. 26. 

265. Singular: 
Norn. : YAv. also (from strongest stem) ujra.bazaus 'strong-armed' Yt. 10.75; 

dar*jdJ>&zau3 'long-armed' Yt. 17.22. 
Ace. : YAv. also (from strongest stem) nasSum (i. e. -avtm, 65) 'corpse', 

gar'm&um 'heat' ; again (from strong stem) da'yhaom (i. e. -avtnt, 

64) 'nation, country'. 
Instr. : Less common instr. (weak stem -}~) ending 5: YA. Ipajnua, GAv. 

fyrapwa 'by wisdom' ; YAv. ptr'pwa Vd. 9.2 ; GAv. cici]rw& 'through 

the wise one' = Skt. cikitvd (fr. cikitu-}. Also (orig. gen. or cf. 

39) YAv. \rm,drvo 'with spear of havoc 1 ; rajnvd 'with Rashnu' 

Yt. 14-47- 
Dat. : YAv. also (from weak stem) rajrwe, rapwai-ca 'to the Master' ; 

observe (also from weak stem) YAv. avuhe (i. e. orig. *asv-t) 'for 

1 See 68 b, 62. 

Vowel Class : (4) Stems in and tf. 70 

life' Ys. 55.2, GAv. ahuyS (i. e. orig. *asu-v-e, 190) 'for life' Ys. 41.6. 
Observe also GAv. haetaove variant kaelaoe Ys. 53.4 beside hae- 
tuve Ys. 46.5, cf. YAv. variant baetaoe beside kaetave 'for kindred' 
Ys. 20.1, cf. 61. 

Abl. : In GAv. wanting i. e. its place is supplied by the gen. as in Skt. 

Gen. : (a) Also (from strongest stem) YAv. baz&uS 'of the arm', GAv. mtr'pyau^ 
'of death'. Again (from strongest stem -}-) ending o: YAv. nasavo 
'of a corpse'; and (from weak stem -\- v) YAv. rajnud 'of the Master 1 . 

(b) The interchange in the gen. ending -//, -aol is connected 
perhaps with an original difference of accent: e. g. observe Av. 
vavhyuj, avhSuH = Skt. vasds, dsds (unaccented ultima), and Av. 
tayaoX, gar'naoi = Skt. tayos , gfdhnos (accented ultima) et al. 
Exceptions depend perhaps upon a shift of the accent. 

Loc. : (a) The above loc. in -&u is Gatha locative, cf. also Ys. 62.6 vavhau 
(Gatha reminiscence). Similarly, GAv. p3r*t& 'at the bridge' Ys. 51. 13 ; 
grafts 'in judgment' Ys. 48.4. The regular YAv. loc. is formed in o 
(weak stem -}- o, orig. gen.?), e. g. ahmi zatitvo 'in this tribe' Ys. 9.28, 
g&tvo 'on a couch', datyhvo 'in the country', avhvd 'in the world'. 

(b) Observe Vsp. 12.5 daiyho = Skt. ddsyau, cf. 42 (but see 
variants), Av. halto 'at the bridge' = Skt. s$t&u; Av. var'taf$d Vd. 8.4 

and GAv. ptr'to Ys. 51.12. With postpositive a and strong 
stem: YAv. anhava 'in the world' Yt. 6.3; gatava 'in place' Ys. 65.9. 

Voc. : YAv. occasionally ralvd 'O Master', yr'zvo 'O righteous one', rafmw 

'O Rashnu, Justice'. 
266. Dual: 
I.D.Abl. : YAv. also b&zuwe 'with both arms', cf. 67, 85 a. 

267. Plural: 

Norn. : YAv. also with ending a, 224 (from strong stem) gdlava 'couches'. 
With regular ending u (from strongest stem) nasSvo 'corpses', (from 
weak stem) pasvas-ca 'small cattle'. Observe Yt. 14.38'ttyuJ 
'enemies' (nom. pi.). 

Ace. : YAv. also (-/, 21 Note i) barSnuS 'heights' ; /ar/ 'many' Yt. 8.49; 
datyhu:! 'countries' Yt. 8.9. Again with ending a, 224 (from strong 
stem) bari$nava. Ending d like nom. (from strongest stem) nasfivo 
'corpses', (from strong stem) gStavd 'places', (from weak stem) pasvo 
'small cattle'. 

Dat. Abl.: YAv. hinuhvyo 'from fetters' Yt. 13.100 = Yt. 19.86. 

Gen. : YAv. also (without inserted w) vavhvqm 'of the good', rafnvqm 'of 
Masters'; y&pwqm 'of sorcerers'. Observe the variant -Onqm for-unqm 
( 21 Note i) occurs, e.g. variant vohunqm Ys. 65.12 etc. 

Loc. : GAv. (only -) poru}tt 'among people'. 

80 Inflection: Declension of Nouns and Adjectives. 


268. Plural: N.A.V. YAv. with a: asra 'tears'. Also zanva 
knees' occurs. Observe & in asra 'tears' Yt. 10.38, cf. 25 Note. 

269. Occasional transfers to the a-declension are found: 
e. g. Sg. Gen. gatvaht 'of the place'; Dat. hiikuai 'for the dry'. 

270. Declension of Av. da'yAu-, dafyyu- f. 'nation, country', cf. 
Skt. ddsyu- 135, 133: Singular. Norn, daiyhui; Ace. da'yhaom (i. e. 
-avjm 64), dafyani (GYAv.); Instr. da'yhu ; Dat. da'yhave; Abl. da'yhaof; 
Gen. daiyhiui (YAv.), daJiySuH (GAv.) ; Loc. Ja'fAvo.'Diial. Norn, da'yhu 
(Yt. 10.8,47), daliyu (Yt. 10.107). Plural. Norn. Voc. da'yhavo, da'yhavo ; 
Ace. tta'fAuif, daiyhavo; Gen. dafyyunqm (GYAv.). 

B. Derivative Stems in original it. 

(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 356.) 

These are not sharply to be distinguished from A in 
Avesta, nor are they numerous. As example may be taken 


271. Av. -w^ro tanu- f. 'body' = Skt. tanu-. 

Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

N. tan-US .......... tan-As 

A. tan-vam (GAv.), tan-um (GYAv.) . tan-vam, tan-Am 

I. tan-va l .......... tan-vd 

D. tan-uye (GYAv.) ...... tan-vt 

Abl. tan-vat .......... see gen. 

G. tan-VO .......... tan-vas 

N.A. tan-VO .......... tan-vas 

I. (tan-ubtS) hizubiS (GAv.) ..... tan-Abhis 
D.Abl. tan-ubyo ......... tan-Abhyas 

G. tan-unajn ......... tan-AnSm 

L. tan-UfU .......... tan-Afu 

Forms to be observed in GAv. and YAv. 
272. Metrically, the v in tanvSm etc. is to be re- 
solved into u as in Sanskrit. 

1 See Aogamadaica 48 p. 25 ed. W. Geiger. 

Vowel Class: (5) Diphthongal Stems. gj 

273. Singular: 

Dat. : Observe tanvag-ca Haug, Zand-Pahlavi Glossary p. 52. 9. 
Abl. : YAv. also tanao/ like a-decl. 

Gen.: G(Y)Av. tanvas-cif; also GAv. hizv& 'of the tongue' 5.45.1, cf. 
Skt. vadltvas. 

274. Plural: 
N.A.V. : YAv. tanvas-ca. 

C. Radical Stems in original . 

Masculine Nouns and Adjective compounds (cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 
355 c end, 352.) 

275. Here belong a very few root words : Singular. Nom. (with- 
out j) ahu (GAv.) , ahu (YAv.) 'Lord' ; Syu (neut. GAv.) 'duration' ; Ace. 
ahum.' Plural. Ace. avhvas-ca (GAv.). Similarly (nom. sg. without s) 
apfr'ttayti 'youth', framru or *mr& 'pronouncing'. Add dative -buye 'to 

276. Declension of yu n. 'duration, ever': Singular. Instr. (adv.) 
yava (YAv.), yava (GAv.) ; Dat. yave, yaval-ca (YAv.), yavi or yaovg, yavoi 
(GAv.); Gen. ySui. 

5. Diphthongal Stems. 

(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 360 seq.) 

i. Stems in ai. 
277. Av. rdi, rae- f. 'splendor' = Skt. rdi-. 

Singular. Ace. ragm (i. e. ray-im 64); Instr. raya. Plural. 
Ace. rayo (GAv.), also raii-ca (YAv. 64 Note); Gen. rayqm. 

ii. Stems in an. 
278. Av. gdu~, gao- m. f. 'cow' = Skt. gdii-. 

Singular. Nom. (Voc.) gau$, gao$; Ace. gqm, or rare gaum, gaom 

(i. e. gav-tm 64, 65); Instr. ga-va; Dat. gave (YAv.), gavoi (GAv.); 

Abl. gao^; Gen - g }u *' DuaL N.A.V. gava (GAv.); Gen. gav&. 

Plural. Nom. gavo 1 ; Ace. g&; Instr. gaobii; Gen. gavqm. 

Note. Similarly Sg. Nom. AiflluS, Ace. hi]>qm 'ally' Ys. 48.7, 34.10. 

1 See Aogemadaeca 84 p. 28 ed. W. Geiger. 

82 Inflection : Declension of Nouns and Adjectives. 

6. (A) Stems without Suffix. 

Root-words and those inflected like them. 

Masculine, Feminine and Neuter (cf. Whitney, SAt. Gr. 383, 391). 

279. Av. -iv^ vis- f. 'village' = Skt. vis-. 

Av. spas- m. 'spy', amtr'tSf- f. 'Immortality', ast- n. 'bone', n5s- 

Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

N.V. (VIS) spa! vi( 

A. VIS-MI -. . . vis-am 

I. VlS-a vis-a 

D. vis-e vis-t 

Abl. Vis-af see gen. 

G. VIS-O . vis-ds 

L. VlS-i vis'-i 


N.A.V. (VZS-a) anarnsta vis-Su 

I.D.Abl. (yizi-byd) anur'tadbya vij-b/iyilm 

G. (VIS-CO) amtr'lata vii-os 

Plural : 

N.V. (vis-5) sfaso vis-as 

A. Vis-0 vis-as 

I. (yizi-blS) azdibrt vi^-bhis 

D. Vizi-byd vij-Myds 

G. Vis-qm vis-am 

L. (VI$U) ,,S/u (GAv.) vik-sn 

Forms to be observed in GAv. and YAv. 
280. In general, GAv. has the same forms as above, 
with the long final vowel, cf. 26. 

281. Singular: 
Norn.: GYAv. drufi 'Fiend' 192, ha*rvatas 'Perfection, Salvation' (-/as 

i.e. -tat-s 192); abtr's title of priest (-/-f- J ), Nirangistan. 

Ace.: YAv. also drujim 'Fiend' (-/'/ = -jm 30). GAv. also drujim 

30 and kt/irpim 'body' (-3- 32). 

Consonant Gass: (6) Stems without Suffix. 83 

Dat. : YAv. yavaSt&tal-ca 'and for eternity '. GAv. also (-oi more common 
than -l 56) mazdi 'for the great'. 

Abl. : In GAv. wanting i. e. its place supplied by the gen. as in Skt. 

Gen. : GAv. also mazS 'of the great 1 (-/ = orig. -as 32). 

Loc. : YAv. also aipya 'in water' (a'pi -\-a 222), uHtataHya 'in the word 
ufta' (t&iti -\- a 222). GAv. has simply t: am3rta'ti 'in Im- 
282. Dual: 

I.D.Abl. : Solitary YAv. brvaflyqm 'both brows'. 
283. Plural: 

Nom. Ace.: YAv. also (with ending -a 224) vSca, vaca. Neut. pi. ace. 
asti 'bones' Yt. 13.11 (variant asta, but see 283 Note). 

Loc. : GAv. as above nSfa and ( 26 Note) na//u-c 'among descendants'. 
Note. Transfers to the a-decl. are numerous: e.g. Sg. Nom. 

hvar.dar's-6 'sun-like', Skt. svar-dfi ; Ace. (neut.) ast-tm 'bone* ; Abl. vtsSf 

or visada 'from a village' Yt. 13.49. PI. Ace. (neut.) asta 'bones'; Loc. 

like <5-decl. bar'zahu 'on the heights'. 

With stem-gradation (Strong and Weak). 
Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 385 seq. 

284. The strong and weak forms are distinguished 
byavariation in the quantity of the stem-vowel (as 
long or short) or by its elision, again by the presence 
(strong) or absence (weak) of a nasal. For examples see 
the following declensions. 

285. (i) Declension of Av. vaklc- m. Voice, word' 
(strongest stem -a-, strong -a-) = Skt. vdklc- f. (no vowel 
variation), cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 391 : 

Singular. Nom. valfi; Ace. vaam, v&cim; Instr. vaca; Gen. vaco 
(Ys. 31.20). Dual, vaj&bya-c a. Plural. Nom. -vaco, vaca (ending a 
cf. vowel decl. 224); Ace. vSco, vacas-ca, vaca; Dat. Abl. vSjtf- 
byd; Gen. vacqm. 

Note, (a) The dat. du. and pi. (pada-endings) seem to derive their 
3 (i) from the nom. sg. va$. (b) Observe the form va$ as gen. Ys. 8.1. 

286. (ii) Declension of Av. ap- f. 'water' (strongest 
stem dp-, strong stem ap-} = Skt. dp- f. (stems dp-, ap-} 
Whitney, Skt. Gram. 393: 

84 Inflection : Declension of Nouns and Adjectives. 

Singular. Nom. S/J; Ace. Bptm, apn-ca 19; Instr. apa-ca ; 

Abl. apaf, ap8a(-ca (a-decl.); Gen. apd, apas-ca, Spo; Loc. a'pya 

(~i-\-a 222). Dual. Spa, ape (Gah 4.5 <f-decl.). Plural. Nom. 

apo, apas-ca 19; Ace. apo, apas-ca, &po\ Dat. a'wyd; Gcn.apqni. 

Note. The dat. pi. a'u'yo is for orig. *nM/iyds 186. 

287. (iii) Declension of anc- stems (cf. Whitney, 
Skt. Gram. 408, 409): 

Singular. Nom. frqf 'forward' ; Ace. "nyaniain 'down' ; Instr. 
fraca (? Yt. 10. nS/rata Siti [\fi- -\- S] cf. Skt. praca), tarasca 'across', 
cf. Skt. tirasca instr. advbl. ( Whitney 309 d ) , paivqitca 'ad- 
vancing' ; etc. 

288. Av. pap- m. 'path' = Skt. path- belongs partly 
here and partly under tf-stems 310 which see. 

7. (B) Derivative Stems in ant, mant, 

Participial Adjectives and Possessi ves (see Bartholomae, in A'.Z. 
xxix. p. 487 seq. = Flexionslehre p. 68 seq. Whitney, Skt. Grain. 441 seq., 

452 seq.) 

289. This subdivision of consonant stems includes: 
(i) participial (and adjective) stems in ant; and (ii) pos- 
sessive adjective stems in mant, -vant. They are mascu- 
line and neuter; the corresponding feminine is made in 
a^n)^-' The stem shows vowel-gradation, strong stem 
ant, weak stem at (from nt; also GAv. at, see 18 Note). 

290. As to stem-gradation, (i) the adjective ant- 
stems generally show at in the weak (= Skt. weak) cases, 
(2) the participial (thematic) #;^-stems show ant in almost 
all forms. (3) The mant-, z/rt^-stems agree with the ad- 
jective stems in showing at in the weak cases. A number 
of interchanges, however, between all three occur 
these interchanges are found chiefly in YAv. e. g. dat. du. 
ber'zanbya (from str. st.) Ys.; 3.13. 


291. (i) Adjective, Av. -to^f^Aj bwzant- 'great' 
= Skt. brhdnt- ; (2) Participial, Av. -top""^ f$uyant- 

Consonant Class: (7) Derivative Stems in ant, ma%t, vaqt. 85 

'thrifty, raising cattle'; (3) Possessive, Av. - 
astvatit- 'possessing bones, corporeal' ; .^^^ 
(GAv.) 'belonging to the Druj, follower of Satan'. 

(l 2) a#/-stems: Av. hartt- 'being'; stavaqt- 'praising'; 
'hating' ; afaofi/ayaqt- 'increasing Righteousness' ; (3) marit-, vaqt- 
s terns: drgva*it- (GAv.), drvaqt (YAv.) 'belonging to the Druj', 
pw&varil- 'like thee', awavayi- 'mighty', satava^t- 'hundred-fold', 
po*rumatit- 'multitudinous', dacvavarit- 'belonging to the Daevas', 
t- 'wise-in-heart'. 

(a) aqt-Stems. 

(i) Adjective. (2) Participial. 
AT; ^ Singular: cf. Skt. 

j /. tor'z-o ^> 

N. 2.f$uy-q,s 

-CIS siav-as 
A. bWZ-CUlt-am . ...... bfh-antam 

I. tor'z-ata ........ brh-ata 

( i. bar'z-aite ........) 

D. , v \brh-att 

\ 2.f$uy-ante ....... . J 

| /. (for's-ataf) ........ ) 

ADl. - v t see gen. 

I 2^$uy-a%t($) pifyaitfat ..... I 

f /. for'z-ato , ........ \ 

Cr. { _ v _> \brh-atds 

\ 2.fuy-a*ito ........ J 

V. ber'z-a ......... bfh-an 


N.A.V. bsr'z-arita ........ 4r4-<fo/* (Ved.) 

I.D.Abl. 7. bzr'z-anbya ........ brh-adbhySm 

G. 2. (f$uy-atlt&) ajao$/ayavt<B . 

N.V. bsr'z-aiitd 
A I/, (bwz-ato) hato 

" \ /., ._ ( brh-alas 

\ 2.f$uy-atito ........ I 

I. (bar'z-adbis) 

. ( i. (bar'z-adbyo) 

D.Abl. /. brh-adbhya* 

\ 2. 

86 Inflection: Declension of Nouns and Adjectives, 

f /. bar'z-atqm , ...-...) 

G. \brh-atim 

I 2. (f$Uy-atltqm) ^ifya^tqin . . . . ) 

L. (btr'z-asu) ffuyasu (GAv.) . . bfh-dtsu 
(b) maitf-, vatit-Stems. 

(3) Posse ssives. 

Singular: cf. Skt. 


N. j " -vqs 




A. ast-vatltdtn bhdga-vantam 

I. (_ast-Vat a) satavata bh&ga-vatO. 

D. ast-Vaite bhdga-vate 

Abl. ast~vatat see gen. 

G. ast-vato bhdgawtas 

( ast-va^fiti ) 

L,. < . . \bhdga-vati 

\ -tna l tl po u ruma'ti j 

V. (ast-VO) drvo bhaga-van 


N.V. dr9g-vailto bhdga-vantas 

A. dr3g-vatO bhdga-vatas 

I. dr9g-vod'bls and daevavafbzS . . bhdga-vadbhis 

D.Abl. drag-vod'byd and cazdotivhvad'byo bhdga-vadMyas 

G. drag-vatqm bh&ga-vat&m 

L. drag-vasu bhdga-vatsu 

H. NEUTER (Separate Forms). 
292. Av. hayl- 'being', astvaqt- 'corporeal', a/smanivatfi- 'metrical'. 

Sg. N.A.V. (a) ha{ (b) ast-vaf . . c f. Skt. bhdga-vat 
PL N.A.V. afsmani-vqn . . bhdga-vanti 

Forms to be observed in GAv. and TAv. 

293. In general, GAv. has the same forms as YAv., 
with the long final vowel, cf. 26. 

294. (a) According to 29, -*#/- or (after palatals 
30) -int- may be found instead of -ant-: Av. 

Consonant Class: (7) Derivative Stems in aqt, mayf, vayt. 87 

'falling', druz-int-3m 'deceiving', raoc-i^t-af (abl.) 'shining' 
et al. (b) According to 63, -itit-, -unt- may be found 
instead of -yarit-, -vaiit- : Av. var'z-irit-ant beside v^r'z- 
yarit-o 'working', Ivar'nawh-uiit-am 'glorious', tamawh-uiit-Bm 
'dark' Yt. 5.82, cf, Skt. tdmasvantam. 

295. Singular: 

Norn. : In YAv., the /-stems generally have nora. -6, and the wa/-stems 
have nom. -vG> or -va or sometimes -vo. In GAv. the nom. is -qs 
or -as (for -a(-s). Observe YAv. per'navo, astavd 'possessing a feather, 
possessing a bone' Yt. 14.36; also hq 'being' Yt. 13.129, vyqsca 'driv- 
ing'. GAv. f$uyqs 'thriving, prospering', stai-as 'praising', pwavqs 
'like thee'. On timavuhfo 'dark', hrar'nawuhCb 'glorious' (for orig. 
-sv-) see 130 (2) c. 

Instr. : GAv. also drygvata (observe & 1 8 Note 3) 'with the wicked'. 

Dat. : GYAv. also drygvaHe, drv&te (observe a 18 Note 3) 'for the wicked 1 
Ys. 31.15 etc., Ys. 71.13. On GAv. drjgv&tae-c&, see 19. 

Gen.: On har'navuhato 'of the glorious', see I3o(2)c. 

Loc. : Sometimes variant astvaiti. See furthermore below 297. 

Voc. : YAv. drvo above is like nom. (see Nom.). 
296. Plural: 

Nom.: YAv. with ending a 224: bir'zatita 'great' Yt. 5.13, y&tumtf^ta 
'belonging to sorcery' ; also (isolated) weak stem nom. pi. mrvatd 
'speaking* Ys. 70.4. 

Ace. : YAv. also (observe strong stem) byr'zaqtd 'great'. 

Gen. : YAv. also (2 from weak stem) $ijyatqtn 'of those hating' Yt. 10.76. 
Also GYAv. h&tqin 'of beings' (observe a) 18 Note 3. 

297. Transfers to the ^-declension are not 
infrequent; Here belong: 

i. MASCULINE. Singular. Nom. bir'zo above in paradigm, also 
Voc. b?r'za; Dat. zbayant&i 'for him invoking'; Abl. saoJjyaqtat 'from 
Saoshyant' ; Gen. ratvatitahe 'of the radiant' ; Loc. bar'zaritaya 
or b3r*zant a ya (uncertain see 257) Yt. 5.54,57. Plural. Dat. Abl. 
saojyatitai'byd 'for the Saoshyants', tirvatae'liyo 'from the wicked'. 
U. NEUTER. Singular. Ace. var'cavhantim et al. Yt. 19.9. 
298. Declension of Av. maza^t- 'great' = Skt. mahdnt-. This 
word shows a strongest stem maz&nt-, like Skt. mahdnt-. i. MASC. Singu- 
lar. Nom. maza, Ace. mazOttttm; ii. NEUT. niazaf, cf. Skt. mahan, mahdn- 
tam, nialidt, Whitney, Skt. Gram. 450 b. 

88 Inflection: Declension of Nouns and Adjectives. 

8. (C) Derivative Stems in an, man, van. 

Masculine, (Feminine) and Neuter (cf. Whitney, Skt. Gr. 420 seq.). 

299. The stem has a triple form: strongest stem 
an, strong stem an, weak stem n (before vowels) or a (= ) 
before consonants. Cf. Brugmann, Grundriss der vergl. 
Gram. ii. 113. The strong and weak forms do not al- 
ways agree with the Sanskrit in its sharp division; cf. also 
Whitney, Skt. Gram. 425 f. 

(a) an-, man-Stems. 


300. Av. -1^6""^ airyaman- m. 'friend' = Skt. ar- 
yamdn- m. 

Av. maesHian- n. 'urine', ^apan- f. 'night', mar'lan- m. 'mortal', 
cajfman- n. 'eye', frizafan- 'triple-jawed', ajavan- 'righteous', asan- m. 
'stone', rasman- m. 'rank, column', d&man- n. 'creature', arfan- m. 
'male', vy&fyaan- n. 'council 1 . 

Av. ^^< Singular : cf. Skt. 

N. airyam-a) ........ aryam-d 

A. airyam-awm ....... aryam-diiam 

( atryam-na ........ ] 

1. \ \ aryam-ya 

-<Znfl maesmana ..... J 

( (airyam-ahie) ....... \ 

). { } aryam-nt 

-ne fta/ne ...... J 

AK1 \ (ffiryam-naf) marina 

\ \ see gen. 

-ana{ cafmana/ ..... I 


(a'ryam-no) ....... ) 


-ano ....... 

L. (airyam-aini) cafmafnt (GAv.) . . . aryam-d\ii 


V. ( tryam-an 

-3m prizaf)m 194 . .1 

N.A.V. airyam-ana ........ aryam-da (Ved.) 

I.D.Abl. (airyam-anm) ca$man& ..... dryam-ands 

1 See Vd. 22.13. * Thus, metrically a'ryamnas-ca Ys. 33.4; 46.1. 
3 Vsp. 1.8 etc. 

Consonant Class : (8) Derivative Stems in an, man, van. 89 

N.V. (a'ryam-ano) ajavand ..... aryam-dnas 

\ (airyam-no) Mafno ...... } 

A. { - [ aryam-nds 

rasmano ..... ) 

I. (airyam-Sbti) d&mSbii! ..... aryam-dbhis 
D.Abl. (airyam-abyo) damabyo ..... aryam-dl>hyas 

Gi I*** r r +vr** r rrv z f * *J *"* g"f" . 

. { } aryam-nam 


( (airyam-ohu) vyshmohu l .... 1 

L. { } aryam-ahu 

I -okva d&mokua I 

H. NEUTER (Separate Forms). 
301. Av. ndman- n. 'name', tinman- n. 'attempt'. 

Sg. N.A.V. nqm-a 

PI. N.A.V. 



cinm-arii (GAv.) 2 

Forms to be observed in GAv. and YAv. 

302. In general, GAv. has the same forms as above 
with the long final vowel, see 26. 

303. Occasionally (i) instead of Av. a we find q, 
before the n ( 45) or (2) instead of a we find GAv. 3 
( 32): e.g. (i) Av. "rvqno 'souls'; (2) GAv. mazSnd 
'with greatness'; GAv. asSno 'stones, heavens'. 

304. On the interchange of strong (an) and weak (n) forms see 299. 

305. Singular: 

Nom. : YAv. fravrase 'Franrasyan' (= sya cf. 67, ace., fravrasy&ntni). 

Ace. : YAv. also (from strongest stem) h&vanamm title of priest ; and (from 
weak stem) arfntm 'male'. 

Instr. : GAv. also ntazSna 303. 

Dat. : Similar (-a'nej infin. dat. n. YAv. ^fnauia'tte 'to rejoice', staoma'ne 
'for praise' ; GAv. faqnmsm 'to be content' 303. Observe a'wi.jotfne 
Vd. 3.24. From strongest stem YAv. puj>rne 'having a child'. 

Gen. : GYAv. also (from strongest stem) mar't&no 'of mortal', h&van&nd. 

1 Yt. 13.16, cf. 39. ' Ys. 12.3. 

go Inflection: Declension of Nouns and Adjectives. 

Abl. : YAv. isolated (undeclined abl.) bar'smtn (neut.) 'with barsom'. 
Loc. : YAv. also (from weak stem) asni 'by day' 164 Note I ; and (from 

strongest stem) husravtlni 'in good word' (?) Jty. 4.8.^GAv. also caf- 

mtyg, cafmqm (neut.) 'in eye' Ys. 31.13; Ys. 50.10, cf. Whitney, 

Stt. Gram. 425 c. 
Voc. : YAv. a*ryama (cf. Vd. 22.9) above in paradigm is like nom. or 

after a-decl. 
306. Dual: 
N.A.V. : YAv. also (from strongest stem 314 Note l b) sp&na 'two dogs'. 

307. Plural: 
Nom. : YAv. also (from strongest stem) as&no 'stones'. With ending a 

224 (from strongest stem) ar$ana 'males', and (from weak stem) 

asna 'stones'. 
Ace. : YAv. also (from strongest stem) asSnd 'stones' ; GAv. asSno Ys. 30.5 

cf. 303. With en ding a 224 (from strongest stem) ar/Sna 'males'. 
Dat. Abl. : YAv. also draomSbyo 'from assaults' 33. 

308. Plural: 

Nom. Ace. : The common ending is q(n) 45 Note 2 : Av. nSinq(n), dSmqn, 
d&mqm cf. Ys. 48.7, 46.6, etc. Less frequent is the ending -Sni 
(-Sni), cf. Skt. -Sni. Observe as dual and plural (like sing.) 
dqma Yt. 15.43; Ys. 71.6. Perhaps here belong likewise niaisma 
Vd. 8.11,12, et al., cf. Johannes Schmidt, Neutra pp. 89, 316, but 
see 227 above. 
As general plural case, qn is also used: e. g. (as instr.) Av. srir&i? 

n&inqn 'by fair names' Ys. 15.1, Vsp. 6.1 ; so damqn (as nom. pi.) Yt. 8.48, 

(as gen. pi.) Ys. 57.2, (as instr. pi.) Yt. 22.9. As ace. pi. and gen. loc. 

singular ayqn. 

As general plural case, ?/ ( 228, 331) is also used: e. g. (as 

instr.) hfSiH namSriiH 'by their own names' Ys. 15.2. 

309. Transfers to the <z-declension are found. 
Here belong: 

Singular. Dat. sySvar^SnSi 'to Syavarshan' ; Gen. arjinahe 'of a 
male* ; Abl. ftfa/nSafca 'night'. Plural. Loc. asSnatfva m. 'on stones'. 

310. Declension of Av. patitan-, pap- m. 'path' = 
Skt. pdnthan-, path- m. cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 433. 
This word follows partly the a-declension (strongest stem 
pantdn-, strong stem pa^tan- 299) , partly the suffixless 
consonant declension (weak stem pap- 288). 

Consonant Class : (8) Derivative Stems in an, man, van. g i 

Singular. Norn, payta, pan,t& Ys. 72.11 ; Ace. paritamm, pan.lqm; 
Jnstr. papa; Abl. pan.taf; Gen. papo; Loc. palpi (G A v.). Plural. 
Nom. pan,t&no; Ace. papo, papa; Gen. papqm. 

Note. Transfers to the 5-declension (fern.) are Sg. Ace. papqm ; 
Gen. papayto. PL Ace. /a/*. 

311. Often, a neuter stem in an stands parallel with one in 
ar, see 237, and Brugmann, Grundriss der vergl. Gram. ii. 118. 

(b) van-Stems. 

312. The van-stems are declined like those in an, 
man, but in the weak case-forms the va becomes (by sam- 
prasarana 63) u, which coalesces with a preceding a into 
ao (au 62) or with a preceding u into u (u 51 Note i). 

3 T 3- (i) Declension of Av. a$avan- m. 'righteous' = 
Skt. rtavan- shows in weak cases a$aon-, a$dun (i. e. GAv. 
and cf. 62 Note i). 

Singular. Nom.afava; Ace. afavanym; Dat. afaone, a$aonai-ca, 
al&une (GAv. 62 Note i) ; Abl. a$aona$; Gen. a$aond, ajaonas-c5 
(GAv.), a$&uno (GAv.); Voc. a/Sum 193. Dual. Norn. Ace. Voc. 
ajavana; Gen. afaona. Plural. Nom. ajavand; Ace. afavano (str. 
stem YAv.), a/duno (wk. stem GAv.), a$avana (ending a 224); 
Dat. a$avabyd (GYAv.), afavavyo (YAv. 62 Note 3) ; Gen. afaonqm, 
a$aunqm (62 Note i). 

Note i. Similar to ajavan- is (a) the declension of GAv. magavan- 
(str. St.), niag&un- (wk. st.) m. 'member of the community', cf. Skt. maghd- 
van-, maghon- Whitney, Skt. Gram. 428 ; and (b) the declension of Av. 
apravan- (str. st), afa*run- (wk. st. 62, 191) m. 'priest' = Skt. athar- 
van-. Observe Av. voc. sg. spraom 193. 

Note 2. Transfers to the a-decl. are not infrequent: e. g. Dat. Du. 

314. (ii) Declension of Av. u rvan- (i. e. "ruvan- 
68 b and 71 end) m. 'soul'. This has in weak case-forms 
"run- (u 51 Note i). 

Singular. Nom. "rva; Ace. *rvan>m; Instr. *runa; Dat. *rune, 

"runag-ca; Gen. "runo. Plural. Nom. "rvqno ( 45); Acc.*runt>, 

"runas-cd Ys. 63.3, "rvqno (str. st.) ; Dat. *rvoibyo (rt-decl.). 

Note i. (a) Similai to *n>an- is the declension of Av. yvan- (i. e. 

yuvan- 68 b, str. St.), yan- (wk. st.) m. 'youth' = Skt. yuvan-, ydn- m., 

Q2 Inflection: Declension of Nouns and Adjectives. 

cf. Whitney, SAt. Gram. 427. Observe Av. voc. sg. yum opp. to Skt. 
yuvan ( 193). (b) Similar also in Av. span- (triple stem span-, span-, san- 
20) m. 'dog' = Skt. ivan- (ivan-, Jvdn-, /-) m., cf. Whitney, S&t. Gram. 
427. (c) Likewise Av. zrvan- n. 'time', dat. sg. zrtine Yt. 5.129. 

Note 2. Transfers to the a - d e c 1. are found : e. g. gen. sg. sa/taAe 
beside s&no; again gen. sg. zrvanahe (stem zrv&na-), loc. zrane Vd. 19.9 
(stem zrana-, but cf. 35 Note 2 or 233). So above dat. pi. rvoil>ya 
(variant rval f l>yo, after a-decl. instead of *rvabyo). 

315. (a) Forms to be observed are: YAv. nom. sg. ta"rv<f (van- 
stem) 'overpowering', cf. Bartholomae, in fC.Z. xxix. p. 561 = Flcxionslthrc 
pp. 141, 142. So sg. nom. friza/a), ace. "arum, voc. m (stem orig. *zapvan- 
95. GAv. nom. sg. adv& (variant advd) m. 'way'. (b) As general 
plural case with ending -qn 230, 308: YAv. karfvqn 'climes'. As 
general plural case with ending -/ 231, 308: Av. afaom! (as ace. 
pi. neut. Ys. 71.6 ddma afaonif; as instr. pi. masc. Vsp. 21.3). 

9. (D) Derivative Stems in in. 

Masculine, Feminine and Neuter, (derivative adjectives), 
cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 438 seq. 

316. The *'-stems (few in number) are declined like 
those in an; cf. Brugmann, Grundriss der vergl. Gram. ii. 
115: e.g. Av. kainin- f. 'maiden', et al. 

1. MASCULINE FEMININE. Singular : Nom. ka'ni ; Ace. Aa'niwm ; 
Dat. ptr'nine 'having a feather'; Gen. ka'nind, fra'nfno.^Dual: Nom. 
hqmina 'belonging to summer". Plural : Nom. ka^iinv, ka'nrna, 
ka'nina; Ace. afitacino 'having running waters'; Dat. ka'nibyd; Gen. 
drujinqm 'belonging to the Druj' Yt. 4.7. ii. NEUTER. Sg. Nom. 
Ace. raofyifni 'shining'. 
Note. On the interchange of /, /, see 21 Note I. 

10. (E) Radical n- and w-Stems. 
317. Here belongs the root jan- 'slay' as final ele- 
ment of a compound: Av. vsr'prajan- 'victorious' = Skt. 
vrtrahdn-, cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 402. The stem shows 
triple forms -jdn-, -jan-, -jn-. 

Singular: Nom. vtrtyraja, vtr^rtm.ja (GAv.), v)r>praj& (i. e. -a 
[= an] -\- s 222) ; Ace. vjr'prajanym ; Abl. vtr'frajnaf; Gen. vtr>- 
d, vir'firajand. PlMxal: Nom. vtr'prajatw; Ace. a$ava-jaiw. 

(g) *-Stems. (10) m- and w-Stems. (u) r-Stems. g? 

318. Radical w-stem is Av. zam- z'm- f. r earth' = 
Skt. k$dm- jm~, cf. Brugmann, Grundriss der vergl. Gram. 
ii. 1 60. 

Singular : Nom. z< / Ace. zqm ; Instr. z'ma ( 24) ; Dat. z'me 

(cf. also 233); Abl. z'tnal, zmada Yt. 7.4 ( 222, a-decl.); Gen. zmo; 

Loc. z>. Plural : Nom. zimo; Ace. z'mo, z'mas-ca; Gen. z'mqm. 

Note I. The nom. sg. z<3> is zii (= ? z7- = zln) -f- j 222; similarly 

ace. 2^/w (= ? zln -|- /). 

Note 2. Similar to z>;- is Av. zyam- m. 'hiems', Sg. Norn. zy&, 
zy&s-cif; Ace. zyqm; Gen. zimo; cf. Brugmann, Grundriss ii. 160. Like- 
wise Av. </ow- 'domus', cf. GAv. gen. sg. dftig, loc. sg. dqm see Brug- 
mann, Grundriss ii. 160. 

ii. (F) Stems in original r. 

Masculine (Feminine and Neuter), cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 369 seq. 

319. Here belong a limited number of nouns: 
(a) Derivative stems in orig. -tar, -ar nouns of agency 
and nouns of relationship; (b) Radical stems in orig. 
-ar; (c) Derivative stems (indeclinable) in orig. -ar. 

320. Strong and weak case-forms. Nouns of this 
declension show three stem-forms : strongest stem dr, strong 
stem ar, weak stem r (before vowels), ar 9 (before conso- 
nants). The (i) nouns of agency show the strongest 
form dr in ace. sg., nom. du., and nom. pi.; the (2) nouns of 
relationship show simply the strong form ar in those 
cases. The strong and weak case-forms, however, do not 
always agree with the Skt. in its sharp division, cf. also 
Lanman, Noun-Inflection in the Veda p. 420 fin. 

(a) Derivative Stems in -tar, -ar. 
321. These are divided with reference to the ace. 
sg., nom. du., and nom. pi. dr or ar into two classes: 

i) Nouns of Agency. 2) Nouns of Relationship. 

Chiefly Masculine (cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 373). 

322. i) Av. -W^ ddtar- m. 'giver, creator' = Skt. 
ddtdr-, dhdtar-. 2) Av. $**>*<* patar- m. 'father' = 

0,4 Inflection : Declension of Nouns and Adjectives. 

Av. frabtrlar~ m. title of priest, Star- m. 'fire', nar- m. 'man', 
nipStar- m. 'protector', zamatar- m. 'son in law', satar- m. 'persecutor'. 
Av._ Singular: cf. SkL 

N. dd-ta ds-td 

. I /. da-tdrtm ......... ds-tdram 

\ 2.pi- 

......... pi-tdram 

I. (dd-J>ra) spr& (GAv.) ...... da-trd 

D. (dd-jre) frahr>J>re ...... da-tri 

Abl. (dd-praf) sprat ........ see gen. 

G. dd-pro .......... da-tur 

L. (dd-tari) na'ri ........ dd-tdri 

V. dd-tar 9 .......... dd-tar 


M . , T f / (dd-tdra) nip&tara ...... dS-tdrS (Ved.) 

PI.A.V .s ,-..- ^ 

I 2. (P l -tara) zamatar a ...... pi-tar a (Ved.) 

I.D.Abl. (dd-tsr'bya) nsr'bya ...... dd-tfbhySm 

G. (dd-pr&) narOi ....... da-tros 

Plural : 

| 7. dd-tdro .......... da-tdras 

\2.pi-tdr5 .......... pi-tdras 

. | /. dd-tdro .......... ds-tfn 

\ 2.f'-dr5 .......... pi-tfn 

D.Abl. (dd-tJr'byd) Stir'byo ...... dd-trbhyas 

G. (dd-flrqnt) saprqm ....... dd-tfpdm 

Forma to be observed in GAv. and YAv. 

323. In general, GAv. has the same forms as above, 
with the long final vowel, see 26. 

324. On the occasional interchange of strong (ar) 
and weak (r, 9r>) case-forms see 320, and 47 Note. 

325. Singular: 

Nom. : YGAv. observe p'ta, p a ta, ptd 'father'. 
Ace. : YAv. also (from weak stem) braprtm 'brother'. ObserVe Av. hatiha- 

nni 'sister' opp. to Skt. svdsaram (-2r-}. GAv. also (?m 22, 32) 

p'tarim 'father'. 
Gen. : YAv. s&pras-cit 'of the persecutor". Also (isolated) from strong stem 

-\- s, s&star? 'of the tyrant' Ys. 9.31, like gen. nar! 332. 
Dat. : GAv. also f'droi 'father' (i. e. -oi = -l, 56) Ys. 53.4. 

Consonant Class: (n) Stems in original r. gc 

326. Dual: 
N.A.V. : YAv. also (from weak stem) brfyra 'two brothers'. 

327. Plural: 

Nom.: YAv. also dataras-ca see 19. Also ending a: va?lara 'coursers'. 

Ace. : YAv. also ace. pi. in -,?/, -// (like strSul, strrt, nr3u3, 329, 332) 
pairi.altriu? Vd. 9.38, cf. Skt. paryetdr-, see American Journal of 
Philology x. p. 346.^ GAv. also (from strong stem) mataro 'mothers'. 
Also matirql-ca 49. 

Dat. : YAv. observe ptjr'byo 'for fathers' Vd. 15.12. 

328. Transfers to the a-decl. occur: e.g.: 

Singular. Gen. sastrahe 'of the persecutor' (i. e. stem sastra- 
beside sffstar-). Plural. Gen. sastranqm 'of persecutors'. 

(a) Like nouns of agency. 

329. (i) Declension of Av. star- m. (strongest stem 
star-, strong stem star-, weak stem sir-, ster'-) = Skt. stdr- 
(cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 371): 

Singular. Ace. stanm ; Gen. staro. Plural. Nom. Ace star 5, 
staras-ca ( 19 on <J), strSu~S (ace. YAv. cf. 327); Dat. Abl. stir'byo ; 
Gen. strqm, st&rqm, starSm-ca (GAv.). 

330. (ii) Declension of Av. rapaestar- 'warrior stand- 
ing in charriot'. This word shows also a parallel stem 
rapaestd according to the radical -decl., see 249. The 
forms from stem rapaestar- are: 

Singular. Ace. rafalitSrtm ; Gen. rapalti&rahe (a-decl.); Voc. 
rafaljtara (a-decl.).^Plural. Nom. rafrailStard; Ace. rajiatflarSs-ca 
( 3 2 7i r perhaps here a-decl. 129). 
Note. The forms from stem rajatftH- are enumerated at 249. 

(P) Like nouns of relationship. 

331. (Hi) Declension of Av. dtar- m. 'fire* (strong 
stem dtar-, wk. st. dpr-, dtr- [ 79 Note], dter>-}: 

Singular. Nom. Star? (= str. st. ~\- s) ; Ace. Strtm (YAv.), atrim 
(GAv.); Instr. tyra (GAv.); Dat. apre, upral-ca; Abl. a^raf; Gen. 
&pro, &pras-ca; Voc. Star* (YAv.), dtar' (GAv.), atari (YAv. same 
as nom.). Plural. Ace. ataro; Dat. Abl. atirbyo; Gen. SJ>rqm. 

332. (iv) Declension of Av. nar- m. 'man' = Skt. 
ndr- (cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 371): 

96 Inflection: Declension of Nouns and Adjectives. 

Singular : Nom. ntt; Ace. nartm; Dat. noire (VAv.), nardi (GAv.) ; 

Abl. n>r*f Phi. Version at Vd. 342; Gen. narJ (YAv.), >r/(GAv.) ; 

Loc. na'ri; Voc. war'. Dual: Nom. nara; I.D.Abl. mr'byo; Gen. 

nar&.^ Plural: Nom. Voc. naro, naras-ca, nara ( 224); Ace. n'rql 

(GAv. Ys. 40.3 see 49), n'rfu? (ace. YAv. cf. 327) ; Dat. Abl. 

ntr'/yo, ntr'byas-ca, ntruyo, nuruyo, ntnyo ( 62 Note 3, and 31 

Note) ; Gen. rtarqm (YAv.), narim (GAv.) Ys. 30.2, see 32. 

Note I. GAv. n'rqif at Ys. 45.7 is apparently used as gen. sg. rather 

than ace. pi., see Gah 3.6 nartf citation, cf. Skt. nfn, Pischel-Geldner, 

Vedischt Studien p. 43. 

Note 2. Transfers to the a-declension, stem nara- occur: 
Singular: Nom. naro; Gen. narahe ; etc. 

(b) Radical Stems in original r. 
333. Here belong a very few nouns and their (ad- 
jective) compounds, e. g. : 

334- (') Av. hvar- n. 'sun' = Skt. svar- (cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 
388 d): Singular: Nom. Ace. hvar* (YAv.), /war' (GAv.); Gen hard 
or Aa (YAv.), king (GAv. i. e. *han-s, cf. 337, 318 Note 2). 

335- (") GAv. sar- f. 'association, unity' : Singular: sarm, sarim ; 
Dat. saroi; Gen. sar! (Ys. 49.3); Loc. sa'ri (Ys. 35.8). Plural: Ace. sard 
(Ys. 31-21). 

(c) Neuters (derivative) in original ar. 
336. These neuters (indeclinable) in ar', ar 9 
(GAv.) are used chiefly as ace. sg., but they may supply 
other cases. 

Singular: Nom. Ace. vadar* (YAv.), -vadar* (GAv.) 'weapon' 
(= Skt. vddhar) ; as Dat. (and ace.) dasvar' 'strength' Ys. 68.2 ; as 
Gen. (and ace.) karfvar* 'clime' Vsp. 10.1. Dual: N.A.V. (and 
ace. sg.) danar* 'two D. measures'. Plural : Ace. (beside ace. sg.) 
ay&r* (GAv.). 

Note. These neuters rarely show declined cases: e.g. Sg. Instr. 
dasvara 'with strength' (Ys. 55.3); PL Instr. balvar'brt 'with thousands'. 
Like a-decl., Dat. sg. baevarai. 

337- These r-neuters commonly show parallel an- 
stems with which they unite in forming a declension : e. g. 
Av. kar$var-, kar$van- n. f. 'clime, zone'; ayar-, ay an- n. 

Consonant Class: (ia) Stems in original s. 0,7 

'day ; zafar-, zafan- n. 'jaw' ; panvar-, panvana- (#-decl.) n. 
'bow'. See 311 and Brugmann, Grundriss der vergl. 
Gram. ii. 118. 

12. (G) Stems in original s. 
(a) Derivative Stems in -h (= orig. s). 

(a) Stems in -ah (= orig. Ind.-Iran. -as). 

338. These very common stems in -ah (= orig. -as) 
are chiefly neuter nouns; but as adjectives (compound or 
with original accent on the ending, cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 
417) they may likewise be masculine or feminine. 
A feminine substantive u$ah- (see 357 for declension) 
also occurs. Cf. Horn, Nominalflexion im Avesta p. 26 seq. ; 
and Whitney, Skt. Gram. 414, 418. 


339- Av. -w-r"w hvacah- (adj. m. f.) 'well-speaking' 
= Skt. suvdcas-. Av. -orr--^ vacah- n. 'word' = Skt. vdcas-; 
Av. -rT-"QO>3 duz-vacah- (adj.) 'evil-speaking' = Skt. durvacas-. 

Av. anaocah- (adj.) 'hostile', raocah- n. 'light', sarah- n. 'head* 
(= Skt. siras- n.) , zrayah- n. 'sea', and m. nom. propr. 'Zrayah', 
ar'zah- n. 'daylight*. 

Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

N. hvaC-& suvdc-as 

A. hvac-awham suvdc-asam 

I. vac-awha vdc-ass 

D. vac-awhe vdc-ast 

Abl. vac-avha{ . see gen. 

G. vac-awhd vdc-asas 

L. vac-ahi . vdc-asi 

V. kvaC'O suvSc-as 


N.A.V. (hvqc-avha) anaocavha (GAv.) . . . smitc-asS (Ved.) 
G. (yac-awha)) zrayavluV vdc-asos 

98 Inflection: Declension of Nouns and Adjectives. 

Av. Plural: cf. Skt. 

N.V. duzvac-awhd ........ suv&c~asas 

A. duzVdC-avho ........ suvdc-asas 

I. VaC~2bis l ......... vac-obhis 

D.Abl. (VdC-Sbyo) raoctiyo* ...... v&c-obhyat 

G. vac-avhqm ........ vdc-asam 

L. (yac-ahu) sarahu ....... vdc-asu 

ar'zakva ...... 

U. NEUTER (Separate Forms). 
Sg. N.A.V. Va.C-0 ........ . . v&c-as 


Forms to be observed in GAv. and YAv. 
340. In general, GAv. has the same forms as above 
with the long final vowel, see 26. 

341. Singular: 

Norn.: YAv. also uncompounded adj. (see 338) aojSt 'strong' Ys. 57.10 
beside substantive aojo n. 'strength', GAv. dvaij& 'hating' beside 
flaffd n. 'hatred', cf. Skt. yaias 'beauteous' (observe accent) beside 
ydsas n. 'beauty'. Add har'nas-ca n. 'and glory'. 

Ace.: On uj&vhym, ujqm f. 'dawn', see 357. 

Dat. : YAv. rafnavhae-ca 'and for support'. GAv. infin. dat. srSvayeyhi 'to 
announce' (see 118 Note on -ye- = -ya-\ 

Abl. : YAv. also (-{- postpositive a 222) zrayavhSda 'from the sea' Yt. 8.47. 
After a-decl. (-J- postpos. a 222) ttmavhada 'from darkness'. 

Gen. : YAv. har'navhas-ca 'and of glory'. 

Loc. : YAv. peculiar zraya (Yt. 5.38; 8.8), zraya (Ys. 65.4), zrayai (Yt. 5.4; 

8.31) 'in the sea'. See also 357 Note 2. 
342. Plural: 

Norn. : YAv. framanavhas-ca 'kindly-minded'. 

Instr. : YGAv. also (with variant -/ 21) vacSbiH. 

Loc. : YAv. also (-ohu, -dhva 39) ravdhu 'in freedom', timu/tva 'in darkness'. 

ii. NEUTER (Special Forms). 

343. Plural: N.A.V. : YAv. add aoj&s-ea 'powers', GAv. ttmtSs-ca 
'and darkness'. 

344. Transfers to the ^-declension are very 
1 See 33. 

Consonant Class: (12) Stems in original s. QQ 

Singular. Nom. arLvaco (masc.) 'rightly-speaking' ; Ace. (fern, 
a-decl.) ravo.vacavhqm 'whose words go with freedom' Vsp. 7.2 ; 
Instr. har'na 'with glory' Yt. 10.141, see 194; Abl. ttmavhada 
'from darkness' (postpositive a 222). Dual. Dat. a'Jyajavhae'bya 
'for the two imperishable ones'. Plural. Nom. anao$&vhd 'undying' 
( 124 Nom. end, stem ao$a- beside aojlah-} , wa'nyavaseB (nom. 
pi. masc.) 'following the will (vasah-) of the Spirit' Yt. 10.128, be- 
side ma'nivasavfio ; Instr. sravail 'with words'. 

(3) Stems in -yah, Comparative Adjectives. 
345. The stems in -yah (Skt. -yas or -iyas 68) are 
found in the comparative degree of adjectives. They show 
an original double form of stem for masculine and 
neuter: strongest stem -yah, strong stem -yah. The super- 
lative -is-ta presents the weak stem. The Skt. has -yqs, 
-yas, -if-tha, cf. Brugmann, Grundriss ii. 135 Anm. 5. 
The corresponding feminine form has -yehi- (i. e. strong 
stem -f- z-declension 257) e. g. Av. aspd.staoyehls (nom. 
pi. fem.) 'greater than a horse'. Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 
463 seq. 


346. Av. -U^MJ."") ndidyah- 'weaker', masyah- 'greater', 
kasyah- 'less', dsyah- l sw\fter\frdyah- 'more', vahyah- 'better'. 

Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

N. (naid-ym) masy Srt-yan 

A. naJd-y&loham sre-yqsam 

D. (naid-yawhe) kasyavhe irt-yasl 

G. ndid-yavhd sri-yasas 


N.A.V. (ndid-yawha) Ssyavha irt-y&au 

Plural : 
N.V. (ndid-yawhd) masyavAa 1 sri-yqsas 

I. (nd'd-yeblS) fr&yebrt irl-yobhis 

G. (natd-yawhajri) vavhavhqm'* .... sri-yas5m 
ii. NEUTBR (Separate Forms). 

Sg. N.A.V. mas-yo sri-yas 

1 See Haug, Zand-Pahlavi Glossary p. 48, 16. * See 134. 

JOO Inflection: Declension of Nouns and Adjectives. 

Forms to be observed in GAv. and YAv. 

347. i. MASCULINE. Singular: Norn. GAv. observe vafya 'melior' 
(see 1 33 on fi); Ace. (from strong stem) vavhavhim 'meliorem' (see 1 34 
on vh = orig. jy), cf. Skt. kaniySsam 'younger', Whitney, Ski. Gram. 465 c. 
Observe in paradigm Dual, Plural Nom. "yavha, "yanho (i.e. strong 
stem) opposed to Skt. yqsSu, y4sas (I e. strongest stem). H. NEUTER. 
Singular: Nom. YAv. observe vavho 'melius' 134, GAv. vahyd 'melius' 
132. On YAv. afo, GAv. ajyo 'worse', see 162. 

(Y) Stems in -vah. Perfect Active Participles. 

348. The stems in -vah are perfect active participles 
used adjectively. They show a double form of stem for 
masculine and neuter: strongest stem -vah, weak stem 
-uS. The Skt. has -vqs, -u$, cf. Brugmann, Grundriss ii. 136 
Anm. 6. The corresponding feminine form has -u$l- (i. e. 
weak stem -f /-declension 257) e. g. Av. vifcu$i (nom.), 
viputm 'knowing', see 86 on /. Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 
458 seq. 


349. Av. -ar-"))^ YAv. vldvali-, GAy. vldvaJi- 'know- 
ing' = Skt. vidvds-. 

Av. liadvah- 'creator', 'ririjnoah- 'having died'. 

Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

N. Vld-VO) vid-van 

A. "Vldvaatatom* vid-vqsam 

I. Vlp-USa* vid-Ufa 

D. vid-u$e (GAv.) vid-ufs 

Abl. (Vt])-U$at) daj>u$at* see gen. 

G. Vld-U$0 (GAv.) vid-iifas 


N. Vld-V&nho vid-vqsas 

I. (Vtp-uzbts) dadulbil (GAv.) vid-vculbhis 

G. (yip-USOjn) >riri/>ufqm vid-usam 

Forms to be observed in GAv. and YAv. 

350. Singular: Nom. YGAv. also (from weak stem) mamtiiiZ 'having 
thought* Yt. 8.39, vipus 'knowing' Vd. 4.54, yaetuZ 'having striven', Haug, 

1 See Vsp. 19.1; Yt. 10.35. s See 86. 

Consonant Class: (12) Stems in original s. jQI 

ZPhl. Gloss, p. 16.6; 56.5, virtus' (GAv.) 'knowing' Ys. 45.8, vaunuJ 'having 
won' Ys. 28.5, cf. Whitney, S&(. Gram. 4620, and Bartholomae, in K.Z. 
xxix. p. 531 = Flexiomlehrt p. ill; Voc. YAv. (nom. as voc.) 
'O all-knowing one' Vd. 19. 26. Plural: Uncertain whether ace. pi. or gen. 
sg. dadu$o Ys. 58.6. 

Note. On the interchange of d, d, p see 82, 83, 86. 

351. Transfers to the a-decl. may be found: e.g. Av. 

(b) Radical Stems in -h (= orig. -s). 

(a) Stems in +ah (= orig. -r). 

352. To this division (masculine, feminine and 
neuter) belong simple nouns like Av. mdh- m. 'moon' (Skt. 
mds-), ah- n. 'mouth' (Skt. as-) and the compounds of Av. 
~ddh- 'giving, doing'. The forms have all the long vowel 
m (d). Cf. Horn, Nominalfiexion im Avesta p. 4 seq., and 
Lanman, Noun- Inflection in the Veda p. 493 seq. 


353- Av. -Qr-^w YGAv. huddh-, huddh- 'beneficent* 
= Skt. sudds-. 

Av. yas- n. (metrically dissyllabic) 'decision', ako.dah- 'maleficent'. 

Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

N.V. hud-& ........... sud-ds 

A. hud-CBVham ... ...... sud-Asam 

I. hud-CBVha . . ....... sud-asS. 

D. hud-&vhe . . ' ....... sud-fce 

Abl. hud-d&vhaf ......... see gen. 

G. hud-CBvhd ......... sud-dsas 

L. (hud-dhi) yShi ........ sud-dsi 

N.V. hiid-ceuho ......... sud-dsas 

A. hud-wwho ......... sud-dsas 

I. (hud-mbis) ako.dabii . . . . . . 

D. hud-cebyo ......... 

G. hud-COWkcpn ......... sud-dsdm 

IO2 Inflection: Declension of Nouns and Adjectives. 

Forms to be observed in GAv. and YAv. 

354. Plural: Instr. and Dat. often show MS. authority for S6iJ, 
"dbyd ; the form in -<- above, apparently arises from orig. ds being treated 
as if final , i. e. before bil, *byd pada endings. Observe Norn. PI. za- 
r<*zd& (GAv.). 

355. Transfers to the a-declension occur: e.g. Singular: 
Nom. miStfhu 'moon' Yt. 10.142 (cf. Skt. mdsas nom.); Dat. mOmhai; Gen. 
m&uhahe beside m&ahd; Voc. duzda 'O malevolent one' 234 b. 

Note. The ace. sg. uji.dqtn 'giving understanding' nom. propr. is per- 
haps to be explained as formed after the radical tf-decl. 250, cf. Skt. 
vayo-dh&m cf. Brugmann, Grundriss ii. 134, I *, Lanman, Noun- Inflection 
PP- 5SS 443. 446. 

(0) Like radical "//-Stems. 

356. Declension of Av. mazdSh- f. 'wisdom, Mazda', Anc. Pers. 
-mazd&h- = Skt. -midhas-. This word like ujdh-, u/aA-, 357, is after all * 
best considered a contract noun , cf. dat. sg. GAv. (trissyllabic) mazdSi 
(i. e. mazdS(h)-e) ; ace. sg. GAv. (trissyllabic) mazdqm (i. e. mazdS(h)-am) ; 
gen. sg. GAv. (trissyllabic) mazd& (i.e. mazd&(h)-as)\ nom. pi. GAv. (tris- 
syllabic) mazda>s-c& (i.e. "a(h)-as). The forms are as follows: 

Singular. Nom. nlazdto (dissyllable GAv.) ; Ace. mazdqm ; Dat. 
mazdSi ; Gen. mazd&, mazd&s-ca (YAv.), mazd&s-ca (trissyl. GAv.); 
Voc. (a-decl.) mazda (YAv.) , mazda (GAv.). Plural. Nom. Voc. 
mazd&s-ca (GAv.). 

357- Here may be added Av. ujdh-, u$ah- f. 'dawn' = Skt. ufas-, 
ufds-. Singular : Ace. ujavfom, ujqm (cf. Skt. ufdsam, ufdsam, ufdm). 
Plural : Ace. /< (cf. Skt. ufds) ; Gen. ujavAqm (cf. Skt. ufdsSm) ; Loc. ufa/iva. 

Note I. Parallel, are the sg. nom. ace. Av. kvap&, h-v&pqm 'beneficent' 
= Skt. svdpds, *svdpffm. 

Note 2. An instance of contraction in orig. flj-stem 339 similar 
to the above, seems to be the loc. sg. zray&i (trissyllabic) 'in the sea' 
Yt. 5.4 ; 8.3 1 (= zraya(h)e like valjahe, ar'zahc). But another explanation 
for zrayai may be suggested: viz. mistake in writing Hi for ahi due to 
Pahlavi script. See further, 341. 

Note 3. Transfer to the a-declension , sg. nom. hv&po 'beneficent'. 

(c) Derivative Stems in -is, -us. 
358. The examples are not numerous. The words 
are chiefly neuter. There is no vowel-gradation. 
Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 414. 

Adjectives Feminine Formation Comparison. 103 

359- A.V. sna'piJ- n. 'weapon'. Singular: Nom. Ace. (neut.) snatyif; 
Ace. (masc. adj.) nida.sna i pij!jm 'having weapons laid down' ; Instr. snatyija ; 
Gen. hadi$as-ca 'of the abode' ; Loc. vipiii 'at the judgment' (Geldner). 
Dual: Instr. sna'JnMya. Plural: Gen. sna'fifam. 

Note. Transfers to the a-decl. occur: e.g. sg. gen. hadijahe 'of 
the abode'. 

360. Similar are the /-nouns: Av. ar*dui- n. 'assault, battery'. 
Singular: Nom. ar'dui; Instr. ar'du$a; Loc. tanu$i 'in person'. Plural : 
Gen. ar'dujtqm. 


361. The declension of adjectives, as agreeing 

exactly with that of nouns, is treated above. 

362. Feminine Formation. The adjective 0-stems 

masc. neut. form their corresponding feminine in -a or -z. 

The consonant stems and -stems show regularly the fem. 

in -I, before which the adjective stem usually appears in 

its weak form. 

(i)With-0: Av. ha u rva- (m. n.), ha"rvd-(fy 'whole'; 
sura- (m. n.), surd- (f.) 'mighty'; ujra- (m. n.), ujrd- 
(f.) 'strong'; aspa- (m.) 'horse', aspd- (f.) and aspl- (f.) 

(2) With -1: Av. rava- (m. n.), ravi- (f.) 'broad, 
smooth'; spitdma- (m. n.), spitdmt- (f.) 'belonging to 
Spitama'; daeva- (m. n.), daevi- (f.) 'devilish'. a$avan- 
(m. n.), a$aoni- (f.) 'righteous'; b^r'za^t- (m. n.), bw- 
zoJti- (f.) 'high, great'; vidvah- (m. n.), vlpu$l- (f.) 
'knowing'; ddtar- (m.), ddpri- (f.) 'giving, giver'; frrd- 
tar- (m.), prdpri- (f.) 'protector, nurturer'; vanhu- (m. 
n.), vawuhl- (f.) 'good'; driju- (m. n.), drivl- (f.) 'poor' 

1 For different views on the subject see Horn, Nominalfiexion im 
Avesta p. 5 ; Brugmann, Grundriss dtr vergl. Gr. ii. 133*, but ii. 134, I s . 

IO4 Inflection: Comparison of Adjectives. 

363. Comparison of Adjectives. In A vesta as also 
in Sanskrit, there are two ways of forming the comparative 
and superlative degrees of adjectives: (i) -tar a-, -tenta- and 
(2) -yah-, -ista- added to the stem. The corresponding 
feminine to these is -tard-, -temd- and -yehi- ( 34), -istd- 
according to rule, 362. 

(i) -tara- (comparative), -tema- (superlative). 
364. Before -tara-, -teina-, adjectives whose stem 
ends in a appear commonly in the form 6 as in noun com- 
pounds. The 0-stems may, however, retain a unchanged, 
as in Sanskrit. Other stems commonly remain unchanged, 
appearing in the weak form if they have one. 

bae$azya- 'healing', bae$azydtara-, bae^azyotsma- 

srira- 'fair', srlrotara-, 

aka- 'bad', akatara-, 

huyasta- 'well-sacrificed', huyastara-, 

huba&di- 'sweet-scented', hubaoiditara-, hubaoiditema- 

asaojah- 'very strong', asaojastara-, 1 asaojastema- 

ydsksr't- 'energetic', ydskar'stara-? ydskjr'stema- 

amavant- 'strong', amavastara-? amavastama- 

yaetvah- 'having striven', yaetustzma- 

(2) -yah- (comparative), -ista- (superlative). 
365. Before -yah-, -ista-, the adjective reverts to 
its original simple crude stem without formative suffix: 

maz- 'great', mazy ah-, mazista- 

mas- 'great', masyah-, 

vavhu-\ ( vahyah- (GAv.), ) 

. 'good,{ , , ;... '\vahtsta- 
vohu- } * 3 

ds-u- 'swift', dsyah-, dsista- 

, f ayah- (GAv.), ) 

ak-a- 'bad', 7. /x \. ' \actsta- 

\asah- (YAv.), 4 j 

1 Cf. 109.-* 151.-' 132, 134.-* 162. 

Comparison of Adjectives. IOC 

Note I. Some few adjectives, in appearance at least, show both 
forms of comparison, as above aka- 'bad', akatara-, and to this also (cf. 
Note 2) ajyah-, acifta-; so superlative aiaojiita- beside aSaojastara-, ajao- 
yastftna- to aiaojah- 'very strong'. 

Note 2. As seen also above, comparatives and superlatives may be 
more or less mechanically attached to a positive of similar meaning and 
containing the same crude stem, see 365 : e. g. to taty-ma- 'strong', the 
comparative tqjyah-, superl. tandSta- beside tafymohma-, et al. 

Note 3. The a-stems sometimes follow the analogy of a^/-stems 
in their comparison : e. g. vtr'pravan- 'victorious', comparat. vr>}>ravastara-, 
superl. virpravasttma- ; ajavan- 'righteous', afavastf/ua- ; vtr'prajan- 'vic- 
torious', vtrtyrajqstara-, vtr'prajqsttma-. 


366. The numerals in Avesta correspond generally 
in form and in usage to the Sanskrit equivalents. Cf. 
Whitney, Skt. Gram. 475 seq. 



1. aeva- 

2. dva- 
3- }ri- 

cf. Skt. 


4- capwar- catvdr- 

5 . parcel pdftca 

7. hapta 

8. as fa 

9. nava 

IO. rtfo.Ttf 


100. sata- 
200. </#y* s&te 
300. ti$<*ro sata 
400. capwdrc sata 
500. pa^ca sata 


das a 

cf. Skt. 
dds a 





IO. a^ja: 
40. capwar'sat- 

5O. paticdsat- pafic&idt- 

60. ty$vasti- 
70. haptditi- 
80. astd'tt- 
90. navaiti- 
ICX). J^:^- 


600. tysvas sata 
700. hapta sata 

1000. hazavra- 
10000. baevar- 

367. The numbers from n 19, as far as they 
occur, are made up as in Skt.: e. g. Av. dvadasa '12' =. 
Skt. dvadasa; Av. paricadasa '15' = Skt. pdncadasa. See 
below under Ordinals, 374 b. 

Note. Observe, the common forms Av. prisata- '30' and capwar*- 
sata- '40' arise from transfer of prisat- etc. to the o-decl. The strong form 
t- is to be sought in prisqs (orig. nom. but crystallized form), etc. 

Inflection: Numerals The Cardinals. 


368. In composite numbers the lesser numeral pre- 
cedes, and ca ca connects the terms: e.g. Av. paticdca 
visatica '25'; prayasca prisa,sca '33'; pa^cdca cap-war' sa- 
hmca '45', etc. 

Note. The first member is sometimes put in the sociative instru- 
mental case; e. g. Av. nava.satai? hazavrtmca 'one thousand and nine 

Declension of Cardinals. 

369. (i) Declension of Av. aeva- (m. n.), aeva- (f.) 
'one, alone' (singular): 

i H. MASC. NEUT. Sg. Nom. afro; Ace. oyum ( 63 Note 2), 
or (abbreviated spelling) dim, aoim; Insir.aeva; Gen. alvahe ; Loc. 
afvakmi ( 443). Hi. FEM. Sg. Nom. alva; Ace. afvqm; Gen. 
atvavha ( 443, 134). 

370. (2) Declension of Av. dva- 'two' = Skt. dvd- 
(dual) cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 482 b. 

Du. N.A.V. dva (m.), duye (f. n.); I.D.Abl. dvaPbya; G.L. dvay<. 
Note. Observe dvae-ca Yt. 19.7 beside duye 190. 

371. (3) Declension of Av. pri- (m. n.), ti$ar- (f.) 
'three' = Skt. tri- tifdr- (plural) cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 
482 c. 

i H. MASC. NEUT. PI. Nom.frSyd;; Dat. Abl. pribyd ; 
Gen.frayqm. Hi. FEM. Nom.frSyo; Ace. ti^ro, tijro, tijra; Gen 
ti$rqm, tigranqm (5-decl.). 

Note. Observe prdyo (above) is from strongest stem, cf. 235. Also 
f>rtiyas-ca, on & cf. igb. Also neut. (like fem. 232) tipro. 

372. (4) Declension of Av. capwar- (m. n.), catawhar- 
(f.) 'four' = Skt. catvdr-, cdtasar- (plural) cf. Whitney, Skt. 
Gram. 482 d. 

i. MASC. PI. Nom. cafnuUrd, capw&ras-ca ( iQb); Ace. capw&ro. 
ii. FEM. Ace. catavrd Yt. 14-44. 

373- ($) Declension of numerals from 5 10: The following in- 
stances of gen. pi. occur, Av. paqcanqm, navanqm, dasanqm, cf. Skt. paAcS- 
n&m, Whitney, Skt. Gram. 483, 484. 

374. Declension of remaining cardinals : 20 vfsa'ti indeclinable ; 
30 Prisattm (nom. ace. neut.) , firisatanqm (gen. pi.) ; 40 caJrwSr'saljm-ca 
( igb); 50 paricdsatiM, paitcasafbii-ca ( igb); 60 70 fyfvaitim (ace. sg. 


Inflection: Ordinal Numerals and Derivatives. 

fern.) etc., also nava'til-ca (ace. pi. fern, beside nava'tim). ioo 1000 sata-, 
hazavra- as neut. nouns, a-dccl. 237. IO ooo balvar* (ace. sg.), batvar&l 
(dat. sg. a-decl. 237); baivqn (ace. pi.), batvar'bll (instr. pi.) cf. 336. 



cf. Skt. 


2nd bitya- 
3l pritya- 
4th tutrya- 

5 th 




paAcatha l 


nauma- ( 64) navamd- 

Av. satotema- Skt. Satatama-. 
lOOQth Av. hazawrdtema = Skl. sahasratama-. 

cf. Skt. 

1 1 th aevaiidasa- 
I2th dvadasa- dvadai&- 

I3th pridasa- trayodaSd- 
I4th CCtprudasa- caturdaid- 
a- paficadaid- 

- saptadaia- 




Note I. The ordinals as adjectives are declined according to the 
fl-decl. 236 seq. 

Note 2. Av. ^//t/a- 'sixth' has fern. $///-, cf. 362. 
Note 3. Av. prisata- as 'thirtieth' is found. 

Numeral Derivatives. 

375- Numeral Adverbs: Av. haktr{ 'once 1 = Skt. sakft; Av. 6i3 
'twice' = Skt. dvis ; Av. prii 'thrice' = Skt. tris; Av. caprttS 'four times', 
cf. Skt. cadis, Whitney, S&t. Gram. 489. Also with : Av. afritim 'for 
the second dme', dpritim 'for the third time, thrice' ; a^ta'rfm 'for the fourth 
time'. Likewise some others. 

376. Multiplicative Adverbs: Suffix -vatft Av. biivaf 'two-fold'; 
Priivaf 'three-fold' ; vtsa*tiv& 'twenty-fold' (nom. masc.) ; prisapwH 'thirty- 
fold' ; etc. Suffix -pwa : e. g. prisata-pwtm 'thirty-fold' ; etc. 

Note. Here also might be added a number of other words 
'a third' et al. ; but they belong rather to the dictionary. 

1 Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 487. 


i. Personal 




4. Demonstrative 

377- Pronominal declension in Avesta agrees in its 
main outlines with the Sanskrit. A synopsis of the Pro- 
nouns in Avesta may be given as follows : 

A. Gender not distinguished. . 

a. First person aztm. 

b. Second person turn. 

c. Third person, he and other forms. 

B. Gender distinguished, 
a. Relative Pronoun ya-. 
3. Interrogative Pronoun ka-. 

a. Demonstrative ta- (hvo). 

b. Demonstrative aeta-. 

c. Demonstrative aim (a-, i-, ima-, ana-). 

d. Demonstrative ava- (hSu). 
5. Other pronominal Words and Derivatives. 



(Adjectives declined ' pronominally). 

General Remark. Most of the pronouns in 
Avesta are closely parallel with those in Sanskrit, and like 
the latter they show also many marked peculiarities. They 
are generally made up by combining a number of different 
stems. The principal points to be observed in regard to 
their inflection are the following: 

379. Singular: 

Nom. Ace. Neut. : Commonly the suffix -/ = Skt. -/ (d). Sometimes in 
later texts of the YAv. instead of -/, the ending -/, like the neuter 
ending of the noun-declension, is found: e. g. yim, aont. 


I JO Inflection: Declension of Pronouns. 

Dat. Abl. Loc. : Show an inserted element -km- = Skt. -sm-. The dat. sg. 
of the two personal pronouns ends in -bya (-vya), -byo = Skt. -bhya(m), 
Whitney, Skt. Gram. 492 a. The loc. sg. in YAv. may take post- 
positive a as in the noun-declension, see 222. 

380. Plural: 

Nom. (Ace.) : The pronominal a-stems make this case end in e. This form 
in e often serves also as accusative. 

Gen. : Shows -fqm = Skt. -fSm. The 'genitives' ahm&ktm, ya/mSktm, ya- 
vSkirn, as in Skt., are really crystallized cases nom. ace. neut. of 

Loc. : In YAv. the loc. pi. may take postpositive a as in the noun- 
declension, see 224. Similarly also in fern. loc. pi. 


381. Singular: 
Dat. Abl. Gen. Loc. : Show an inserted element -by- (-hy)> -fh- = Skt. -sy-. 

382. Plural: 
Gen. : Shows -vhqm = Skt. -sSm. 

383. Interchange of Neuter with Feminine Forms. 
As in the nouns 232, so also in the pronouns the neuter 
plural often assumes the form of the feminine or rather 
interchanges with it. See also Johannes Schmidt, Plural- 
bildungen der indogerm. Neutra pp. 21, 260, etc. 

Note. In formulaic passages, especially in the Yashts (e. g. Yt. 5.13,15), 
masc. forms yeyhe, a'yAe, ahm&i are sometimes used instead of the proper 
fern, forms. This arises from the mosaic character of such passages. 

384. General Relative Case is found in YAv. in 
the instances of ydis as plural, cf. 229. For the treat- 
ment of yd, ya{, yim as stereotyped case (plural and sin- 
gular) see under Syntax. 


i. Personal Pronouns. 

385. The first and second personal pronouns, 
as in Skt., show many peculiarities and individulities of 
inflection. Some cases also use two forms, a fuller and a 
briefer form, according to the position of the pronoun in 

Personal Pronouns. 1 1 1 

the sentence, whether accented, unaccented, or enclitic. 

Furthermore, on the third personal pronoun, see 394 seq. 

386. (a) First Person, Av. -ft/" azam T = Skt. ahdm. 

Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

N. CLZZm ahdm 

A. mqm; ma (end.) mdm; ma 

D. mdvoya^; me (encl.) mdhyam; me 

Abl. ma$ m &t 

G. mana; me (end.) mdma; mi 


N. vaew? vaydm 

A. ahma*; no (end.) asmdn; nas 

D. ahma^byd (GAv.); no (end.) . . . asmdbhyam; nas 

Abl. ahma( . . asmdt 

G. ahmdfom; no (end.) asmakam; nas 

Forms to be observed in GAv. and YAv. 
387. GAv. has in general the same forms as YAv., 
but shows also a number of peculiarities to be marked; 
these are likewise occasionally found in YAv., perhaps 

388. Singular: 

Nom. : GAv. azim, 32. Also once (unaccented or proclitic) as-ctf Ys. 46.18. 
Dat. : YAv. the form mdvya before 'ca, -cif, 386 Note I. GAv. ma'/ya, 

ma'byo, and (encl.) nidi. 
Gen. : Observe gen. Av. mana (note --) contrasted with Skt. mama (-m-). 

389. Plural: 
Nom. : GAv. (sporadic) nom. pi. unaccented (second place in sentence) vi 

Ys. 40.4, cf. Skt. va-ydm, cf. 393. 

Ace.: GAv. regularly nO>, cf. also at Vsp. 15.2 = Ys. 15.3 not, Gatha re- 
miniscence, see 387. 
Dat. : GAv. ahma^bya (above), ahm&i, and (encl.) n), cf. also at Vsp. 12.4 

nJ, see 387. 
Gen. : GAv. also (unaccented) ahma, 3hma, and (encl.) /. 

1 Also before -ca, -cif written mav a ya. See also 388. 

8 i. e. vaytm, 64. 

3 Yt. 1.24 variant; i.'e. Av. ahma = Skt. asmdn; Av. aspa = Skt. dfv&n 

112 Inflection : Declension of Pronouns. 

390. (b) Second Person, Av. 4# turn 'thou' = Skt. 

Avr--^ Singular: cf. Skt 

N. turn 1 ; tv/ tvdm 

A. fwqm; ]nvd (end.) tvdm; tva 

I. pwd* tvd (Ved.) 

D. ta*by& (GAv.); // (end.) .... tubhyam; tl 

Abl. fiwaf tvdt 

G. tava; te (end.) t&va; ti 


G. yavdksm 8 


A. VO (end.) .^_a_ , ...... vas 

D. yiiSmaoyd, ^mdv d ya; VO (end.) . yutmdbhyam; vas 
Abl. yii$maf ......... yutmdt 

G. yu$mdkym; VO (end.) ..... yutmdkam; vas 

Forms to be observed in GAv. and YAv. 
391. GAv. has in general the same forms as YAv., 
but shows also a number of peculiarities to be marked ; these 
are likewise sometimes found in YAv., perhaps borrowed. 

392. Singular: - 

Norn.: GAv. tviin (cf. 32, 93 Note l), tu. 
Dat. : GAv. ta'fya (above), also ta'byo, and (end.) tdi. 
Gen. : GAv. tavS; tdi (encl.) see 56. 

393. Plural: 

Nom. : GAv. also_y/ i. e. Av. yuJ: Skt. yu-ydm : : Av. v?( 389): Skt. va-ydm. 
Ace. : GAv. regularly v&. 
Dat.: GAv. yvfma'fyd, fcma'fya; vi (encl.), cf. also YAv. (Gatha remini- 

scence) v3 Ys. 14.1, etc. 
Abl. : GAv. also $fma{. 
Gen.: GAv. Ji$makim and (encl.) vi. Also jfrmi Ys. 43.11. 

1 i. e. tvtm, see 63. 
* Ys. 43.10. 

s Fr. 6.1 and Haug, ZPhl. Glossary pp. 3, 46, see 68 Note 3, cf. 
Skt. yuvSkii, see 380. 

Relative Pronoun. 

394. (c) Third Person, Av. jyw- tya) he Qe) and 
other forms. 

The proper third personal pronoun him, he etc. 
(enclitic) is defective; its deficiencies are partly supplied 
by the demonstrative pronoun, and partly by enclitic forms 
of di-, i- used with personal force. These latter show 
distinction of gender, but they may best be included here. 

395- The following forms of the proper third per- 
sonal (often used anaphorically, sometimes used re- 
flexively, see also 416) occur in GYAv.; they are all 

Singular. Ace. him (GYAv.); Dat. Gen. hi or & % 155 (YAv.), 
hdi (GAv.). Dual. N.A.V. hi (GAv.). Plural. Ace. /7 (GYAv.). 

Note i. The form hi dat. gen. sg. seems in some passages in YAv. 
to serve as plural. See under Syntax. 

Note 2. With the above Avesta forms compare Skt. ace. sg. nm; 
Prakrit dat. gen. si all enclitic. See Wackernagel in A'.Z. xxiv. p. 605 seq. 

396. Similar to he in usage are the forms from 
stem YAv. di- likewise enclitic: 

Sg. Ace. dim m. f. ; dif n. PL Ace. dil m. f . ; di n. Ys. 65.8. 

397. Of like usage (cf. also 422), is stem G(Y)Av. 
/- enclitic sometimes employed almost pleonastically: 

Sg. Ace. tm m.; */ n. (GAv.), # (YAv., particle). Du. N.A.V. /. 
PL Norn. 7 n. ; Ace. IS m. ; i n. 

398. On hvO, /ivdwya used as personal (and reflexive) see 416, 
436 Note 3. 


2. Relative Pronoun. 

399. Relative Av. -TO ya- 'who, which' = Skt. yd-. 

The relative stem ya-, yd- = Skt. yd-, yd-, shows the 
following forms. Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 508. 



Inflection : Declension of Pronouns. 


Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

N. y-5 y-as 

A. y-im 1 y-dm 

I. y-d y-ina 

D. y-ahmdi . . y-dsmsi 

Abl. y-ahmdf . . y-dsmat 

G. y-ehe, y-eyhe* y-dsya 

L. y-akmi y-Asmin 


N^ y-d V y -d (Ved.) 

G ~-" r "*^ ^ I 

y-ciycn y-aytt 

Plural : 

N. y-oi y-e 

A. y-q y-dn 

I. y-dis y-sis 

]).A.b\.y-ae*l>}>d y-ibhyas 

G. y-ae$qm y-ham 

L. y-ae$ii (GAv.) y-itu 

ii. NEUTER. 

Sg. N.A.V. y-af y .dt 

PL N.A.V. y-d y -d (Ved.) 

Singular : 

N. y-d y-d 

A. y-qm y -dm 

Abl. y-eqhdf, dda see gen. 

G. y-eqhm y-dsys* 

L. y-eqhe* y-dsyam 

Plural : 

N.A. y-co y-ds 

D.Abl. y-dbyo y-Mhyas 

G. y-awhqm y-dssm 

L. y-dhu, y-dhva y-dsu 

1 cf. 30. * cf. 137, 136, 34. 3 i. e. *yasyS(m), uncertain 
Ys. 9.32, cf. aiyhe 422. 

Interrogative Pronoun. 1 1 c 

Forms to be observed in GAv. and YAv. 
400. GAv. has generally the same forms as YAv., 
but shows also some peculiarities to be marked ; these are 
occasionally found likewise in YAv., perhaps borrowed. 

401. Singular: 
Nom. : YAv. yas-ca, yas> tl. In YAv. (commonly in late passages, but cf. 

Yt. 10.119) the form yd is sometimes found as general relative case, 

cf. 384, and under Syntax. GAv. yf, yas-cS (also YAv. borrowed 

yi, cf. 400). 

Ace.: GAv. y!m, yim, see 32, 30. 
Abl. : YAv. also yahmSf, on d see 19 (b).^ GAv. once adverbial ySf 

Ys. 36.6 = Ys. 58.8, like Skt. yat, cf. Whitney 509 a. 
Gen. : GAv. yehya, see 1 3?. 
Loc. : YAv. also (with postpos. a 380) yaAmya.^GA.v. only yahmi. 

402. Plural: 
Nom. : YGAv. yai-ca, yag-ca. In YAv. (late) a form ya as nom. 'ace. pi. 

(cf. tS, 413) occurs, cf. noun-inflection a-stems 236. 
Ace. : GAv. ytyg, yitigs-tu, yqs-fS. 

Instr. : YAv., ySii commonly occurs as general plural case, cf. 384. 
Dat. Abl. : GAv. yaPbyas-c&. 

ii. NEUTER. 
403. Singular: 

Nom. Ace. : YAv. also yim like neut. noun-declension, but generally in late 
passages. On yas-ca = yaf-ca see 151 Note. GAv. hyaf (variants 

y a t> yi a t> e - g- Ys - 28 -9i 30-6 etc.). 

404. Plural: 
Nom. Ace. : YAv. also neut. (like fern. 383) y&. 

405. Plural: 

Nom. Ace.: YAv. ys-ca. Also rare (like neut.) ya, cf. Ys. 10.78. GAv. 

3. Interrogative Pronoun. 

406. Interrogative Av. -9 ka- 'who, which, what?' 
= Skt. kd-. 

Il6 Inflection: Declension of Pronouns. 

The interrogative ka-, kd- = Skt. kd-, kd-, is identical 
in inflection with the relative and requires no full paradigm 
to be given. Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 504. 


Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

N. k-5 k-ds 

A. k-9m etc k-dm 

ii. NEUTER. 

Sg. N.A.V. k-af etc . . k-dt 


Sg. N. k-d etc k-d 

Note. YAv. also an instr. sg. kana = Skt. ktna beside Av. kS. 
YAv. also dat. cahm&i (indef.) beside kahm&i; GAv. cahyS. beside kahyS. 
YAv. as gen. pi. (or perhaps fern. sg. form = neut.) kqm m. f. 

407. Some special forms of interrogative are 
worthy of note. 

1) Stem ki-, ft- 'quis': Sg. Nom. (m. f.) cii, cf. Skt. nd-kis; Ace. 
(m. n.) dm, cJm, cf. Skt. kim.^Pl. Nom. (m. n.) kaya, cayd. ^Neut. also 
Sg. Nom. Ace. '/, /. 

2) Stem kati-, catl- 'what , how much' : Sg. Ace. (neut.) cafti = 
Skt. kali. 

Note. Here also Av. etna- 'what'. Likewise some forms of the inter- 
rogative used adverbially : e. g. kaf 'how, nonne ?'. cu 'how'. Perhaps 
kirn Vd. 17.1 (?). Uncertain cyavhal 'how' Ys. 44.12 abl. (?) or ci-avhaf 


408. The indefinite force is usually given in Av., 
as in Skt., by combining a particle -cif, -/=Skt. -cit, -ca, 
-ca etc - with th e interrogative or relative. Sometimes it 
is added by the particle -cina (-cana Afr. 3.7 = Skt. -cand\ 
which is likewise attached to nouns and adjectives; some- 
times, again, reduplication of the pronoun (rel. interrog.) 
gives an indefinite or a distributive* force. 

Av. kahmdicif 'to whomsoever' = Skt. kdsmdicit; 
Av. kapacina 'howsoever, in any way' ; cayascd 'qui- 

Demonstrative Pronouns. 


cunque' Ys. 45.5, cicd 'quaecunque' Ys. 47.5 (fr. ci -f 
ca) ; yapa kafraca 'even as', kahmi kahmicif 'in any 
case whatever', et al. 

Note. Indefinite negatives are Av. nai-cii 'no one' = Skt. nd-kis ; 
Av. mH-ciS (imperative) 'no one' = Skt. md-kis. 

4. Demonstrative Pronouns. 

409. (a) Demonstrative Av. -**> ta- 'this' = Skt. td- 
The demonstrative stem ha-, hd-, ta- '6, TI, TO' = Skt. 

sd-, sd-, td-, serves also as personal of the third person. 

Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 495. 


Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

N. h-0 s-ds 

A. t-tm t-am 

I. t-d t-tna 

G. t-ahe l t-dsya 


N.A.V. t-d 2 , t-to* t j t t-tu 

N. t-e .- t-i 

A. t-q, t-dn 

I. t-dis t-ais 

D.Abl. t-aeibyo t-ibhyas 


Sg. N.A.V. t-af . t-dt 

PL N.A.V. t-d . . t-i (Ved.) 

Singular : 

N. h~d .....' s-d 

A. t-ajnt * - , ,. 


N.A. t-a 

1 See Vd. 6.29 with v. 1. ca Al. * Yt. 8.22 

I 1 8 Inflection : Declension of Pronouns. 

Forms to be observed in GAv. and YAv. 
410. GAv. has in general the same forms as YAv., 
but shows also some peculiarities; these are occasionally 
found likewise in YAv., perhaps borrowed. 

41 1. Singular: 

Nom. : YAv. has-cif. Observe ha. Vsp. ra.i = Skt. sd, Whitney, Skt. Gram. 
498, 1 76 a, also Av. al$a 418. GAv. hi Ys. 58.4, hJ-cH Ys. 46.1 ; 
cf. also at Vsp. 12.1, Ys. 27.6; YAv. (Gatha reminiscence?) hi-ca. 
Ace. : GAv. tim, see 32 for 3. 

412. Dual: 
Nom.: GAv. tot Ys. 34.11 is probably used as fern. du. 

413. Plural :- 
Nom. : YAv. tai-ca. Also rare (like neut. or a-decl.) ta, cf. 236. GAv. 

toi, tal-ctl. 
Ace.: YAv. also (sec nom.) te, cf. 380. Late /J. GAv. tStig, tq/-cS, 

and later dialect tq Ys. 63.1 =Ys. 15.2. 

414. Plural: 
Ace. : YAv. also (like fern., see 383) /<, t<9s-ca. 

415. Plural : 

Ace.: YAv. rarely (like neut., cf. 383) 15 Yt. 10.79, cf. similarly ya 405. 
GAv. t&s-ca. 

416. Here is to be added also G(Y)Av. nomina- 
tive singular hvo 'ille, ipse', dative hvdvya (like ma- 
vyd) properly originally reflexive, see 398, 436 N. I, 3. 

Note. In oldest GAv., hvo takes the place of demonstr. ho, which 
form does not occur in the metrical Gathas. 

417. (b) Demonstrative Av. --"ro^ aeta- 'this' = 
Skt. etd-. 

The demonstrative aea-, ae$a-, aeta- 'this, here' = Skt. 
c$d-, e$d-, etd-, is identical in declension with ha-, hd-, ta- 
from which it is derived by prefixing ae- which makes it 
the nearer demonstrative. The only GAv. form noted is 

Demonstrative Pronouns. 


nom. sg. fern, aejd 12.9 (later GAv.). Cf. Whitney, Skt. 
Gram. 499 b. 


Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

N. ae-5 ............ g f -ds 

A. aet-3m ... .......... gt-dm 

I. aet-a ............ gt-ina 

D. aet-ahmdi .......... gt-dsmai 

Abl. aet-ahmdf .......... gt-dsmst 

G. aet-ahe ........... et-dsya 

L. aet-ahmi . .......... it-dsmin 


G. aet-aym ........... it-dyos 

Plural : 

N.(A.) aet-e . . . ......... gt-i 

G. aet-ae$qm, .......... it-it&m 

L. aet-ae$va ........... it-tfu 

ii. NEUTER. 

Sg. N.A.V. aet-af .......... . gt-dt 

pi. N.A.V. aet-a ..... ...... gt-d 


N. ae$-a ............ g f -d 

A. aet-ajm ............ it-Am 

I. aet-aya ........... gt-dya 

G. aet-avhcB l , aet-aym ....... gt-dsyts 

Forms to be observed in GAv. and YAv. 

418. Singular: 
Nom.: YAv. also agfa = Skt. gfd, Whitney, Skt. Gram. 1 76 a, cf. ha 

above 411. 
419. Plural: 

Nom. Ace.: YAv. notice that alte like tl above 413, 380 serves as both 
nom. and ace. masc. and also neut. 

1 See 134. 

I2O Inflection: Declension of Pronouns. 

420. Plural: 

Norn. Ace. : YAv. also (like fern., 383) aita.On altt see 380. 
Gen.: YAv. also (contaminated with fern.) altawhqm. 

421. Singular: 

Nom. : GAv. (only occurrence) ag$& Ys. 12.9. 

Gen. : YAv. the form altaytS, altayas-cif follows the noun-inflection, <T-decl. 

422. (c) Demonstrative Av. fy~ aem 'this' = Skt. ay dm. 

The demonstrative aim, as in Skt., is made up from 
defective stems a-, i-, ima-, ana- = Skt. a-, i-, ima-, ana- 
combined to fill out a complete declension. 

It is to be observed (in GAv. it is evident) that beside the accented 
forms, there occur likewise unaccented forms (not found at beginning of 
a pada). These forms generally come from the brief stem. 


Av. Singular: cf. Skt 

N. aem 1 aydm 

A. imym imam 

T ^ -"^O 

1. C,_55-^ anina 

D. ahmdi 

Abl. ahmdf 

G. ahe, aiyhe* asyd 

T ,X^^7 

.L..^ anmi asmtn 


N.A.V. ima imd (Ved.) 

| ayd) aySs (Ved.) 

I anaycb 3 

N. ime ............ imt 

A. im<i 

I. aeibis (YAv.), anais (GAv.) 
D.Abl. aeibyo ........ 

G. aefam 

L. aefu, ae$va 

1 i. e. aytrn, 64. 2 See 136, 137. ' Uncertain, see Vd. 4.48. 

Demonstrative Pronouns. 121 

Av. U. NEUTER. cf. Skt. 

Sg. N.A.V. imaf .......... it/dm 

pi. N.A.V. ima .......... im& (Ved.) 


Singular : 

N. tm*) ........... iydm 

A. imajin ........... imam 

I. ay a, aya .......... ayd (Ved.) 

D. aiqhdi ........... asyai 

Abl. a*y/ld ........... see gen. 

G. OJIghai ........... asyds 

L. a'y/ie* ........... asydm 


I.D.Abl. dbyd (GAv.) 


N.A. imco ........... imds 

I. dbls ........... 

D.Abl. dbyd ........... 

G. mwhqin. .......... ssdm 

L. dhii (GAv.), dhva ....... asu 

Forms to be observed in GAv. and YAv. 

423. GAv. has in general the same forms as YAv., 
with lengthened final wherever possible. There are also 
some peculiarities worthy of note. 

424. Singular: 

Nom. : GAv. also ayim beside aim, see 32. 
Abl.: YAv. also ahtnUf, on A see 19(0). 
Gen.: GAv. ahyd, atya-ca, cf. 132, 133. 
Loc. : YAv. also (with postpos. a, 379) ahmya. 

1 i. e. iytm, see 63, 51. * i. e. orig. *asyd(m). 

122 Inflection: Declension of Pronouns. 

425. Dual: 
Gen.: GAv. also (from stem a-, 431) &s-c3. 

426. Plural: 

Nom. (Ace.): YAv. ime serves also as ace. pi., see 380. 
Instr. : GAv. observe the form anSil above from stem ana-, and Si! below 

431 from stem a-. 
Dat. Abl.: YAv. al'^yas-cif. 

427. Singular: 

Nom. Ace. : YAv. observe imaf above as opposed to .Skt. iddm. 

428. Plural: 
N.A.V. : YAv. also (like fern., 383) im&. GAv. regularly imS which is 

the only GAv. instance noted of this stem i/na-. 
Loc. : YAv. also (see fern. 383) avhqm. 

429. Singular: 

Instr. : GAv. oyS cf. YAv. ayS above in paradigm. 
Dat.: GAv. afyOi, cf. 133. 
Abl.: YAv. also a'yhaf, on & see I9(b). 
Gen. : YAv. a*yfuBs-ca, see 1 24 Note. 
Loc. : YAv. also, identical with instrumental, aya. 

430. Plural: 

Nom. Ace. : YAv., also a form im<s* before /, see 1 24 Note. 
Dat. Abl. : YAv., also S'byas-cif, a^wyas-ca, on a see 19 Note. 

431. Directly from stem a- come: Singular. Ace. 
Neut. (as particle) 0/(GYAv.); Dat. (uncertain?) ai Vd. 3.23 
(neut. fern.); Abl. (as particle) df (GAv.), daf (YAv.). 
Dual. Gen. (Ss-cd (GAv.). Plural. Instr. (also used advbl.) 
diS (GAv.). 

432. (d) Demonstrative hdu, ava- 'that' = Skt. 
asdu, . 

The remote demonstrative in Av. ava- 'that, yonder' 
(cf. Old Pers. ava-), combined with hdu, is to be con- 
trasted with Skt. amu- , asdu-. The Av. shows ava- 
throughout where the Skt. has amu-. Cf. Whitney, Skt. 
Gram. 501. 

Pronominal Words and Derivatives. 



Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

N. hdu as&u 

A. ao-m 1 

I. av-a 

G. av-aiqhe 

Plural : 

N.(A.) av-e 

I. av-dis 

G. av-ae$cpn . 

ii. NEUTER. 

Sg. N.A.V. av-a{, ao-m 

PL N.A.V. av-a 


Singular : 
N. hdu 

A. av-qm 


N.A. av-m 

D.Abl. av-abyo 

Forms to be observed in GAv. and YAv. 

433. Plural. Ace. Neut. : YAv. also (neut. like fern. 383) av&. 
Note. For the derivatives avaijt-, avavatit- (ava^t-) from ova- see 441. 

5. Other Pronominal Words and Derivatives. 

Possessive Reflexive, 
Pronominal Derivatives and Adverbs. 
434. Under the above head belong the possessives 
and a number of words which have chiefly the nature of 

1 i. e. *avtm, 63. 

124 Inflection: Declension of Pronouns. 

adjectives and are inflected partly according to the pro- 
nominal declension, partly according to the nominal. They 
answer in general to corresponding forms in Sanskrit. 
Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 515 seq. 

Possessive Reflexive. 

435. Here may be enumerated as connected with 
the personal pronoun, the following possessive (and re- 
flexive) forms: Av. ma- 'meus', pwa- 'tuus', hva-, ha-, 
hava- (reflexive) 'suus', ahmaka- 'our', yu$mdka-, tysmdka- 
'your'. mavant- 'like me', pwdva^t- 'like thee', yii$mavaiit-, 
t- 'like you'. Ivaepaipya- 'own'. 

Other Pronominal Derivatives and Adverbs. 
436. The following derivatives may further be 
noted: Relative, yavaitf- 'how much', yatdra- 'which of 
two'. Interrogative, cva^t- 'how much?', katdra- 'which of 
two?'. Demonstrative, aetavarit- 'so much', avatit- 'that, 
such', avavatit- (avaqf- 194) 'so much'. Likewise here, 
numerous pronominal adverbs ya-pa 'how, as', ka-da 
'how, when?', cu 'how?', i-da 'here', etc. 

Note I. Here observe Av. htato 'reciprocally, each other' = Skt. svdtas. 

Note 2. On hvd 'ipse, ille' as personal pronoun, see 398, 416. 

Note 3. From same stem as hvd (in Note 2) comes the interesting 
reflex, dat. hvavOya 'self (like m&vya 388), cf. LaL s(v)ibi. 

Note 4.. From an assumed demonstrative stem tva- comes the neut. 
adverb pwaf 'then again' Ys. 44.3 = Skt. tvat. 

Note 5. Instances of GAv. ahya gen. of demonstr. (= pers.), from 
aim 422, instead of the reflex, possessive, occur. 

Declension of Pronominal Derivatives. 

437. In regard to inflection, the pronominal deriva- 
tives follow partly the pronominal declension and partly 
the nominal. The following forms of the possessives 
(reflexive), and of the demonstrative derivatives de- 
clined according to the pronominal declension are worthy 
of note. 

Pronominal Words and Derivatives. 125 

438. i. Declension of the possessive pronoun GAv. 
ma- 'meus'. 

i H. MASC. NEUT. Sg. Norn, mi; Dat. mahm&i; Gen. mahyS. 
PL Ace. (Neut.) mS. Hi. FEM. Sg. Gen. mahyO> ( 133). 

439. ii. Declension of the possessive pronoun GAv. 
pwa- 'tuus'. 

i H. MASC. NEUT. Sg. Norn. pwS; Instr. PW&; Dat. pwahmai; 
Abl. Jrwahmdf; Gen. pwaJiya \ Loc. pwahmi. PL Nom. ]rwdi (masc.) ; 
Ace. PW& (neut.). Hi. FEM. Sg. Nom. Jnvoi ; Gen. fwafytt. PI. 
Loc. frw&hu. 

440. iii. Declension of GYAv. hva~, hra~ (hava-) 
'suus' = Skt. svd. GAv. has only -, YAv. -t (from 
GAv.), -war and -oh-ar. 

i ii. MASC. NEUT. Sg. Nom. h>3 (GAv.), hvo (YAv.); Instr. ha; 
Gen. bake; Loc. ^aAmi. 'Du. Ace. hva. PL Instr. A-a//; Loc. 
/i'a^w (? emended Fn. 4.2). iii. FEM. Nom. hae-c& (GAv.), hva (YAv.); 
Dat. kaiiy&i. 

Note i. From the by-form hava- come: Masc. Neut. Sg. Nom. 
havo; Ace. haom ( 64); Instr. hava; etc. regularly according to nominal 
declension ( 236 fl-decl.).^Fem. Sg. Nom. hava; Ace. havqm; Dat. havayal 
with variant haoyai ( 62, 2) ; Gen. havay& beside haoytS ( 62, 2). 

Note 2. The possessives ahmaka- 'our', JnvSvant- 'like thee' etc. 
follow the noun-inflection. 

Note 3. Observe that ahmaktm , yavahm , yajmaktw employed as 
'genitives' of the personal pronoun 386, 390, are really stereotyped 
cases of possessive adjectives , as similarly in Skt. asmakam, yav&ku, yuf- 

441. iv. Declension of the demonstrative deriva- 
tive avatit- 'that, such', from stem ava- 430. This is 
to be distinguished from avavattt- (ava^t- 194) in 442. 

MASC. Sg. Nom. av&. PL Dat. Abl. avafbyo. NEUT. Sg. Nom. 
Ace. aval above in paradigm. 

442. v. Declension of the demonstrative derivative 
avavatit- (avarit- 194, cf. variants) 'so great' to be 
distinguished from ava^t- 441. 

Sg. Nom. (neut.) avavaf; Ace. (masc.) avOqtym ( 194, 44) and 
avavatfttm (neut. adv. fl-decl.); Instr. avavata; Gen. 
PL Gen. avavatqm. 

I 26 Inflection : Adjectives declined pronominally. 

Adjectives declined pronominally. 

443. A few adjectives in Av., like their correspond- 
ing Skt. equivalents, also follow the pronominal declension 
wholly or in part. Cf. Whitney, Skt. Grant. 522 seq. 
Instances are: Av. aeva- 'one, alone'; Av. any a- 'other' = 
Skt. any a-; Av. vispa- 'all' = Skt. visva-. 

For example: PI. Norn. Ace. m. vispe, visps (pronominal) 
beside Nora. m. vispAvko; Ace. vlspis-ca (YAv.), vispqs-cS, vtsping 
(GAv.) i.e. nominal declension; Gen. vtspaijqm (pronominal) be- 
side vispanqm (nominal) ; et al. 



444. The Avesta verb corresponds closely to the 
Sanskrit in form, character, and in usage. The Av. texts, 
however, are not so extensive as to give the verb com- 
plete in all its parts ; some few gaps in the conjugation- 
system therefore occur. 

Modelled after the Sanskrit, the Avesta verbal system 
may be presented as on the next page. 

445. Voice, Mode, Tense. The Av. agrees with 
the Skt. especially with the language of the Vedas in 
voices active, middle (passive), in tenses present (and 
preterite) , perfect (and pluperfect) , aorist , future , and in 
modes indicative, imperative, subjunctive, optative. In 
usage likewise these generally correspond with the Sanskrit. 

Note i. The middle voice, as in Skt., is often used with a pas- 
sive force. A formative passive, as in Skt, however also occurs (cf. V. a). 

Note 2. Under tenses, observe that 'injunctive' or 'improper sub- 
junctive' is a convenient designation for certain forms of augmentless pre- 
terites used with imperative force. These are enumerated under the simple 
preterite. Cf. Whitney, S6/. Gram. % 563. 

446. Infinitive, Participle. Like the Skt., the Av. 
conjugation-system possesses also infinitive forms (abstract 
verbal nouns) and participial forms (active and middle in 
each tense-system) and gerundives. See VI below. 

447. Person, Number. The Av. like the Skt. 
distinguishes three persons, and three numbers. 

Note. It is to be observed that the first persons imperat. are sup- 
plied by subjunctive forms. 


Inflection: Conjugation of Verbs. 




I. Present-System := 

(10 Classes) 

II. Perfect-System 

III. Aorist-System :=" 

(non -s-, and j-Class) M 

a. Present. 

1. Indicative b. Preterite 


2. Imperative. 

3. Subjunctive (Pres. and Pret. 

4. Optative. 

5. Participle. 

i. Indicative 

a. Perfect 

b. Pluperfect 

a. Imperative. 

3. Subjunctive (Pres. and Pret. 

4. Optative. 

5. Participle. 

1. Indicative (Preterite = Aor.). 

2. Imperative. 

3. Subjunctive (Pres. and Pret. 

4. Optative. 

5. Participle. 

TXT c* * o I * Indicative 

IV. Future-System { 

I 2. Participle. 

(Act. and Mid.). 

V. Secondary Conjugations. 

a. Passive. d. Inchoative. 

b. Causative. e. Desiderative. 

c. Denominative. f. Intensive. 

VI. Verbal Abstract Forms. 

a. Participles, b. Gerunds, c. Infinitives. 

VII. Periphrastic Verbal Phrases. 

Personal Endings of Verbs. 


448. Personal Endings. These are either (a) pri- 
mary (pres. and fut. indie., and partly subjunct.) or they 
are (b) secondary (pret. indie., opt., aor., and partly 
subjunct.). Some individual peculiarities of form occur in 
(c) the imperative and in (d) the p e r f e c t ; the endings, 
therefore, of the latter two also are separately enumerated. 

The scheme of normal endings in comparison with the 
Skt, cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 553 is as follows: 

(Observe the Av. 3 du. forms often identical with Skt. 2 du.) 

a. Primary Endings. 

Av. Singular: cf. Skt. Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 
I . -mi . ... -mi -e -i 

2. -hi (-ft) . . -si (- f i} -(w)he (-fe) . . . - s g (- f e) 
3. -// ti -te ti 

Dual : Dual : 

1 . -vaki (GAv.) -vas . vahe 

2. tkas -Sthl 

3. -to, -po . . -tas -ape ati 

Plural : Plural : 

1 . -maht . . . -mast (Ved.) -m&de mate 

2. -pa tha -pwe dkvi 

3- -nti nti -ntt nti 

b. Secondary Endings. 


Av. Singular: cf. Skt. Ay. Singular: cf. Skt. 

1 . -m -in -I, -& -i, -a 

2. -s (-1) . . . . -s (-s) -vha (-fa) . . . [-ths*] 

3. -/....'.-/ -ta to. 

Dual : Dual : 

1 . -Va -va -vahi 

2. tarn -ath&m 

3. -t9in tarn -dtJill at&m 



Inflection : Conjugation of Verbs. 

Plural : 

I. -ma 

2. -fa 

3. -n 


-matdi (GAv.) 
(YAv.) . 


2. -di, 


c. Imperative Endings. 


Singular: cf. Skt. 

. . . -dhi, 


2. -ta, -; 


Av. Singular : 

-wuha (-$vd) 
-tain . . . , 




cf. Skt 

-sva - 



d. Perfect Endings. 


i -a 

Singular: cf. Skt. 


Singular: cf. Skt. 

2. -pa 

. -tha 




-e . 

. -i 

Dual : Dual : 

1. -va 

2. athur 

3. -atar' .... -atur 

I. -ma .... -ma 

2. -a -a 

3. -ar 9 , -ar's . . -ur 

General Remarks on the Endings. 
449. In general, GAv. has the same forms as YAv. 
above, with the long final vowel wherever possible, cf. 
26; but there are also a number of peculiarities to be 
remarked upon in connection with GAv. as well as with 
reference to YAv. 

. -&thl 


(GAv.) . 

. -&tl 

. -dhvi 

. -rl 

1 Sporadic, cf. 457. 

Remarks on the Endings. j 3 j 

Note. Observe that Av. 3 du. is in form often like Skt. 2 du. : 
e. g. Av. -pd (beside -to) 3 du. pres. act. = Skt. -fas 3 du. (but -thas 2 du.) ; 
again Av. -ttm 3 du. pret. act. = Skt. -lam 3 du. (but -tarn 2 du.), et 
al. Compare the Homeric interchange of -TOY, -T)V in secondary tenses. 

a. Primary Endings (Observations). 
450. Singular: 

First Person: i. ACTIVE. Indicative. GYAv. also -S, -a i. e. GAv. 
has -& regularly in the thematic or a-conjugation pres. indie. , and 
-ml in the unthematic or non-a-conj. pres. indie. ; but in YAv. this 
distinction is not sharply drawn. Subjunctive. YAv. -ni, -a,' 
GAv. -ni, -a. H. MIDDLE. Indicative. GAv. also -oi (56, be- 
side -<?). Subjunctive. GYAv. -m, -ne, -Si (i.e. <*-)-*). 

Second Person: i. ACTIVE. Subjunctive. In later texts of YAv. -S(h)i 
sometimes drops its h and becomes -at, e. g. YAv. yaz&i 'mayest 
thou worship' Yt. 10.140. ii. MIDDLE. Indicative. YAv., observe 
-se (after -d [-t] 151, 186) raose 'thou growest' Ys. 10.4. GAv. 
also indie, subjunct. -vhdi 56. 

Third Person: ii. MIDDLE. GYAv. also (but not common; cf. also perf. 
below) like I sg. -e = Skt. -i beside te. 

451. Dual: 

Third Person: i. ACTIVE. YAv., observe -/J in y&dyapd 'they both fight' 
Yt. 8.22, a 3 du.-form (like Skt. -thas 2 du.-form) beside -to above, 
see 449 Note. ii. MIDDLE. YGAv. occasionally -te or -a'te e.g. 
Karaite 'they two bring' ZPhl. Gloss, pp. 54. 8= 107. 13, vtr'nva'tf 
'both believe* (indie.) Ys. 31.17. Again -til, GAv. jamagti 'they 
both may come' (aor. subjunct.) Ys. 44.15. 

452. Plural: 

First Person: ii. MIDDLE. YAv. only occasionally is the MS. variant 
'tnafde (observe a") is noted. 

Second Person: ii. MIDDLE. GAv. regularly -duye = Skt. -dhvi 190. 

Third Person: i. ACTIVE H. MIDDLE. Indicative. YGAv. occasionally 
have in the 3 pi. of the non-rt-conjugation (unthematic) the form 
-a'ti (i. e. -nti) or even -ff'ti = Skt. -aft in the active , and -a'te 
(i. e. -nti} = Skt. -atl in the mid. ; but more commonly in the non- 
a-conj. (unthematic) the ending (-aifti} -fqti, (-anti) -tnte of the 
a-conj. (thematic) is assumed instead. Uncommon in the pres. is 
-re, cf. indicative soire 'they lie down' Yt. 10.80 = Skt. sire Whitney, 
Skt. Gram. 629, and subjunctive mrav&'re 'they may say' 
Yt. 13.64, nijrd're 'they may throw 1 Yt. 10.40, cf. 486, 521. 

Inflection: Conjugation of Verbs. 

b. Secondary Endings (Observations). 
453. Singular: 

First Person: H. MIDDLE. Observe that the normal ending / coalesces 
with the final of an fl-stem into -e: e. g. ajfuze 'I hid myself opp. 
to aoji 'I spake'. The ending -a is found in the optative. 

Second Person:!. ACTIVE. The normal ending -s unites with a in the 
a-conj. and gives -6 (-# subjunct.); the /-form occurs according to 
rule 156. ii. MIDDLE. YGAv. notice the suffix is -sa (cf. Gk. -oo) 
contrasted with Skt. -th&s. 

Third Person: i. ACTIVE. YGAv., orig. t is retained (unchanged to -/) 
after s (3), e.g. moist 'he turned', tdilt 'he promised', 81, 192. 
Notice as (i. e. Ss-t] 'he was' and etnas 'he promised' 192 Note. 
454. Dual:- 

Third Person: i. ACTIVE. YAv., observe that the 3 du. Av. -ttm is in 
form like the 2 du. Skt. -tarn on this interchange in form between 
3 du. and 2 du. see 449 Note. ii. MIDDLE. YGAv., note Av. -attrn 
opp. to Skt. -atam , see again 449 Note. Again (like primary 

2 du., but) with secondary meaning YAv. -a'pe = Skt. -athi and 
some other forms see Bartholomae, K.Z. xxix. p. 286 seq. = Flexions- 
lehre p. 17 seq. 

455. Plural: 

First Person: ii. MIDDLE. Observe that GAv. has a proper secondary end- 
ing '/na'Jt (cf. opt. va'rima'di) = Skt. -mahi, but YAv. substitutes 
for this -nia'de drawn from the present. 

Second Person: ii. MIDDLE. GAv. shows -dum = Skt. -dhvdm, 63. 

Third Person: i. ACTIVE. In redupl. formations GAv. has occasionally 
an unthematic 3 pi. pret. in -af (i.'e. -ni) corresponding to the oc- 
casional -ati = -nti of the pres., e. g. zazaf 'they drove away', et al. 
GYAv., remark also opt. -ar's, -ar>, thus biiyar'S 'they would be', 
hyar* beside hyqn. Also ~ar* aor. pret. GAv. adar* 'they made' 
Ys. 43.15 = Skt. ddur; YAv. alkar' 'they elapsed' Vd. 1.4, cf. 
Whitney, Skt. Gram. 829, 550 cf. also under perfect endings 
(Pf. ii, below). ii. MIDDLE. YAv. also sporadic traces of secondary 

3 pi. mid. -run = Skt. -rain in Av. vaozinm Yt. 19.69, cf. Whitney, 
Skt. Gram. 834 b (perhaps best as pluperf.). 

c. Imperative Endings (Observations). 
456. Singular: 

Second Person: i. ACTIVE. YGAv., the <7 -verbs (thematic) have no end- 
ing, the simple stem form in -a, -a is used. The non-a-verbs (un- 
thematic) show -tti (-di 83, i), GAv. -di. ii. MIDDLE. YAv. re- 



gularly -vuha = Skt. -sva GAv. -sva (in dasvS 'give' = *dad-sva 
1 86), -fv&, -hva 130, 2 a. 

Third Person: H. MIDDLE. A suffix -$;# = Skt. -dm, 3 sg. mid. is found 
in GAv. ir'tucqm 'let him speak aright" Ys. 48.9, vidqm 'shall de- 
cide' vi -\- d& Ys. 32.6, Geldner, in B.B. xv. p. 261, cf. Whitney, 
Skt. Gram. 618. 
457. Plural: 

Second Person: i. ACTIVE H. MIDDLE. The forms are undistinguishable 
from an augmentless imperfect 445 Note 2. A genuine instance 
of -na cf. Skt. -tana 2 pi. active imperat. is GAv. barana Ys. 30.9, 
cf. Skt. bhajatana, Whitney, Skt. Gram. 740. 

Third Person: i. ACTIVE H. MIDDLE. The endings -aqtu, -ytttu, -ttitqw 
occur in both o-verbs and in non-ff-verbs (in the latter case by 
transfer 471 to a-conj.). 

d. Perfect Endings. 
458. For observations on the perfect endings see Pf. ii below. 


i. Indicative Mode. 

459. The indicative has no special mode-sign other 
than the use of the present stem itself. The endings are the 
primary in the present, the secondary in the preterite. 

Note. For special remarks on the strong and weak stem-forms in 
the indicative, see below 467, 476 and observe under the different con- 
jugation classes. 

2. Imperative Mode. 
(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 569.) 

460. The imperative has no characteristic mode- 
sign, the stem is identical with that of the indicative, the 
special endings are simply added. 

Note i. For special remarks on the strong and weak stem-forms 
see below under the imperatives of the various conjugation-classes. 
Note 2. For remarks on the endings see 456. 

3. Subjunctive Mode. 
(Cf. Whitney, SAl. Gram. 557 seq.) 

461. In Av., as in Skt., the subjunctive has as its 
characteristic mark an a added to the stem to form the 

I 34 

Inflection : Conjugation of Verbs. 

special mode-stem. In the ^-conjugation (thematic) this a 
unites of course with the stem-final and forms a: e. g. 
(i) thematic 0-stem, Av. bar-d-hi 'mayest thou bear' 
(i.e. bara-a-hi) = Skt. bhdr-d-si; (2) unthematic, Av. 
jan-a-Hi 'may he smite' (cf. pres. indicat. ja^-ti) = Skt. 

462. The endings of the subjunctive are partly primary (i. e. 
pres. subjunct.) , partly secondary (i. e. pret. subjunct.). the former 
predominating. Observe in i sg. active YGAv. -/, -/ (i. e. -ant) or also 
YGAv. -a, -&; and in I sg. middle it is -nt (i. e. -ant) beside -Si. Cf. 
\Vhitney, Skt. Gram. 562. 

Subjunctive Endings combined with Mode-Sign. 


I -"' 


Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

-Sni, -a -Sni, -S 

-ahi, (-5[h]i) . . . -asi 

-<& -as 

i -ati 


11. MIDDLE. 

Av. Singular : cf. Skt. 

-one, -Si -Si 

-avhe -asi 

-ats -ate 

-ata . 

Dual : 

Dual : 


-a/o . 






-Sma*de ...... -Smahe 

........ -adhvi 


1. -Sma ...... -ffma 

2. -atha ...... -atha 

-nti } 

-tntc, -a l re ..... -anti 
-jn . . . . . . . -an J 

Note i. Observe (late) YAv. 2 sg. -Si = -Shi 450. 

Note 2. On improper subjunctive or imperative see 445 Note 2. 

4. Optative Mode. 
(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 564 seq.) 

463. The characteristic mode-sign of the optative 
in Av., as in Skt., is -yd-, -I- added to the weak-stem for 
the non-tf-conjugation (unthematic), or it is -z- added to the 
regular tense-stem of the class for the ^-conjugation (thematic). 



In the 0-stems (thematic) the mode-sign -z- unites with 
the stem-final a into -ae- (-oi-) 55, 56. In the non- 
tf-conj. the distinction between -yd-, -i- is that -yd- was 
employed in the active and -I- in the middle. 

Note. Instead of --, instances of -t- (21 Note) occur, e. g. daipi$a 
beside da'dTja 'mayest thou give'. Similarly occur instances of -yS- for 
-ya- ( 18 Note i), cf. buyata, buyama 'may ye, we be'. Probably also 
GAv. da'dyaf 5.44.10. 

464. The endings of the optative are the secondary ones through- 
out. In YAv., however, the I pi. mid. -ma'de (primary, e. g. Ys. 9.21) in- 
stead of GAv. -ma'di (secondary) is found. Observe in the a-conj. (thematic) 
the 3 pi. act. mid. Av. -3n, -inla (cf. Gk. Xdy-ot-ev, Xdy-oi-vco) is to be 
contrasted with Av. non-a-verbs which show -ar, -ar'it = Skt. -ur, -ran 
(act. mid. in both a- and non-a-stems). 

Optative Endings combined with Mode-Sign. 
a. a-conjugation (thematic). 


Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

1. -lyam 

2. -dii -is 

3. -dit -it 


I. -alma . . -gma 


Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

-aya 1 -gya 

-alja -ethos 




-oimaidi (GAv.) 1 
-dimaide (YAv.) j ' 

2. -aeta 

3. -aytn 



b. Non-a-conjugation (unthematic). 

Singular: cf. Skt. Av. Singular: 


1. -yqm -yam 

2. -}'<& -yas 

3- -y*t -9** 


1. -y'ama* -y&ma 

2. -yata -yata 

{-yqn ...... 

-yar ...... -yur 



cf. Skt 

-Jfa ........ -ithas 

-Ita ........ -ita 


-imafdl ....... -tmahi 

. . . -id/tvam 


1 Cf. Ys. 8.7. J See Yt. 24.58. 

136 Inflection: Conjugation of Verbs. 

Reduplication and Augment. 

a. Reduplication. 
(Cf. Whitney, SAt. Gram. 588 seq.) 

465. (a) Reduplication in Av., as in Skt., is found 
in certain parts of the verb-conjugation (pres. of 3rd. 
class, and in the desiderative, and intensive), in the per- 
fect, and sometimes in the aorist. The reduplication 
consists in the repetition of a part of the root. The rules 
of reduplication should be noted: 

(b) A long internal or final vowel of the root is 
commonly shortened in the reduplicated syllable; sometimes 
see desiderative, intensive it is lengthened or strengthened. 
Radical ar (r-vowel) is reduplicated by *. An initial vowel, 
by repetition of itself, of course merely becomes long in 

(c) Roots beginning with a consonant repeat that 
consonant, but a guttural is reduplicated by the cor- 
responding palatal; an originals (including st, sp, sin) 
is reduplicated by h, an orig. palatal.? by s, an initial 
spirant by the corresponding smooth: e.g. Av.ja-jm-af 
(Vg atn ~ 'g ') hi-sta-*ti (V std~ 'stand'), hi-spds-amna (Y^spas- 
'see'), hi-smar-anto (\fmar-, *smar- 'remember'), tu-pru-ye 
(YP ru ' 'nourish'). 

Note I. The original guttural instead of palatal is retained in re- 
duplication before u, cf. Av. ku-fy$nv-qna (\ffyjnu- 'rejoice, please'). 

Note 2. Observe the redupl. form (desiderative participle) zi-k$n&vh- 
itnn& Yt. 13.49, c ^ Skt. ji-j'ASs-am&n&s. 

b. Augment. 
(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 585.) 

466. In Av. the augment is comparatively rare, 
the instances of its omission far exceed in proportion 
those of the Vedic Sanskrit. 

The augment, as in Skt., consists of short a prefixed 
to the preterite tense imperfect, aorist, pluperfect. This 

Present System. Classes f Verbs. 137 

a, as likewise in Skt., combines with an initial vowel into 
the corresponding vrddhi. 

It is often difficult to decide whether an a is the aug- 
ment a or the verbalprefix a = d. 

Note I. For metrical purposes it seems sometimes that augment 
must be restored in reading where the texts omit it. See Geldner, 
Metrik p. 38. 

Note 2. Instead of a, GAv. shows once a form 5 in augment be- 
fore v, cf. GAv. Jvaocaf (but written /. voacaf) 32. 

Note 3. On augmentless preterites ('injunctive') with imperat.- 
subjunct. force, see 445 Note. 

467. Vowel- Variation (Strong and Weak). In Av., 
quite as in Skt., verb-stems commonly show vowel-variation 
strongest, middle or strong, and weak forms, cf. 235. 
This phenomenon must of course go hand in hand with 
an original shift of accent. 


468. The present-system is the most important 
of the systems, its forms are by far the most frequent in 
occurrence, and upon the basis of present-formation 
may be founded in Av., as in Skt., the conjugation-groups 
and classification of verbs. See the following 469. 

Classes of Verbs. 

469. Taking the Sanskrit Grammar as model, we 
may in the Av. present-system likewise distinguish ten 
classes of verbs according to the method of forming the 
present-stem. In Av., however, the phenomenon of accent 
( 2 end) is not always so clearly discernible. 

The ten classes fall into two great groups of con- 
jugation according as the endings are attached to the root 
with or without the (thematic) stem-vowel a. The 
(I) first group, the thematic or ^-conjugation (Cl. 1,6,4, IO ). 
assumes a in the formation of its present-stem; the 

138 Inflection: Conjugation of Verbs. 

(II) second group, the unthematic or non-a-conjugation 
(Cl. a, 3, 7, 5, 8, 9) , attaches the endings directly to the 
root (the latter as stem, however, subject to modification) 
without this a as formative element of the stem. Cf. Whitney, 
Skt. Gram. 602 seq. 

470. The classification of Av. verbs on the basis 
of the Sanskrit Grammar is the following: 

L ^-Conjugation (thematic). 
First Formation Class I see 478 seq. 

(1) a-class with strengthened root-form = Skt. first 

(bhu-) class. 

Av. ~\fb&-, &av-a-*ti 'he becomes 1 . 
Second Formation Class 6 see 479 seq. 

(6) 0-class with unstrengthened root-form = Skt. sixth 
(tud-) class. 

Av. "\fdruj-, drui-a-*ti 'he deceives'. 
Third Formation Class 4 see 480 seq. 

(4) jj/<z-class (unstrengthened root-form) = Skt. fourth (div-) 

Av. "\fnas-, nas-ye-*ti 'he vanishes'. 
Fourth Formation Class 10 see 481 seq. 

(10) aya-class (strengthened root-form), causal = Skt. tenth 
(cur-) class. 

Av. "\fruc-, raoc-aye-*ti 'he lights up'. 

II. Non-rt-Conjugation (unthematic). 
First Formation Class 2 see 516 seq. 

(2) Root- class root itself is present stem = Skt. second 

(ad~) class. 

Av. "\fjan-, jafn-ti 'he smites'. 
Second Formatjon Class. 3 see 540 seq. 

(3) Reduplicatin-g class root redupl. is pres. stem = 

Skt. third (ku-) class. 

Av. ~\fd3-, da-d&-iti 'he gives'. 

a-Conjugation (thematic): Cl. i, 6, 4, 10. 130, 

Third Formation Class 7 see 554 seq. 

(7) Nasal- class inserted -na- (str.), -n- (wk.) = Skt. seventh 

(rudh-) class. 

Av. "\fric-, iri-na-fyti 'lets go'. 
Fourth Formation Class 5 see 566 seq. 

(5) #-class root adds nao- (str.), nu- (wk.) = Skt. fifth 
(su-) class. 

Av. "\fkar-, ktr'-nao-iti 'he makes'. 
Fifth Formation Class 8 see 577 seq. 

(8) #-class root adds u- alone = Skt. eigth (tan-) class. 

Av. Y S P~> s /W te (i- e. *5p-v-ante 95) 'are overtaken'. 
Sixth Formation Class 9 see 584 seq. 

(9) na- class root adds nd- (str.), n-, na- (wk.) = Skt. ninth 

(krt-) class. 

Av. "\fgarw-, ^fr'w-na-'ti 'he seizes'. 

471. Transfer of Conjugation. A verb is not 
always inflected according to one and the same con- 
jugation and class throughout. The majority of the 
forms of a verb may be made up after one conjugation 
and class of the present system, while a few forms of the 
same verb may be made up after another; the same part 
of the verb being thus occasionally formed according to 
two classes. Instances of such transition in forms from 
one class to another are not rare; in general, examples 
of the tendency for verbs of the non-#-conjugation (un- 
thematic) to pass over to the inflection of the ^-conjugation, 
are not difficult to find. See 529, 553 etc. 

i. The ^-Conjugation (thematic). 

472. General Remark. The thematic or 
jugation in the present-system comprises four classes 
(Cl. i, 6, 4, 10), in all which the endings are attached to 
the root by means of a thematic vowel a (in I person 

140 Inflection: Conjugation of Verbs. 

d, a). The root-vowel may, or may not be strengthened 
according to the class of the verb; it remains then as in 
the indicative throughout the other modes of the present- 
system. The verbs of the a-conj. are numerous. Cf. 
Whitney, Skt. Gram. 733 seq. 

Note. The I p 1 u r. thematic shows a more often than <J (Skt. S) : 

e. g. Av. yaz&ma'de commoner than bar&ma'de. 

Mode Formation Special Remark. 

I. Indicative. 

473. The various endings are simply attached by 
means of the thematic a (in I person a) directly to the 
stem formed according to the rules of its particular class. 

2. Imperative. 

474. The normal endings are attached by means 
of the thematic a directly to the present-stem of the class. 

3. Subjunctive. 

475. The characteristic a of the subjunctive unites 
with the thematic a into d in attaching the subjunctive 
endings given above, 462. 

4. Optative. 

476. In the tf-verbs the optative sign is -I- (instead 
of -yd-) and it unites with the thematic a into -ae- (-5i 56) 
in attaching the endings. 

5. Participle. 

477. The participial forms (verbal adjectives) are 
made in each class by attaching to the present-stem the 
formative element -fit ( 291, -nti fern.) for the active, and 
-mna ( 237, -mnd fern.) also -ana (-ana), see Note for 
the middle. 

Note. On middle ptcpl. in -Sua (-ana) see 507. 

Classes of the ^-Conjugation (thematic). 
Cl. i, 6, 4, 10. 

478. Class i tf-class with strengthened root- 
form = Skt. first (bhu-) class. To form the present-stem, 

a-Conjugation (thematic): Cl. I, 6, 4, 10. \A\ 

the thematic a is attached to the root which has the strong 
(middle) form. Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 734. Examples 
are numerous. 

Av. ybar- 'to bear', 6ar-a-*ti = Skt. bhdr-a-ti; Av. 

ytl$i- 'to rule', ^ay-e^ti = Skt. k$dy-a-ti; Av. ybii- 

'to be', bav-a^ti = Skt. bhdv-a-ti. 

Note i. Here for convenience, as in Skt., may be included the 
roots Av. stS-, had- (orig. redupl.) = Skt. sth&-, sad-, e. g. Av. hiita'ti 'he 
stands' = Skt. ttffhati ; Av. hidaiti 'he sits' == Skt. stdati, cf. Whitney, Skt. 
Gram. 748, 749 a. 

Note 2. Some roots in a -\- cons, show a fluctuation between d and a, 
cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 745 d, e : Av. ~\fnam- 'to bow' has mm-a- be- 
side rtam-a- = Skt. ndm-a- ; Av. ~\fdvar- 'to run' has dvar-a- beside d-var-a-, 
cf. also 1 8 Note I, and Whitney, Skt. Gram. 545 e. 

479. Class 6 0-class with unstrengthened root- 
form = Skt. sixth (tud-) class. The thematic a is simply 
attached to the root in its weak form to make up the 
present-stem. Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 751. 

Av. yis- 'to seek, desire', i^-a^te = Skt. i$-d-te; 
Av. yvis- 'to become', vis-a-iti (cf. 20 on z) = Skt. 
vis-d-ti; et al. 

Note. With nasal strengthening Av. hinc-a-iti 'he sprinkles' tyhic-) 
= Skt. sific-a-ti. 

480. Class 4 jy# -class (unstrengthened root-form) = 

Skt. fourth (div-) class. Also here the Pass i ve, cf.V. a below. 

The present-stem is formed by adding ya- (ye- 34) to the 

simple unstrengthened root. Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 759. 

Av. y-nas- 'to vanish', nas-ye-*ti = Skt. nds-ya-ti; 

Av. yprd- 'to protect', prd-ye-hite = Skt. trd-ya-nte. 

Note I. For the Passive formation see V. a below. 
Note 2. The strong form of the stem (-al- instead of-/-) is to be 
noted in the verb Av. sraij-ye-'ti 'it clings" = Skt. ilif-ya-ti. 

481. Class 10 aj/<z-class (strengthened root-form) 
= Skt. tenth (cur-) class. This class includes in part the 
secondary formation causative, denominative, see V. b, c, be- 
low. The formative element ay a is added to the strengthened 

142 Inflection : Conjugation of Verbs. 

root. The roots in internal a generally, but not always, 
receive the vrddhi strengthening; the roots in i, u com- 
monly receive the guna increase. 

Av. ytap- 'to warm', tdp-aye-*ti = Skt. tdp-dya-ti; 

Av. YP at ~ <to fly' apat-ayy-n = Skt. dpdt-aya-n; Av. 

\fris- 'to wound', raef-aya-f = Skt. re$-dya-t; Av. 

J/>#- 'to light up', raoc-aye-*ti = Skt. roc-dya-ti. 

Note I. Observe that the roots with a do not always show the 
vrddhi stage. 

Note 2. Some exceptions to the rule for guya of /'- and -roots occur. 

Note 3. In Av., as in Skt., a heavy syllable ending in consonant 
does not take vrddhi or 

Paradigms of the ^-Conjugation (thematic). 
Cl. x, 6, 4, 10. 

(Cf. Whitney, S&t. Gram. 734 seq.) 

482. Av. -A*3 bar- 'bear, carry' = Skt. bhdr-. 

Cl. i. Av. $fi- 'rule, possess", zu- 'call, bless, curse', vain- 'see', 
yaz- 'worship', jas- 'come', jtv- 'live', ciJ- 'teach, point out', car- 
'move, go', bar- 'eat', az- 'drive, win', y&s- 'desire, seek', pac- 'cook', 
van- 'win', pwars- 'cut, make', ram- 'delight', miz- 'make urine'. 
CL 6. va!- 'speak', vis- 'become'. Cl. 4. yud- 'fight', zan-, :5- 
'give birth, be born', varz- 'work', bud- 'mark, know'. CL 10. vid- 
'know', ta"rv- 'overcome', var- 'to cover', far- 'go, make go', dar- 
'hold fast', hafi- 'incite'. 

483. i. Indicative. a. Present. 


Av. Singular: cf. Skt 

1. bar-d-mi .......... bhdr-d-mi 

2. bar-a-hi .......... bhdr-a-si 

3. bar-a-ifi .......... bh&r-a-ti 


1. .......... bhar-a-vas 

2. .......... ~bhdr-a-thas 

( bar-a-to .......... ] 

3- { T - f bhar-a-tas 

-a-po y&d 
1 Cf. 449 Note. 

^-Conjugation (thematic): Cl. x, 6, 4, 10. 143 

Av. Plural: cf. Skt. 

I bar-d-mahi .... 

1.1 7 . 

-a-makt vaedayamaht 

2. (bar-a-pa) ftayapa (GAv.) bhdr-a-tha 

3-{ . .. \bhdr-a-nti 

ii. MIDDLE. 
Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

I . . b&r-e bhdr-i 

( bar-a-he l ) 

2.\ , \bhdr-a-3l 

( -a-Vne vafavAe J 

3. bar-a-ite bhdr-a-ti 


1. -v ^. .......... bhdr-S-vaki 

2. ^ >-s. ....... bMr-i-thi 

3. (bar-oi-pe) 


I (bar-d-malde) yazamaide ...... } 

I.j , \bhdr-S-mahi 

I -a-mtfde ......... ) 

2. (bar-a-pwe) carafive 3 . ...... bhar-a-dhvi 

3. bar-9-flte . ......... bh&r-a-ntl 

484. b. Preterite (and Injunctive). 4 

AV Singular: cf. Skt. 

1. bar-9-m . . . ........ d-bhar-a-m 

2. (bar-5) jaso . . ........ d-bhar-a-s 

3. bar-a-f . ... ........ d-bhar-a-t 


I . (bar-d-Va) jvSva 4 ........ d-bhar-S-va 

2. ........... d-bhar-a-tam 

3. (bar-a-hm) ta*rvayat3m* ...... d-bhar-a-t&m 

1 Cf. 1 1 6. - Cf. 449 Note. 8 See Yt. 13.34. * On augment- 
less Fret. Subjunct. Imperat. (Injunctive) see 445. J Cf. 449 Note. 

Inflection: Conjugation of Verbs. 

Av. Plural: cf. Skt. 

| bar-d-ma ......... \ 

I . { d-bhar-S-ma 

\ -a-tna barayama ....... J 

2. (bar-a-ta) ta*rvayata ....... d-bhar-a-ta 

3. bar-9-H ........... d-bhar-a-n 

Singular : 
I . b&r-e l .......... d-Ahar-l 

2. (bar-a-*>ha) zayavha ...... d-bhar-a-thas 

3. bar-a-ta .......... d-bhar-a-ta 

I . .......... d-bhar-S-vahi 

2. .......... d-bhar-i-tham 

I (bar-ae-tim) caljalt>m ..... d-bhar-l-tam 

\(bar-oi-pe) cardibt"* . . . . . . 

Plural : 

I . .......... d-bhar-S-mahi 

2. (bar-a-dw3lri) varayadwtm* .... d-bhar-a-dkvam 

3. (bar-2-tlta) caririta ....... d-bhar-a-n t a 

485. 2. Imperative. 


AT. Singular: cf. Skt. 

2. bar-a ........... bkdr-a 

3. bar-a-tu ........... bhdr-a-tu 

2. (bar-a-ta) hrarata ........ bhdr-a-ta 

I bar-9-ntu 


Singular : 

2. bar-a-vuha .......... bkdr-a-sva 

3. (bar-a-tqni) vtr'zyatqm* ...... bhdr-a-tam 

1 Yt. 5.6, cf. ap>r*se, aguze. * Ys. 9.5, cf. 449 Note, cf. Delbriick, 
Altind. Vb. 106, Bartholomae, Altiran. Vb. p. 52, 53. s Cf. 484 Foot- 
Note 4. * See Vsp. 15.1, best reading. 


3-{ \bhdr-a-ntu 


a-Conjugation (thematic): Cl. x, 6, 4, to. 145 

Av. Plural: cf. Skt. 

2. (bar-a-dwam) darayadwjm ..... bhar-a-dhvam 

3- (bar-2-tltqm) jasfqtqm ....... bhdr-a-ntSn 

486. 3. Subjunctive. 


Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

I . bar-d-ni ........... bhdr-S-ni 

2. bar-d-hi ........... bkdr-a-si 

I (bar-d-*ti) car&ti ........ bhar-&-ti 

' \ bar-d-f ........... bhdr-s-t 


I . ........... bhdr-5-va 

2. ........... bhdr-S-tfias 

3. (bar-d-to) jasdto ...... ... bh&r-S-tas 


1. bar-d-ma^ ........... bhdr-&-ma 

2. (bar-d-pa) az&p& (GAv.) ...... bh&r-H-tha 

3. bar-q-n ........... bkdr-s-n 

U. 11 ID DLL 

Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 


I (bar-di) ms&l ......... bhar-Si 

2. (bar-m-whe) ySsavhe ....... Mdr-S-sl 

3. (bar-d-*te) pactfte ........ bhdr-a-te 

I (bar-m-tite) yaza>nte ....... 

3 '1 -d-*re mravtirt* ...... . 

487. 4. Optative. 


Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

I . . . ......... bhar-i-yam 

2. bar-oi-$ ........... bhdr-t-s 

3. bar-oi-{ ........... bh&r-i-t 

1 Cf. 484 Note I. * By transfer to a-conj. from rt. cl. 2, ~\[mrQ- 
521, 452. 


146 Inflection: Conjugation of Verbs. 

Av. Plural: cf. Skt. 

1. (bar-ae-ma) vanalma ....... bh&r-l-ma 

2. (bar-ae-ta) jnvtr'salta ....... bh&r-i-la 

3. bar-ay-w .......... 

ii. MIDDLE. 
Singular : 

1. (bar-ay-a) hafcaya 1 ........ bkdr-l-ya 

2. (bar-ae-$a) ha^alla ....... bk&r-l-th&s 

3. bar-ae-ta .......... bhdr-i-ta 

Plural : 

1. (bar-di-niaide) bu'dyoimatde ..... bh&r-l-mahi 

2. (bar-5i-dw^m) rSmoittwtm ..... bhftr-e-dhvam 

3. (bar-ay-a?lta) maizayattta- ..... bhdr-i-ran 

488. 5. Participle. 

Av. i. ACTIVE. cf. Skt. 

t- (fem. -ytltt-) ..... bhdr-a-nt- (fem. -anti-) 

bar-3-mna- (fem. -2-mnd-) . . . bh&r-a-m&na- (fem. -a-mSnS-) 

Forms to be observed in GAv. and YAv. 

489. GAv. shows in general the same forms as 
above, but with the long final vowel, cf. 26. It has, 
however, a certain number of individual differences; these 
as well as other variations in YAv. also may here be noted. 

490. (i) The original unmodified forms of 3 pi. 
act. mid. -atiti, -atite, cf. zava^te above, occasionally stand 
instead of being changed to -anti, -ante, e.g.: 

GAv. vana'tftf, YAv. vanariti 'they win" Yt. 13.154, GAv. haca'ttti 
beside YAv. haciitte 'they follow' ( 30, 491). 

491. (2) According to 30, the forms -inti, -i 
in are often found after palatals, instead of -Jtiti, 
etc., e. g.: 

Av. /ratacitfti 'they run forth' (variants "laca'^ti, "tacmti Ys. 65.3, 
y/ar-) , fratacin 'they ran forth' ; hacinte (YAv.) beside haca'qtc 

1 Ys. 8.7. * i. e. *maiz-al-arita for *maiz-a-i-ant&. 

a-Conjugation (thematic): Cl. I, 6, 4, 10. 147 

(GAv.) 'they follow'; yaziqti 'they worship' Vt. 8.11 beside yazt^ti 
Yt. 8.24, cf. Yt. 10.54 yazttite, yazinti; snagii-%tal-ca 'and they drop 
as snow' (cf. 55). 

492. (3) GYAv., when y precedes the thematic 
-a- (-d-), especially in Cl. 4, 10, the combination -ya- (-yd-) 
generally becomes -ye- according to 34, e. g. : 

Av. sdtfayemi , sddayehi , sddaye*ti 'I, thou, he appear' (~\fsad- 
Cl. 10); 'jaidyemi, ja'dyehi, Ja*<fye >iti 'I, thou, they beseech' (][jad- 
Cl. 4) ; fyjayehi (GAv.), ^aye'ti, %$aye*te, ^ay^nti, %/ayeni (subjunct. 
-ant) 'thou, he etc. rule, possess' (\f%ji- Cl. i); zbayemi, zbayehi, 
zbaye*ti 'I invoke', etc. ; bandayeni 'I may bind* (subjunct.). 

493. (4) Some reductions of -ya-, -va- before m, n 
( 63) occur, e.g.: 

Av. vtr'zititi 'they work' (i. e. vfr'zya^ti, "\fvarz- Cl. 4) ; 'rifittti 
'they wound" (i.e. *rifyaitti , l^'riif- Cl. 4); *rvaesiiiti 'they turn'; 
ufyfin 'they grew' (i. e. ufyjyan, "\fvafy3 Cl. 4) ; fyavhunte 'they shower 
sleet* (i. e. fyavhvarite). So imperat.- 2 sg. nase 'perish' (i. e. nasya). 

494. (5) Some reductions of -aya-, -ava- (-dya-, -dva-) 
before final m, n ( 64) occur, e. g. : 

Av. daisaem 'I showed' (i.e. dalsayam, ~\[dis- Cl. 10); abaom 
'I became' (i.e. abavam, ~\[ba- Cl. i) Yt. 19.57,61,63, baon 'they 
became' Yt. 5.98 etc. 

495. Certain other peculiarities likewise require de- 
tailed notice. 

i. Indicative. 

a. Present. 

496. Singular : 

First Person: i. ACT. GAv. shows only the ending -d (Gk. -to), instead 
of -ami in the thematic verbs and only -mi in the non-a-verbs 
(unthe mati c), e.g. GAv. ufyd 'I praise', kaya 'I discern'. YAv. 
similar but rare (perhaps borrowed) zbaya 'I invoke' at Vsp. 6.1 by 
the side of frayezt which likewise is an indicative. 
497. Dual: 

Third Person: i. ACT. GAv. add caratas-cd 'both come' Ys. 51.12. 
U. MID. ZPhl. Gloss, p. 54.8 has Karaite- 'they two bring' cf. A.O.S. 
Proceedings Oct. 1889 p. 165. 
498. Plural: 

First Person: i. ACT. YAv., similarly with short a (as above) zbay&mahi 
'we invoke'. 

148 Inflection: Conjugation of Verbs. 

Second Person: i. ACT. YAv. also isolated (-t- like pret. form) tvarata 
'ye eat' Vd. 7.57. ii. MID. GAv. -duyi (cf. 190) didrajldduyl 'ye 
keep holding* (desiderative) on -6- for -a- of stem, see 39. 

Third Person: See general details above 490 seq. 

b. Preterite. 
499. Plural: 

Third Person: ii. MID. GAv., observe visits, 'they entered' (on )-, 
cf. 32). 

2. Imperative. 

500. Singular: 

Second Person: i. ACT. YAv., note (by reduction 34, 493) nose 'perish 
thou' (i.e. nasya, ~\fnas- Cl. 4). ii. M1JD. GAv., only -hva: gUfahvi 
'hear thou', batyokva 'share thou' (on -6- for -a-, see 39). 

Third Person: i. ACT. GAv., observe -d- (cf. 39) in vr*iydt& 'let him 
work' (^\fvarz- Cl. 4), vatayotii 'let him announce* (~\fvat- Cl. 10). 

501. Plural: 

Second Person: i. ACT. GAv. with ending -na (cf. Skt. -tana) bar ana 
'bear ye' Ys. 30.9, cf. 457 above, and Whitney, Skt. Gram. 740. 
ii. MID. GAv. goddam 'hear ye' = Skt. ghofadhvam. 

3. Subjunctive. 
502. Singular: 

Second Person: i. ACT. YAv. occasionally -at for -d(h)i 450: apa.yasai 
'thou wilt destroy" (i.e. yasahi); vazai, vazahi (as variants) 'mayest 
thou bring* Vd. 5.16. YAv., a form with secondary ending (but 
syntax bad) is bav& Yt. 24.8. 
503. Plural: 

Third Person: i. ACT. GAv. shows also -in (for -qn) in rapJn 'they may 
hold'. ii. MID. YAv. like mravd're above 452, also nijr&'re 'they 
may strike' Yt. 10.40, so again Anhafre Yt. 

4. Optative. 

504. Singular: 
First Person: ii. MID. YAv., observe nta'nya 'I would think' Yt. 10.106 

(for mafnyaya 194). 
505. Plural: 
First Person: i. ACT. GAv. (with ' regular secondary ending -ma'Ji, cf. 

Skt. -mahf) va*rdima'</i 'we would cause to believe'. 

Third Person: YAv. like maezayan_ta in paradigm is yazayatfta 'they 
would sacrifice*. 

The non-rt-Conjugation (unthematic). 140 

5. Participle. 

506. On the relation of Av. -mna (metrically often -mana) to 
Skt. -mana, see 18 Note 2. 

507. In Av. more often than in Skt. (cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 
74 1 a) there appear instances of middle (passive) participles of a -verbs 
formed with the participial suffix -ana, -ana (= Skt. -ana, 18) instead 
of -mna, e.g. Parana- 'bearing', azana 'driving'; yazana- 'worshipping'; 
starana- 'strewing'. 

ii. The non-a-Conjugation (unthematic). 

508. General Remark. In Av., as in Skt., the 
verbs of the non-tf-conjugation (unthematic) are not so 
numerous as those of the thematic conjugation. They may 
be grouped in six classes (Cl. 2, 3, 7, 5, 8, 9), in each 
of which the endings are attached directly (without an 
interposed a) to the stem which is subject to modification. 

The striking characteristic of the entire group is the 
variation of the root in different forms. The modified 
root or the suffix assumes now a stronger form, again a 
weaker form. 

509. Strong and Weak Stem-Forms. The strong 
(guna) forms, as a rule, are: (i) the Sing. Indie. Act. 
(Pres. Pret.), (2) the 3rd. Sing. Imp era t. Act., (3) the 
entire Subjunct. The remaining forms are weak. Many 
fluctuations and transfers, however, occur; especially often 
is the strong stem employed in forms (see 3rd. plurals) 
modelled after the ^-conjugation. 

Mode Formation. Special Remark. 
I. Indicat i ve. 

510. The endings of the non-thematic indicative 
require some remark. GAv. generally shows the older use 
of -ml ( 450) and -a'ft, -rite, -af (for thematic -atiti, -ante 
an 452). In YAv. this old distinction is not sharply 
preserved. The stem in general to which the endings are 

150 Inflection: Conjugation of Verbs. 

directly attached shows a variation of str. and wk. forms 
according to the preceding rule, 509. 

2. Imperative. 

511. The ending of the Imperat. 2 sing, is -di, -di. 
The endings in general are attached directly to the pre- 
pared class-stem. This shows the strong form in the 
3 sg. act. ; in the other forms it has the weak grade, but 
fluctuations occur. 

3. Subjunctive. 

512. The endings are attached by means of the 
mode-sign a to the prepared class-stem which shows the 
strong form throughout. 

4. Optative. 

513. The regular optative endings are attached by 
the mode-sign -yd-, -i- (i) in accordance with the rules 
given above at 463. The stem regularly shows its weak 
form throughout, but variations from this sometimes occur. 

5. Participle. 

514. The participial forms (verbal adjectives) are 
made by attaching to the present stem in its weak grade 
the formative element -ant, -af (i. e. -nf) for the active, and 
-ana, -ana beside -mna, for the middle. 

Classes of the non-a-Conjugation (unthematic). 
Cl. 2, 3, 7. 5. 8, 9. 

515. The six classes of unthematic verbs have 
certain characteristics in common but they have also certain 
individual peculiarities, these classes will now each be taken 
up in detail. 

Class 2 Root-Class. 

516. Class 2 Root-Class root itself is present 
stem = Skt. second (ad-) class. The stem may have the 
strong or the weak form according to 509, the endings 

The non-a-Conjugation (unlhematic) : Cl. 2 (root-class). 151 

are then attached directly to the stem. Examples are quite 

numerous : 

Av. ypd- 'to keep, protect', pa^ti (3 sg. pres.) = 
Skt. pd-ti; Av. YI- 'to go', ae-*ti (3 sg.), y-e^tl (3 pi. 
pres. 34) = Skt. /-//, y-dnti; Av. y~stu- 'to praise', 
stao-*ti = Skt. stdii-ti ( 60 Note c); Av. Vjan- 'to 
slay', jairi-ti (3 sg. pres. indie.) = Skt. hdn-ti; Av. 
}/~vas- 'to wish', vas-ti (3 sg.), us-mahi (i pi. pres. 
indie.) = Skt. vds-ti, us-mdsi (Ved.). 

Paradigm of Class 2. 

(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 612 seq.) 

517. Av. -Afc Y mr ^-- <to sa y' = Skt. \f6ru-. 

Av. hap- 'promote', vas-, us- 'wish', 3A- 'sit', rud- 'grow', stu- 
'praise', i- 'go', is- 'be able'. 

518. i. Indicative. a. Present: 


Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

I . mrad-mi ..... ...... brav-i-mi 

2. (mrao-$i) hafti (GAv.) ....... 

3. mrao-iti ......... . . 

I . (mrvahi l ) urvahl (GAv.) ....... br&-vasi 

Plural : 
I . (mru-mahl) usmahi ....... . brfi-masi 

3. (mrv-a*1lti) 0tifi,qti* ....... bruv-anti 

Singular : 

i. mruy-e* ........... bruv-t 

2.(mru-$e) cf. raose* ........ bra-si 

{ mru-ite ... ........ bm-ti 


'[ mruy-e* ....... .... bruv-i 


i. mru-maide ... ....... bra-mdhg 

$. (mrv-atite) av/uiite* ....... bruv-dn 

1 i. e. mru-vahi 68.1. a Yt. 17.10. 3 190. 4 Strong form 
59- 6 Ys - 19-10. cf. 450 end. 8 Yt. 17.11 ; Ys. 9.22. 

I c 2 Inflection : Conjugation of Verbs. 

519. b. Preterite Indicative (and Injunctive). 


Av. Singular: cf. Skt 

1. mrao-m d-brav-am 

2. mrao-S d-brav-*-s 

3- mrao-t d-brav-t-t 

3- (nirao-n f l } usfn d-bruv-an 

11. MIDDLE. 
Singular : 

1. tnr&V-l d-bruv-i 

{ntrii-ta d-bra-ta 
mrao-td (GAv.) 


3. mraV-atlta 3 d-bruv-ata 

520. 2. Imperative. 

Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

2. mru-*dt bru-hi 

3. mrao-tu (GAv.) 

Plural : 

2. (mrao-ta) staota* . 

3. (mr a V-a*ltu) yantu bruv-dntu 

521. 3. Subjunctive. 

Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

I. mrav-d-ni* brdv-s-ni 

mrav-a^tl (GAv.) brdv-a-ti 


,0 brdva-t 

Plural : 

I. (mrav-d-ma) janSma brdv-a-ma 

3. (mrav-9-n) vasm brdv-a-n 

J 64. * Observe str. stem; or is it mrvt 68 Note 3? * Cf. 
509 end. 4 Strong form (!), cf. 509. * Yt. 15.56; 12.2. 6 See 
ZPhl. Gloss, p. in. 

The non-a-Conjugation (unthematic) : CI. 2 (root-class). 


Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

(mrav-di) issi ......... brdv-si 

' mrav-ne 

Plural : 
3. mrav-d^re^ ......... 

522. 4. Optative. 


Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

2. mru-y& ........... bru-yd-s 

3. mru-yd-f ........... bm-yd-t 

Singular : 

2. mrv-i-ja 3 .......... bruv-i-thds 

3. mrv-i-td (GAv.) ..... ... bruv-i-td 

523. 5. Participle. 

Av. I. ACTIVE. cf. Skt. 

mrv-at- ............ brwv-ant- 


mrav-dna-* ........... bruv-and- 

mrao-mna* ........... 

Forms to be observed in GAv. and YAv. 
524. Beside the above paradigm, a certain number 
of forms in GAv. and YAv. are worthy of note. 

i. Indicative. 

a. Present. 
525. Singular: 

First Person: i. ACTIVE. GAv., notice (from strongest stem) siHuml 'I 
praise' (but v. 1. staomt) Ys. 43.8, cf. Skt. stUuti (Ved. 3 sg.). 

Second Person: i. ACTIVE. YAv., observe likewise as regular form ( 122) 
p&hi 'thou protectesf. 

Third Person: ii. MIDDLE. YAv. also (like 1st. 3rd. sg. pres., above) 
ni-jne 'he smites'. 

1 Yt. 5-82. * </-conj. cf. 486, 452 end. Cf. 21 Note. 
* Cf. Skt. stdv&na-, Whitney 6l9d. 6 i.e. like a-conj. ptcpl. 

Inflection: Conjugation of Verbs. 

526. Plural: 
First Person: ii. MID. YAv., note (from str. stem) staomaide 'we praise'. 

GAv., observe (-al-ca 55) aog*madal-c& 'and we name'. 
Third Person: ii. MID. YAv., seldom the plur. ending -all (= /<?): Av. 

aoja'te 'they say* Yt. 8.51, etc. Observe also Av. soire 'they lie' 

Yt. 1 0.80 = Skt. itrl. 

b. Preterite. 
527. Singular: 

Second Person: ii. MID. GAv., note as a regular 2 sing, aojiii 'thou 

saidst 1 Ys. 43.12. 
Third Person: i. ACT. GAv., observe (with inserted -*- like Skt. dbravit} 

the form sShif 'he taught' Ys. 50.6. ii. MID. YAv. also (from str. 

stem, like mraotS above) staota 'he praised". 

5. Participle. 

528. ii. MID. Observe also -Sna (for -Sna) and (like a-conj. 514, 
477) -tmna: Av. aojSna-, aojtmna- 'speaking'. 

Transfers to the ^-Conjugation (thematic). 

529. A number of transfers from the Root-Class 
to the ^-conjugation are to be found. 

1. Indicative, i. ACT. b. Pret. GAv. mrav-a-f 'he said' Ys. 45.2. 

2. Imperative, i. ACT. YAv.mrav-a, mrv-a 'say thou'. H. MID. 
YAv. stav-a-vuha 'praise thou'. 

3. Subjunctive, i. ACT. YAv. mrav-Si (for -Shi 502) 'if thou 
say' Ys. 71.15. H. MID. YAv. (above in paradigm) mrav-5're 'if 
they say' 452 end. 

4. Optative, i. ACT. YAv. stav-di-} 'he might praise' beside 

530. Inflection of Av. Y a ^'j k- <to be' only act. 
= Skt. yas-, s-, cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 636. 
531. i. Indicative. a. Present. 

Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

1. ah-mi ................ ds-mi 

2. ahi l ................ dsi 

3. as-ti ................. ds-ti 

3. s-to ................. s-tds 

1 i. e. for ah-hi:: Skt. dsi for ds-si. 

The non-0-Conjugation (unthematic) : Cl. 2 (]fah-}. jcc 

Av. Plural: cf. Skt. 

1 . mahi i s-mdsi (Ved.) 

2. s-tff* s-thd 

3. A-9ifti s~dnti 

532. b. Preterite. 

Singular : 

as* . as (Ved.) 

3 as 


1. akv& (GAv.) as-va 

3. h-tn ds-an 

533. 2. Imperative. 

Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

2. z-di (GAv.) i-dhi 

3. as-tu as-tu 

3. h-Siit* (GAv.) j-o/ 

534. 3. Subjunctive. 

Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

2. aA-<? as-a-3 

{auh-a-'ti (GAv.) ds-a-ti 
v ' 
aA-a-f ds-a-t 


3. avh-9-n ds-a-n 

535- 4- Optative. 

Ay. Singular: cf. Skt. 

1. h-yi-m (GAv.) 4 s-yA-m 

2. b-ya (GAv.) s-y&-s 

3. h-y&-t (GAv.), h-yd-t (YAv.) 6 s-yd-t 


1. h-y^-mO, (GAv.) s-yd-ma 

2. h-yt-tS (GAv.) j-^-/a 

3. h-yS-n (GAv.), A-j<J- (YAv.), >i-^!r (YAv.) .... s-yur 

536. 5. Participle. 

Av. h-ant- cf. Skt. s-dnt- 

1 Cf. 140. "For s-fia, cf. 78 a. 8 See 192 Note. 4 Cf. 
32. - Cf. 132, 133. 

156 Inflection : Conjugation of Verbs. 

Forms to be observed. 

537- YAv., notice in a late passage Yt 24.12 (2 pi. opt. with 
primary ending!) %-y5-fia 'might ye be'. 

538. Transfers to the s-conjugation : I. Indie. Pret. 3 sg. 
avh-a-f. 3. Subjunct. 3 sg. avh-a-*ti. 

539- Beside all the above paradigm of the present-system, 
there is made from this root ah 'to be', as in Skt., a regular perfect 
9ha etc. 606 = Skt dsa etc. 

Class 3. Reduplicating Class. 

540. Class 3. Reduplicating Class. The root 
is reduplicated to form the present stem. The stem then 
shows a variation of strong and weak forms ( 509); the 
endings are attached to it directly. 

The general rules for reduplication have been given 
above 465. As examples of formation, the following 
may be taken: 

Av. y~dd- 'to give, to place' (Stems dado-, dadd-; 
dad-, dap-, dad-, 82, 83, 86), da-dd-Hi (YAv.), da- 
dd- i ft(GAv.), da-dq-m, da-pq-m = Skt. dd-d(k)d-ti, d-da- 
d(h)d-m; Av. yd- 'to atone' (Stems d-kay- t -/-), 
d-kay-af 3 sg. subjunct. = Skt. dkayat; Av. yhac- 
'to follow', hi-shaty-ti, hi-sc-a-maide (Ys. 40.4) = Skt. 
si-fak-ti; Av. Vjan- 'to slay', ni-ja-jn-3iiti = Skt. 

Paradigm of Class 3. 

(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 647 seq.) 

541. Av. -3 ydd- 'to give, to place' (str. stem 
YAv. dadd, GAv.dadd-; wk. stem YAv. dad-, dap-, GAv. 
dad-} = Skt. ydd-, ydhd stems dad(h)d-, dad(k) , cf. 
Whitney, Skt. Gram. 667 seq. 

Note. Observe that orig. da-, dkd- are practically fallen together in 
Av. as da-, 82, 83. On the interchange of d, d, /, see 82, 83, 86. 

The non-a-Conjugation (unthematic) : Cl. 3 (redupl.). 157 

542. i. Indicative. a. Present. 


Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

1. dadd-mi .......... dad(h)a-mi 

2. dadd-hi .......... ddd(h)a-si 

i dadd-iti .......... ddd(h)s-ti 

*' \das-ti (YAv.) 1 ....... - 


1. dad'-mahl ......... (tatt(A}-mdsi(Ved.) 

2. ......... d(h)at-td 

ti (GAv.) 3 . . } 

3-1 * j- /trA (.1 \dad(h)-ati 

* \ dada-*ti (YAv.) 4 ....... I 

Av. Singular: cf. Skt 

da l d-e (YAv.), dad-e (GAv.) .... dad(h)-i 

2. ........... d(h)at-st 

f das-te (GYAv.) 6 ........ d(h)at-ti 

*' \daz-de (GAv.) 5 ........ 

I . dad'-maide .......... ddd(h)-mahi 

543. b. Preterite Indicative (and Injunctive). 

Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

1. dadfy-m, dapq-m ........ d-dad(h)s-ni 

2. dadm (GAv.) ......... d-dad(h)S-s 

3. dadd-f (YAv.), dadd-f (GAv.) . . . d-dad(h)a-t 


3. daid-i-hm 1 .......... d-d(k)at-tam 


2. ddS-ta* ........... d-d(h)at-ta 

3. dad-af (GAv.)" ........ d-dad(k)-ur 

1 From weak stem dad-. On s, cf. 151, 170. * Cf. Epic Skt. 

dadmi.~*\s. 46.1, i.e. -//. 4 i. e. -fiti, uncertain, Yt. 10.3. 6 541 

Note. 8 542 Foot-Note I. 7 Cf. 550, 449 Note. - 8 151, 445 
Note 2. * Ys. 32.14, i. e. *dad-nt. 

158 Inflection: Conjugation of Verbs. 


Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

3- ddS-ta ...... ...... d-d(h)at-ta 

544. 2. Imperative. 

Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

2. daz-di l ........... d(h)i-hi 

3. dadd-tu (GAv.) ........ ddd(h)s-tu 

3. das-fa- ........... d(k)at-td 


2. dasva* ........... d(h)at-nm 

545. 3. Subjunctive. 


Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

i. dapd-ni ........... ddd(h)&-w 

3. dada-p ........... ddd(k)s-t 

i. dapd-ma .......... dad(h)&~ma 


I. dapd-ne b .......... _ 

546. 4. Optative. 

Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

1. daid-yfym .......... dad(h)- y d-m 

2. dalp-ym ........... ddd(h)-y&-s 

3. da'p-yd-t .......... ddd(h)-yt-t 


daip-yd-r'S .......... dad(h)-y-ur 


2. datf-i-fa* .......... dad(k)-i-tkds 

3. da.ip-1-ta (YAv.), d&d-i-td (GAv.) . . dad(h)-i-td 

1 151. *Cf. Injunctive 543, 445 Note 2. 186. 4 Not 
distinguishable from augmentless imperfect above. * Ny. 4.8. * Yt. 3.1 
with variants da'dHa, daftl. 

The non-a-Conjugation (unthematic): Cl. 3 (redupl.). 

547- 5- Participle. 

I. ACTIVE. cf. Skt. 

Av. dap-3nt- l ddd(h)-at- 


Av. dap-ana- ddd(k)-sna- 

Porms to be observed in GAv. and YAv. 
548. There are both in GAv. and in YAv. a number 
of forms beside the above, that deserve special notice. 

I. Indicative. 

549. a. Present, i. ACT. U. MID. GAv., observe that the forms 
dd'tt, d&te, d&nte resembling pres. indie, forms after Class 2 , are best 
regarded as radical aor. subjunct, cf. 633 below. Note GAv. hiScamaidl 
(with v. 1. hiScimaidc) 'we follow' I pi. pres. indie, mid. Ys. 40.4 (observe 
a, Bartholomae, K.Z. xxix. p. 273 = Flcxionslchre p. 4). Add also 3 sg. 
pres. indie, act. zazatfti 'he produces' Vd. 3.5 = Skt. jajdnti. 

550. b. Preterite, i. ACT. YGAv., observe with interposed i (like 
Skt. abrav*t etc.) and from weak stem: daid*X (YAv. 2 sg. pret. indie.), 
da*di( (YAv. Yt. 13.12), dfa'rt*/ (GAv. 3 sg. pret.), daid*t>m (3 du. cf. above 
paradigm). Remark 3 pi. in -a( (= -/) GAv. jtgtr'zaf 'let them lament' 
(injunctive). H. MID. YAv., observe from strong stem, 2 sg. pret. mid. 
ji-jai-fa 'thou didst live, mayest live' (^\fgi-, /'-) 

3. Subjunctive. 

55'- Sg. PI. i. ACT. YAv., add (regularly) from \~ri- 'to atone', 
ci-kay-af (3 sg. subjunct.), ci-kay-a-to (3 d u. subjunct. ZPhl. Gloss, p. 92, 34), 
ci-kaln (3 pi. subjunct.) i. e. *ci-kay-m 64. 

4. Optative. 

552. Beside the mid. forms with long i (-tla, -tta) are found also 
the variants -Tja, -tla, cf. 21 Note. 

Transfers to the ^-Conjugation (thematic). 

553. A number of transitions from the Third 
Class to the ^-conjugation occur. The reduplicated 
wk. stem dap- (YAv.), dad- (GAv.) of }/~dd- in Av. as in 
Skt. cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 672 thus not infrequently 
assumes the inflection of an a-stem, 483. 

1 Ys. 9.1. 

l6o Inflection: Conjugation of Verbs. 

I. Indicative, i. ACT. a. Pres. YAv. dafi-a-'ti, dap-3-riti. 
b. Pret. YGAv. da^-i-m, da^-o, dafl-a-/, dad-a-(; dap-j-n, dad-t-n 
(beside dadaf 543 Foot-Note). H. MID. YAv. da-a-'te. Gh\. 
dad-3-ritl 'they are placed'. 

Note. Similarly transferred Av. zlzamriti, ztzantn, ztzandf from 
"\fzan- 'beget , bear'. The Skt. shows jijanat as redupl. a o r. Whitney, 
Skt. Gram. 864. 

Class 7. Nasal Class. 

554. The roots of the nasal class all end in a 
consonant; the class has for its characteristic feature the 
assumption of an internal nasal to form the stem. That 
is , the root has a -na- (in strong forms) , an -n- (in weak 
forms) inserted immediately before its final consonant to 
form the present stem. The root itself retains its weak 
grade; the endings are attached directly to the stem. 
Cf. Skt. seventh Class, Whitney, Skt. Gram. 683 seq. 

Here belong for example: Av. yds- 'to announce, 
promise' ci-na-sti; Av. V*ric- 'to let go' irt-na-%ti=Skt. 
ri-na-fcti,and some others see following paradigm 5 5 5 . 

Paradigm of Class 7. 
(Cf. Whitney, S&t. Gram. 684.) 

555- Av. "\ftH- 'to announce, promise', cifi- 'to proclaim, think', 
mark- (imr'nc-) 'kill', kart- 'to cut', mis- 'mingle', vid- 'find, receive'. Cf. 
Skt. ~\fchid- 'to cut'. 

556. i. Indicative. a. Present. 

Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

1. ci-na-hmi (GAv.) * chi-nd-dmi 

2. ci-na-sti chi-nd-tti 


3. ktr'-tt-te* chi-n-tl 


2. mtr'-q-g'-duyS (GAv.) chi-n-ddhvt 

3. nnr*-'H-ca i tl (GAv.) 3 chi-n-ddte 

1 Cf. 141. 2 Vd. 7.38, cf. imperat. ktr'ntu, but kr'tita'ti a-conj. 
as Skt. krntdti. * Ys. 31.1, -ati = -nil. 

The non-fl-Conjugation (unthematic) : Cl. 7 (nasal class). 161 

557. b. Preterite. 

Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

2. mi-na-if 1 .............. d-chi-na-t 

3. fi-na-s* ...... . ....... d-chi-na-t 

558. a. Imperative. 


Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

3. kir'-tt-tu* .............. chi-nd-ttu 

559. 3. Subjunctive. 


Av. Plural: cf. Skt. 

I. ci-na-f&ma*de* ............ chi-nd-dSmahSi 

560. 4. Optative. 


Av. Singular: cf. Skt. Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

3. mtrq^-yS-f 6 . . . chi-n-d-yd-t 3. vi-q-dita* . . . chi-n-ditd 

561. 5. Participle. 

Av. i. ACTIVE. cf. Skt. Av. H. MIDDLE, cf. Skt. 

. . . chi-n-ddnt- vi-ri-dfmna- .... chi-n-d&nd- 

Forms to be observed in GAv. and YAv. 

562. The form Av. nitr'jfiite stands perhaps for *nt3r*-ri-gte (3 sg. 
mid.). If so , the formation would be regularly after this (7) class. But 
the form is quite uncertain. 

Transfers to the ^-Conjugation. 
563. The stem mar'nc- 'kill' has practically become 
stereotyped as a root according to the <z-conj. by transfer; 
hence the thematic forms: Pres. Act. 3 sg. mar'ncaiti; 
3 pi. mzr'ncititi ; Mid. 3 sg. mWricaite, 3 pi. mar'ncatite 
(above). Imperat. Mid. 2 sg. twr'ncavuha. 

564. The root GAv. mard- (as mdr'itd- 39) 'to destroy' has 
likewise become practically crystallized according to a-conj. : -Pret. Act. 
3 sg. mor>nda(, 3 pi. mdr'ndin (on -a-, cf. 39 end). 

1 i. e. mi-na-s-s, 158. * i. e. ci-na-s-t, 192. 8 Vd. 7.38, weak 
form ! * a-conj. by transfer as in Skt. 8 On -rq- = r -\- n, see 49. 
On /, cf. 162. * Yt. 17.54, with variant vindita (i}. 7 In compounds. 

1 62 Inflection : Conjugation of Verbs. 

565. Similar instances of stereotyped forms and transfer to 
a-conjugation as also in Skt., are: Av. 2 vid- 'find, obtain' (vind-, like Skt. 
vi-n-d-d-ti) vi-ti-d-j-q-ti (3 pi. indie.), vi-n-d-S-*ti (3 sg. subjunct. Vd. 13.36) 
beside unthematic vi-na-sti (GAv.), vi-tp-Jtta (YAv. opt. above). Likewise 
Av. kart- 'to cut' (ktr'nt-, like Skt. kf-n-t-d-ti) ktr'-*-t-a*ti (3 sg. indica- 
tive), kir'-q-t-a-l (pret.). Also some others. 

Note. Peculiar is 2 sing. pret. act. mjr'ticainii 'thou didst destroy' 
weak nasalized root with added an (=nn). On -/=/ cf. 527 end. 

Class 5. -Class. 

566. The verbs of this class are not numerous. 
The root adds nao- (in the strong forms), nu- nv- (in the 
weak forms) to make the present stem. The root itself 
retains its weak grade. 

Here belong for example: Av. ykar- 'to make' 
kar'-nao-ni = Skt. kr-no-ti; Av. VSM- 'to hear' sru- 
nao-Hi = Skt. sr-no-ti; Av. y^as- 'to attain' a^-nao-Hi 
= Skt. as-no-ti; and a few others. 

Paradigm of Class 5. 
(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. % 698.) 

567. Av. ~\fkar- 'to make', var- 'cover choose', dab- 'deceive', 
hu- 'press', sri- 'give over', sru- 'hear'. Cf. Skt. "\fkr-. 

568. i. Indicative. a. Present. 

Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

i . kar'-nao-mi ........ . . kr-w-mi 

2. for'-nu-fi 1 .......... kr-p6-fi 

3. ksr'-nao^ti .......... kr-yo-ti 


3. ktr****v-anti* ......... 

Singular : 

3. vw'-nu-ite .......... 


3. var'-nv-aife (GAv.) 3 ....... 

1 On a, cf. 60 Note b. - Yt. 13-26, so metrically. Cf. 68 
Note 3. 8 Ys. 31.17. 

The non-a-Conjugation (unthematic) : Cl. 5 (-class). 163 
Av. Plural: cf. Skt 

3. V9r 9 -nv-a i nte'*- ......... kr-vv-dti 

569. b. Preterite. 


Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

3. tor'-nao-f .......... 


2. d'b-*nao-td (GAv.) 2 ....... 


3. hu-nu-ta ........... 

570. 2. Imperative. 

Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

3. far'-nu-idi .......... kr-vu-hi 

2. siri-nao-ta* .......... 

571. 3. Subjunctive. 

Av. Singular: cf. Skt 

I. tor'-nav-dni ......... 

3. k*r>-ndu-n* .......... 

\\. MIDDLE. 
Singular : 
I. for'-nav-dne ......... 

572. 4. Optative. 

Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

2. sfru-nu-yto .......... 

3. tor*-nu-yd( .......... 

573- 5- Participle. 

i. ACTIVE. Av. hu-nv-a(n)t- ....... kr-vv-d(n)t- 

ii. MIDDLE. hu-nv-ana- ........ 

1 After a-conj. * Ys. 32.5, from str. st. form, cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 
707. s Str. stem form, as Skt. kryota, Whitney, Skt. Gram. 704. 
4 On -Sun, cf. 64. 

1 64 Inflection : Conjugation of Verbs. 

Forms to be observed in OAv. and TAv. 
574. Instances of transfer to the a-conj. (beside 
the 3 pi. above) are not infrequent: 

1. Indicative, i. ACT. a. Pres. YAv. v?r'-ttav-a-'ti 'he covers'. 
b. Pret. k>r'-nav-d 'thou didst make'. 

2. Imperative, i. ACT. YAv. ktr'-nav-a 'make thou'. ii. MID. 
YAv. hu-n-v-avuha 'press thou'. 

3. Subjunctive. I. ACT. YAv. ktr-nav-a-ki, ktr'-nav-Sf, ktr*- 
nav-qn 'if thou, he, they make'. 

575- On instances of kar- made up after class 9, see below 591. 

Class 8. -Class. 

576. The eigth class (Skt. tan-class, Whitney, Skt. 
Gram. 697 seq.) is hardly more than a variety of the 
preceding (5) class. It comprises, however, enough roots 
to be distinguishable. The present-stem is made by add- 
ing to the root ao-, av- (in the str. forms), u~, v- (in the 
wk. forms). 

Included under this class are the roots : Av. ytan- 
'to stretch' = Skt. ytan-; Av. yin- 'drive* = Skt. 
y~in-. Likewise here, parts of Av. ydp- 'to reach' 
= Skt. Yap-; Av. Yjzar- 'flow' (pres. participle), cf. 
Skt. yk$ar-; Av. yhar- 'protect'. 

<, Paradigm of Class 8. 

(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 698 b.) 

577. Av. y- 'to drive', tan- 'stretch', van- 'strike', jiar- 'flow', 
jlan- 'destroy'. Cf. Skt. ytan- 'to stretch'. 

578. i. Indicative. a. Present. 


Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

3. in-ao-'ti .............. tan-6-ti 


2. spaj-u-pa * (?) ............. tan-u-tha 


3. df-jitte* ............... tan-v-dtl 

1 Uncertain ; Ys. 53.6. * i. e. *ap-v-antt after a-conj. On/, see 95. 

The non-rt-Conjugation (unthematic) : Cl. 8, 9 (-, wa-class). 165 

579. 3. Subjunctive. 


Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

I. tan-av-a tan-dv-d (Ved.) 

580. 4- Optative. 


Av. Singular: cf. Skt. Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

3. van-u-yS/ .... tan-u-yat I . tan-u-ya l . . . . tan-v-tya 

581. 5- Participle. 

Av. i. ACTIVE, cf. Skt. Av. ii. MIDDLE, cf. Skt 

j&ar-v-a(q)t- . . . tan-v-d(n)t- jion-v-amna % . . . tan-v-Snd 

Forms to be observed. 

582. i. Indie. Pres. Act. 3 sg. ha*r-v-aiti (after a-conjuga- 
tion). Mid. 3 pi. fyavutttai-ca 'and they rain' (i. e. fyavh-v-arite 63). 

Class 9. 0-Class. 

583. In the ninth class nd- is added to the root 
to form the strong present-stem; n-, na- (i. e. -h#-conj.) is 
added to make the weak pres. stem. The form na- (i. e. 
tf-conj.) is commoner than n-. The endings are attached 
directly; the root itself retains its weak grade. 

The Skt. ninth class likewise adds nd- in the strong 
forms, but n-, m- (i. e. before cons.) in the weak. Cf. 
Whitney, Skt. Gram. 717 seq., esp. 731. 

Here belong: Av. \ffrt- 'to love' /rz-#-# = Skt. 

prl-nd-mi; Av. J/ garw- 'to seize' gar'w-nd-iti = Skt. 

grbh-nd-ti; Av. Y var " <to choose' v*r y -q-te = Skt. vr- 

'-//; Av. Vgar- 'to sing' gar'-n,-te = Skt. gr-n*-tl. 

Likewise some others see following paradigm 584. 

Paradigm of Class 9. 
(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 718). 

584. Av. "\ffrt- 'to love', garw- 'seize', var- 'choose', hu- 'to 
press', par- 'fight'. Cf. Skt. ~\[pri- 'to please', ~\[var- 'to choose'. 

1 cf. Skt. tart-v-i-ya 62. ' Like a-conj., -amna. On o, cf. 39. 

1 66 Inflection: Conjugation of Verbs. 

585. i. Indicative. a. Present. 

Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

I. frl-nd-mi .......... 

3. gar'w-nd-iti .......... 

Plural : 
i . fry-q-mahi (GAv.) J ....... 

3. fri-n-9*lti ........... prt-v-dnti 


i. var'-n-e ..... ...... vr-v-i 

3. var'-n-te ........... vr-v?-ti 

586. b. Preterite. 

Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

3. mip-nd-f ........... 

3. fraor'-ii-ta'* ......... 


3. v*r f -n~dtd (GAv.) 3 ....... 

587. 2. Imperative. 


Av. Plural: cf. Skt. 

3. fri-n-31ttU .......... pri-v-dntu 

588. 3. Subjunctive. 

Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

I. frz-nd-ni .......... pri-^ni 

I hu-nd-*ti (GAv.) ........ pri-v&-ti 

3. g9r 9 W-nq,-n 

1 i. e. fri-ft-malii or fry-nn-mahi. * Ys. 57.24; Yt. 10.92, i. e. fra- 
vtr*-ti-ta, cf. 62.2. 8 i. e. *vrr-n-fita. 

Perfect-System : Reduplication. 1 67 

cf. SkL 


j psr'-nd-ne . 

Singular : 

\frz-ndi . 

v*r>-na>- te l 


589. 5. Participle. 

U. MIDDLE. Av. frt-n-2ntna~ z 

Forms to be observed. 

590. The weak forms in na- (i. e. 0-conjugation by transfer) are 
frequent ; the instances of 3 pi. thus formed are noted above. Other exam- 
ples of this transfer (-n-a) are given in the next section 591. 

591. The transfers to the ^-conjugation with weak 
stem (na) are: 

1. Indicative, i. ACT. a. Pres. hu-n-a-hi 'thou pressest', fri- 
n-a-'ti, fri-n-5-mahi , fri-n-3nti (above). ii. MID. kjr'-n-mte 'they 
make, cut'. b. Pret. i. ACT. ktr'-n-tm 'I made, cut', sa-n-a-f 'it ap- 
peared' (i. e. sad-n-af 185) Yt. 14.7. ii. MID. sttr*-n-a-ta 'he 

2. Imperative, i. ACT. GAv. ptr*-n-S 'fulfil thou' Yt. 28.10, 
YAv. mip-n-a-tu 'let him turn', frl-n-mtu (above). ii. MID. bri-n-a- 
vuha 'cut thou'. 

4. Optative, i. ACT. k>r*-n-di-f, z a ra-n-ag-mS (GAv.) 'we might 
anger' Ys. 28.9, str'-n-ay-9n 'let them strew'. ii. MID. sttr'-n-al-ta 
'let him strew'. _ 


(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 780 seq.) 

592. General Remark. The chief characteristic of 
the perfect is the reduplication; the endings also differ 
in some respects from those of the present-system; the 
perfect shows likewise a distinction of strong and weak 
forms. As to signification, the perfect (and pluperfect) as 

1 Vd. 5.59. 2 -)mna like a-conj. 

1 68 Inflection : Conjugation of Verbs. 

in Skt. commonly denotes simple past time; sometimes 
present time is expressed. 

Note I. An assumed periphrastic form of the perfect sporadically 
occurs, see 623. 

Note 2. On the absence of reduplication, see 620. 

Reduplicated Syllable. 

593- Th- e principal points to be observed in regard 
to reduplication of the vowels (cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 
783) are: 

1. Internal or final or *z is regularly reduplicated 
by a (sometimes by a cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 7863), 
occasionally by i. For example 

Av. ta-taj-a 'he has formed' (\ftaS-) = Skt. ta-takf-a; Av. da- 
da-pa 'thou hast created' (\fda-) Skt. da-dha-tha; Av. da-dar's-a 'I 
have seen' (j/Var.r-) = Skt. da-ddrs-a; Av. ca-fyr-ar* 'they have 
made' (]fkar-) = Skt. ca-kr-ur ; GAv. va-vjr'z-oi 'he has worked" 
(mid.) ~\[varz-; Av. ji-ga u rv-a (observe palatal j 465 c) 'I have 
perceived' ("\fgarw-~} = Skt. ja-grabh-a. 

2. Internal or final i, u or I, u are reduplicated 
by i, u (sometimes i, u). For example 

Av. di-dvaej-a 'I have hated' (]fdvi3-) = Skt. di-dvif-a; Av. 
di-day-a 'he has seen' (\fdi-) = Skt. di-dhay-a; Av. tu-tav-a 'he 
has been able' (]/Vw-) = Skt. ta-tdv-a. 

Note. Worthy of remark is Av. b&-bv-ar (with a from J/>- 'to be') 
Yt. 13.150 = Skt. ba-bhuv-ur, but Av. bv&va (i. e. bu-vav-a, Yt. 13.2, cf. 
68 b = Skt. ba-bhtiv-a. 

3. Initial a by reduplication with itself becomes d. 
For example 

Av. Cb-vh-a 'he has been' (~\fa&-) = Skt. d-s-a. 

4. Initial i (or u if found) is reduplicated by y 
i.e. i-y (or u i.e. u-v), cf. 68 a. 

Av. -jp'W" >*O"? (i- e - iy-ay-qn) 'they may have come' Ys. 42.6 
(V*'- subjunct. a-inflect. if not redupl. pres.). So also -"Vgof" 
yaija i. e. iyaffa Yt. 13.99. 

594. The laws for the reduplication of con- 
sonants have been sufficiently treated above, 465 c. 

Perfect System : Radical Syllable. 

Radical Syllable. 

Strong and weak Stem-Forms. 

595. The strong stem or guna-form of the radical 
syllable, as in the non-fl-conjugation (unthematic), is found 
in the perfect-system i) in the Indicative Act. I, 2, 3 sg. 
Pres. Pret. ; 2) in the Imperative Act. 3 sg. ; 3) in the 
Subjunctive entire. The remaining forms are weak. 
But numerous fluctuations in this rule occur. 

Note. In GAv., as in Vedic Skt., medial short a before a single 
consonant is lengthened to a in the radical syllable of the 3 sg. pf. act. 
For Y A v. no rule is laid down. Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 793 c. Thus, 
GAv. ny-nas-a 'it is lost' ("\fnas-) = Skt. na-nas-a. 

596. With reference to the weak forms, some ob- 
servations as regards the radical syllable may be made. 
An internal or final i, u remains unchanged e. g. iri-rip-ar 3 
'they lie' (^rip-}, su-sru-yc 'I have heard' (j/~jrr#-) Yt. 17.17, 
yet su-sru-ma 'we have heard' Yt. 13.198; but a number 
of roots having medial a between single consonants (cf. 
Whitney, Skt. Gram. 794e) and certain others, by loss of 
the vowel in weak forms may undergo some change: 

1 . Roots in -ar show weak forms in -r- before vowels : Av. ba-wr-ar* 
'they bore' (^\[bar-~), beside GAv. va-vtr'z-di 'he worked' 3 sg. pf. mid. 
(^\fvarz- i.e. two cons.). 

2. Roots in -am, -an show weak forms in -m-, -n- : Av. ja-jm-yqm 
'I would have come' (]fgam-)\ GAv. ca-fyi-ar* 'they have desired' (]/~&an-). 

3. Roots with initial ya-, va- by contraction with the reduplicated 
syllable show in the weak forms yai- (yoi-) , vao- (vau-) i. e. ya-i-, va-u- : 
Av. ~\fyat- 'to strive' makes I pi. act. YAv. yaepma, GAv. yoipmH (i. e. 
ya-yt-ma, ya-it-ma); Av. ~\fvan- 'win' makes 3 pi. act. vaonar* (i. e. va- 
vn-ar, va-un-ar). Cf. 63 seq. 

4. Roots with radical final S lose this a before endings beginning 
with a vowel, so also before endings where Skt. shows the union-vowel ', 
Whitney, Skt. Gram. 794 end: Av. y*ta- 'to stand', hi-3t-a I, 3 sg. pf. 
act. ; "\fd&- 'give, place', da-d-a 3 sg. act., da-'d-e 3 sg. mid. ; da-d-v& ptcpl. 
(Skt. da-d-i-vqs or da-d-v^s]. 

170 Inflection: Conjugation of Verbs. 

Personal Endings 

and their connection with the Stem. 

597. The endings of the perfect, especially in the 
middle voice, are mostly primary. They are attached 
directly to the tense-stem as in the unthematic conjuga- 
tion; sporadic traces of a 'union-vowel' *, 9 (cf. Whitney, 
Skt. Gram. 797 seq.) perhaps however exist. See Bar- 
tholomae, A.F. ii. p. 97. 

598. The endings agree with those of the Skt. ; 
some forms however are to be specially observed, see be- 
low 599 seq. 

Perfect Endings. 


ii. MIDDLE. 



cf. Skt. 

Ay. Singular : 

cf. Skt. 




















-atar 3 

a'// (GAv.), -// 


Plural : 



-ma . 






-ar', -ar's . 



Perfect Endings (Observations). 
599. Singular: 

First Person: ii. MIDDLE. A ist. sg. mid. form in -o (i. e. -5u 54 = 
Skt. -5u] from a root ending in long a is perhaps to be found 
in dado 'I have made' Ys. 10.9 = Skt. dadh&u, Whitney, Skt. Gram. 
800 e. 

Second Person: i. ACTIVE. Note the form -ta (for -/a 78 end) after s 
in GAv. vois(& 'thou knowest'. 
600. Dual: 

Third Person: ii. MIDDLE. Observe the suffix -tl 3 du. mid. in GAv. 
dazde 'they both created' Ys. 30.4 (i. e. *dhazdhai, dha-dh-tai)^ cf. 
Bartholomae, A'.Z. xxix. p. 285 = Flexionslekre p. 1 6. 

Perfect System: Personal Endings. Pluperfect. J7J 

60 1. Plural: 

Third Person: L ACTIVE. The ending ~rl (above) beside -ar* is found 
in GAv. ci-kdit-tr'I 'they have thought, taught' Ys. 32.11. 

Pluperfect (Preterite). 

(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 817 seq.) 

602. The existence of a preterite (pluperfect) 
indicative corresponding to the present perfect, seems to 
be shown by a few forms. There is, however, some un- 
certainty, see Note. The forms here recognized as plu- 
perfect are made by adding the secondary endings 
directly to the perfect stem. The strong stem appears 
in the singular active; the weak stem elsewhere. The 
thematic a (transferring to the ^-inflection) is sometimes 
found. Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 817 seq. 

Note. There is much difficulty in distinguishing a pluperfect from 
some other reduplic. forms. Some of the examples may equally well be 
referred to other forms (impf., aor.) of the redupl. preterite. 

Mode-Formation of the Perfect. 

603. The perfect like the other tense-systems shows 
an indicative (pres. perf.; pret. pluperf.), imperative, 
subjunctive (prim, and sec.), optative and participle 
(cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 808 seq.). These are formed 
as in the non-tf-conjugation (unthematic) ; the subjunctive 
has the strong stem 4- mode-sign a ; the optative has the 
weak stem 4- -yd-, -i-. 

604. A number of transfers to the ^-inflection 
instead of the thematic are found in pluperfect, imperat., 
subjunct., optative, and participle. See 619. 

Paradigm of the Perfect-System. 
(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 800 seq.) 

605 . Examples of the inflection of the perfect may 
be taken from the following roots: 

Av. "\fgarw- 'to seize' = Skt. "^grabh-; Av. ~\fdvii- 'hate' = 
Skt. ydvif-; Av. J/"/ rud- 'grow' = Skt |/ 1 rudh-; Av. ~\fdars- 'see' 

172 Inflection: Conjugation of Verbs. 

= Skt. -\fdari-; Av. *\[d&- 'give, make 1 = Skt. ~\fd&-, dhU- ; Av. 
Y/kan- 'love' = Skt. ykan-; Av. |/V- 'be able' = Skt. ]/"/- ; Av. 
\fdar- 'hold' = Skt. "\fdhar-; Av. "\fsru- 'hear' = Skt. "\firu-; 
Av. ~\[yat- 'strain, strive' = Skt. ~\[yat-; Av. ~\[han- 'earn' = Skt. 
Vsan-; Av. ~\[bar- 'bear' = Skt. "\fbhar-; Av. ~\fkar- 'make' = 
Skt. ~\fkar-; Av. "J/~/r- 'support, nourish'; Av. ~\fman- 'think' = 
Skt. yman-; Av. J/Vf- 'consider, see' = Skt. \~dhl-; Av. |/"^ rW- 
1 obstruct' = Skt. ~\[2rudh; Av. ~\fsac- 'learn, can' = Skt. iac- ; 
Av. \fqs-, as- 'attain' = Skt. qs-, ai-; Av. ~\fvaz- 'carry' = Skt. 
"\fvah-; Av. ~\far- 'go, rise' = Skt. ~\far-; Av. "\fhar- 'protect'; 
Av. "\fah- 'be' = Skt. ~\fas- ; Av. |/"zra2- 'proceed' ; Av. ]fgam- 
'go , come" = Skt. ~\fgam- ; Av. "\fvan- 'strive , contend , win' = 
Skt. -\fvan-. 

606. i. Indicative. a. Perfect (Present). 

Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

(ji-ga u rv-a, dl-dvae$-a .... ja-gr&bh-a, di-dvlf-a 
'\ u ru-raod-a, dd-dar'S-a .... ru-rodh-a, da-dars-a 

2. a-d-a ........ da-d(h)S-tha 

I ca-kan-a, tu-tav-a ..... cs-kan-a, ta-tdv a 

\ da-ddr-a ......... da-dhdr-a, da-dhdr-a 


3. yaet-atar 3 * ........ (yit-atur) 

Plural : 
I di-dvl$-ma 3 , SU-Srti-ma .... di-dvif-i-md, vi-vif-md 

'\yaep-ma* ........ (yit-i-md) 

2. ha-vhdn-a ........ 

3. ba-wr-ar 3 , Cd-tyr-ar' ..... ja-bhr-ur, cd-kr-ur 

Singular : 
I. su-sruy-e ........ su-sruv-i 

3. tu-pruy-e ........ su-sruv-t 


I ma-man-dHe* ....... ma-mn-dti 

3 1 da-g-de* ......... 

1 Ys. 71.10. ! ZPhl. Gloss, p. 56.11. 8 On F after v cf. 20. 
4 cf. 596.3. 5 Ys. 13.4, Bartholomae, K.Z. xxix. p. 288 = FUxionslehre 
p. 17, 19. GAv. Ys. 30.4, cf. 600. 

Perfect-System: Paradigms. 

607. b. Pluperfect (Preterite). 

Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

1 . dl-dae-m ......... a-ja-grabh-am * 

3. "ru-raos-t 3 a-ti-ki-t 

3. sa-sk-^n 4 


3. Sn-dJis-td (GAv.)* 


3. vaoz-i-ram* 

608. 2. Imperative. 

Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

3. ni-sa-vhar-a-tu 7 

ii. MIDDLE. 

2. dr'-fvd (GAv.) 

609. 3. Subjunctive. 


1. mvh-ama* ss-5ma 

2. vaordz-a-pd (GAv.) va-vraj-a-tha 


3. covh-a-ire 

6 10. 4. Optative. 

Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

1 . ja-jnt-yqm ja-gam-y&m 

2. tu-tu-ya^ ta-tu-yts 

3. VdOn-yqt ma-ma-ySt 

1 Can as well be redupl. pret. Cl. 3. * cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 
8i8a. 8 Skt. V* rudh-, cf. 151. * Ys. 53.1 i. e. saikni-cS. * cf. 
Bartholomae, B.B. xiii. p. 65. * cf. 455, 616. 1 Ys. 58.4, a-inflect. 
by transfer, Whitney, Skt. Gram. 814. 8 cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 813 
end. 9 cf. a-inflect. I0 Ys. 9.23, cf. 452, v. 1. awhtfr'. u Ys. 9.29, 
used as 3 sg. 

174 Inflection: Conjugation of Verbs. 

611. 5. Participle. cf. Skt. 

i. ACTIVE. Av. ha-vkan-vah- sa-san-vds- 

ii. MIDDLE. ha-vhan-ana- fa-san-and- 

Forms to be observed in GAv. and YAv. 
i. Indicative, a. Perfect. 

6l2. Singular: 

First Person: ii. MID. GAv., add Urdi 'I have earned' (\far-} Ys. 33.9, 
on -si- cf. 56. On a possible 1st. sg. mid. in -6 (i. e. -8u) = Skt. 
-Su, from ~\fd&-, see 599 above. 

Third Person: i. ACT. Observe radical & in (root with medial a before 
one consonant) GAv. nfndsS 'it is lost', YAv. Jadara 'he fixed' 
see 595 Note, but likewise &, YAv. cakSna 'he loved' (|/"^a-), 
yayata 'he strove' (\fyat-), bav&ra 'he bore' (^bar-). Again from 
weak stem (final radical S lost before vowels, 596.4) da-d-a 'he 
made' (|/ d&-~].^\\. MID. GAv. also (with strengthened reduplication) 
va-vtr'z-di 'he has worked', cf. 56. Add GAv. Srai-cS 'has been 
earned' (\far-~) Ys. 56.3. 
613. Dual: 

Third Person: i. ACT. GAv. (note -a-) vaocStar* 'they both have spoken', 

v&vir^z&tari 'they both have done" Ys. 13.4. 
614. Plural: 

First Person: i. ACT. GAv., note ydip'ma 'we strive' (-- 56) beside 
YAv. yaifrma above. 

Second Person: i. ACT. YAv., note the long S strongest stem in havhSna 
above in paradigm. 

Third Person: i. ACT. YAv. from weak stem (final radical S lost before 
vowels 596.4) and str. redupl. d&-d-ar* 'they made' (\fd&-} = Skt. 
dadhur. Likewise note ( 62.2) YAv. vaonar', GAv. vaonar* 'they 
strove' (i. e. va-vn-ar 596.3). Long redupl. syl. cH-fr-ar* 'they have 
made' Vd. 4.46. GAv. also (suffix -tri) ci-koit-tr3 'they thought'. 

b. Pluperfect. 
6 IS- Singular: 

Third Person: U. MID. GAv. in&fyJtS (in paradigm, see Foot-Note) pre- 
sents 'Attic reduplication'. 
6 1 6. Plural: 

Third Person: ii. MID. YAv. vaozirtm (i. e. -va-vz-i-nm ~\fvaz-} above in 
paradigm shows 3 pi. ending in -nm = Skt. -ram (cf. Whitney, 
Skt. Gram. 834 b, 867) with connecting vowel. See above 
455 end. 

Perfect-System ! Paradigms. 1 7 c 

4. Optative. 
617. Plural: 
First Person: i. ACT. YAv., perhaps here da'dyama Yt. 24.58. 

5. Participle. 

6 1 8. i. ACT. On inflectional forms of the pf. act. ptcpl. see 349, 
350. H. MID. Also suffix -ana (beside -and) vavaz&na- 'driven', dadrana-, 
dadr&na- 'held'. 

Transitions to the thematic (a) inflection. 
619. A number of transfers to the ^-inflection occur 
cf. 604. 

1. Indicative, i. ACT. b. Pluperf. Sg. 3. YAv. ta-tal-a-f 'he 
formed' ; ja-jm-a-f. 

2. Imperative, i. ACT. Sg. 3. GAv. ni-3ahar-a-ta (in paradigm). 

3. Subjunctive, i. ACT. Sg. 3. YAv. OvhSf 'may be'; Du. 3. 
tevhattm Yt. 13.12; PL 3. iyeyq (iieiiq = *iy-ay-a-an) 'they may go* 
(j/"*-) Ys. 42.6 (if not desiderative). H. MID. PL 3. YAv. ffiv/ta're 
Yt. 10.45, cf. 452, 486. 

Absence of Reduplication. 

620. In Av., as in Skt., the absence of a redupli- 
cated syllable is met with in a number of cases. This is 
familiar in vaeda 'oloV = Skt. vfda, and in some other 
forms. Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 790. 

621. As example of perf. lacking reduplication may be given 
G(Y)Av. Yvid- 'to know' = Skt. ~\[vid-. 

I. Indie, a. Perf. Sg. I. vaida, 2. voista, 3. vaida, vaida (YAv.). 
a. Imp e rat. PL 2. viizdum Ys. 33.8. 

3. Sub June t Sg. I. vaida Ys. 48.9; PL 2. vagdddQm ( 39). 

4. O p t a t. Sg. 3. vidy&t. 

5. Par tic. I. ACT. vJdvak- (GAv.), vtfvah- (YAv.). H. MID. val- 
dna- Ys. 34.7, valdtmna- (themat.). 

622. Other examples of pf. wanting redupl. are : GAv. "]fcag- 'grant', 
cagma (i pi. pf. act.), cafdd (3 du. plpf.), cagv& (ptcpl.). Also GAv. 
ap&nd 'attained' (ptcpl. ~\[ap-\ 

176 Inflection: Conjugation of Verbs. 

Periphrastic Perfect. 

623. In YAv. traces of a periphrasis which may 
be construed as forming a perfect are found. Cf. also 
Whitney, Skt. Gram. 1070, 1072. In Av. the ace. sg. 
fern, of the pres. participle is united with the perfect of 
the auxiliary ah- to be: 

YAv. srae^ye'ntim <6vh&t 'it may have clung' (subjunct.), astara- 
ye^'ntim &vh&t 'should have corrupted'. Perhaps also here bhviv&vha 
'he had frightened' Yt. 19.48,50 (? nom. sg. ptcpl. ~\[ln 1~ &t>ha, 
cf. variants). 



(Chiefly found in Gatha Avesta.) 

624. General Remark. In regard to form the 
aorist in Av. may perhaps best be defined as a preterite, 
whose exact corresponding present is missing and which 
consequently attaches itself to an analogous present and 
preterite, and forms a new system subordinate to these. 

In regard to meaning the aorist in Avesta commonly 
denotes a simple past action, usually but not always mo- 
mentary. It may often, as in Skt., be rendered by our 

The instances of aorist formation are found chiefly in 
the Gatha portions of the literature, but occurences in the 
later parts are by no means uncommon. 

Note. The resemblance in form which the aorist bears to the 
preterite (imperfect) sometimes gives rise to question whether certain given 
forms are to be classed as preterite (imperfect) or as aorist ; the decision 
depends chiefly upon whether or not we assume a present to the form 
e. g. cf. Bartholomae, Verbum p. 63 seq. 

625. Two groups of aorists may conveniently be 
distinguished; they are i. non-sigmatic, 2. sigmatic. 
These comprise several sub-varieties of formation (7 as in 
Skt.), as follows. Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 824. 

ii. Sigmatic 

Aorist-System: Non-Sigmatic Group, i. Root- Aorist. 177 

II. Root-aorist. 
2. Simple a-aorist (thematic). 
3. Reduplicated aorist. 

Aorist-System <j 4> A- (s-) aorist. 

5. ha- (sa-) aorist (or A-thematic). 

6. tf-aorist, 

626. Augment and Endings. The augment in 
aorist forms as elsewhere in Av. is commonly missing; 
the augmentless forms, moreover, often have a subjunctive 
(imperative) signification (cf. 445 Note 2 injunctive). The 
endings in the indicative are the secondary. 

627. Modes of the Aorist. The modes impera- 
tive, subjunctive (prim., sec.), optative of the aorist are 
formed according to the regular laws of the other systems. 

Note. Observe the existence of a form 3 sg. imp era t. mid. in 
-qm = Skt. -am: GAv. tr'iucqm 'speak', vidqm 'it shall decide' Ys. 32.6, 
cf. Skt. duham, Whitney, Skt. Gram. 618. 

i. Non-Sigmatic Group. 

628. The aorists of the non-sigmatic group I. root- 
aorist, 2. simple 0-aorist (thematic), 3. reduplicated aorist 
resemble preterites (imperfects) which correspond re- 
spectively to the root-class, the ^-conjugation (thematic), 
and to the reduplicated class. 

i. Root- Aorist. 
(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 829.) 

629. The root-aorist is like an imperfect of the 
root-class without a corresponding present indicative. The 
endings are attached directly to the root in its strong or 
its weak form. The distribution of strong and weak stem- 
forms is in general the same as in the present and perfect 
systems. The modes show their characteristic mode-signs. 

630. Example of root-aorist inflection (almost ex- 
clusively GAv.). 


178 Inflection: Conjugation of Verbs. 

Av. -^j ~\fda- 'to give, do, make 1 (str. stem da-, da-, wk. stem </-) 
= Skt. Vda- t dha-, Whitney, Skt. Gram. 829. 

631. i. Indicative. Aorist (Preterite). 

(G)Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

1. d-d(h)a-m 

2. dm, dms-cd d-d(h)s-s 

3. dd-( d-d(h)s-t 


1. dd-md d-d(h)a-ma 

2. dd-td d-d(h)S-ta 

3. d-ar' d-d(h)-ur 


3. d-dtd l 

632. 2. Imperative. 

(G)Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

2. dd-*di 

3. dd-tit d(h)a-tu 

633. 3. Subjunctive. 

Singular : 

2. dd-hl 

3. dd-iti d(h)d-ti 


2. jfomahi* 

3- dq,-n 

ii. MIDDLE. 

i. dd-ne* 

f dm-vhe 

2- , , - 

{ do)-K>ha 

3. dd-*te 

3. da-nte 

1 i.e. d-Ma. * Ys. 68.1. s Ys. 44.9. 

Aorist-System : i. Root-Aorist. 170 

634. 4. Optative. 

(G)Av. Singular: cf. Skt 

1. d-yqnt d(h)g-ySm 

2. da-y& 1 , dd-yce* 

3. d-ydf, da-ydf* 

2. dd-yata* 

ii. MIDDLE. 

1 . d-yd 5 

2. d-tfd 

3. d-ydtcpn 

635. 5. Participle. 

i. ACTIVE. Av. daiit- 

Forms to be observed in GAv. and YAv. 
636. Some further examples of inflection in GAv. 
and some forms also in YAv. may be observed. 

i. Indicative. Aorist. 
637. Singular: 

First Person: i. ACT. GAv. dar'stm 'I saw'; note srn-i-m 'I heard' (ob- 
serve -?-, like 527, 550). 

Second Person: i. ACT. GAv. var'S 'thou hast done' (varz -(- s 165). 
Third Person: i. ACT. GAv. moist 'he turned' (l/V/^-), cor'f 'he made' 
(\fkar-, -o- = -a- 39). Here probably also yaogf Ys. 44.4. 
Observe GAv. sSA-f-f 'he taught' (sSA-), YAv. va*n-i-{ 'let conquer' 
Ys. 60.5 (if not opt. with wk. ending). 
638. Dual:- 
Third Person: ii. MID. GAv. asrv&tim 'they called'. 

639. Plural: 
First Person: ii. MID. YAv. yaofyma'de 'we joined', GAv. var'maidl 

'we have chosen'. 

Third Person: i. ACT. YAv. a-1k-ar' 'they elapsed' (Y sac ~) v d. 1.4; 
also bun 'they become'. GAv. _/>, a gmn 'they came'. ii. MID. 
fracarttita 'they provided' (\fkar-} Vd. 2.11. 

1 From strong stem. So metrically Yt. 10.114; Ys. 57.26. * From 
strongest stem. 8 From str. stem. So metrically Yt. 13.50, cf. Vd. 3.32. 
4 From strongest stem. 8 i. e. *diya. 

1 80 Inflection : Conjugation of Verbs. 

2. Imperative. 

640. Singular: 

Second Person: H. MID. GAv. Atr'jva 'make thou'. 
Third Person: H. MID. GAv. (ending -qm above 456, 627 Note) 
cqm 'speak right', vidqm 'shall decide'. 

641. Plural: 
Third Person: I. ACT. GAv. sca^ia 'let them follow' (\fsac-). 

3. Subjunctive. 

642. Singular: 

First Person: i. ACT. YAv. //<? 'I will stand'. GAv. yaojd 'I will yoke', 

varSiri 'I will choose '. ii. MID. gir'zi, gtr'zoi 'I will complain', 

sruyt 'I may be heard', YAv. buye 'I may be' (\fbu-) Afr. 1.10,11. 

Third Person: j. ACT. YAv. l>va 'will become'. G\\.jima( 'he may come'. 

643. Dual: 
Third Person: H. MID. GAv. jamaitS 'they may come'. 

644. Plural: 

First Person: i. ACT. YAv. jimama 'we shall come'. 
Second Person: i. ACT. GAv. vt-cayaJiS 'ye distinguish'. 
Third Person: i. ACT. GAv. bvariti-cS 'and they will be', jimjn 'may 
they come'. 

4. Optative. 

645. Singular: 

Second Person: i. ACT. YAv., similarly fyjnuy<B 'thou mightest rejoice". 

Third Person: i. ACT. YAv. also (from str. stem) jam-ySf 'he might come'; 
again (from wk. stem as above) dis-yaf 'let him show' Afr. 3.7 etc., 
likewise GAv. mipyaf 'he might deprive'. H. MID. GAv. drlta 'he 
might hold' (\fdar-). 

646. Plural: 

First Person: i. ACT. YAv. jamy&ma beside jamyama 'we might come'. 
GAv. buySma 'we might be'. H. MID. GAv. va'rima'dt 'we might 

Second Person: i. ACT. YAv. buy&ta 'might ye be'. 
Third Person: i. ACT. YAv. bityqn, buyar'i 'they might be'. 

Note. For fuller GAv. lists in regard to the root-aorist see Bartho- 
lomae, ff.Z. xxiv. p. 313 seq. = Flexiomlehre p. 44 seq. 

647. Transfers to the thematic a-in flection 
are found, e. g. GAv. vafyH-a-f 'he increased', GAv./rd-jjn-a-{ 
'he came' (\fgatn-). 

Aorist-System: 2. 0-Aorist. 3. Reduplicated Aorist. 181 

2. Simple a-Aorist (thematic). 
(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 846 seq.) 

648. The instances of the simple 0-aorist are not 
very numerous; in Av. this aorist plays a part similar to 
that in the Skt. of the Rig Veda. In formation and in- 
flection it is identical with a preterite (imperfect) of the 
6th class. The root in its weak form simply assumes the 
thematic vowel a; the secondary endings are then added 
for the indicative. Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 846. 

649. Examples of the ^-aorist (chiefly GAv.) are 
the following: 

1. Indicative, i. ACT. Aor. (pret.) Sg. 3. vidaf 'he found' (be- 
side 3 sg. pres. pret. virid-af) , bujaf ' he absolved ' (beside pres. 

ti}. ii. MID. PI. 3. #/?*/<* ' the y ruled> (!/"$<*-) 

2. Imperative, j. ACT, Sg. 2. vida 'find thou'. ii. MID. PI. 3. 

'let them rule'. 

3. Subjunctive, i. ACT. Sg. I. hanani, 3. hanof 'let me, him earn'. 

4. Optative, ii. MID. Sg. 3. faaeta 'might he rule'. 

5. P a r t i c i p 1 e. i. ACT. vidat (in compounds). 

Likewise some other forms might be added. 

3. Reduplicated Aorist. 
(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 856 seq.) 

650. The reduplicated aorist is comparatively rare. 
The stem is made by reduplicating the root which then 
appears in its weak form and assumes the thematic a. 
The secondary endings are added for the indicative. Cf. 
Whitney, Skt. Gram. 856. 

651. Example of inflection, Av. -r-0 Y vac ' <to 
speak' (stem vaoc-a- i.e. va-nc-, va-vc-} = Skt. y~vac- (voca-): 

i. Indicative. I. ACT. Sg. I. vaocjm, vaocim ( 30), 2. vaoco, 
vaocas-cS, 3. vaocaf, fuaocaf ( 32, 466). PI. I. -vaodlina, vaocama. 
a. Imperative, i. ACT. Sg. 2. vaocS. 

3. Subjunctive, i. ACT. Sg. I. vaoca (Ys. 45.3), 3. vaof&j. 

4. Optative, i. ACT. Sg. 3. vaocoif. PI. I. vaocoimd. 

Note i. Similarly GAv. nqaaf 'he disappeared' (i. e. na-ns-a{, ~\fnas- 
= Skt. 

I 82 Inflection: Conjugation of Verbs. 

Note 2. To the redupl. aor. possibly belong the obscure forms YAv. 
urti-rud-u-ja 'thou didst grow' 2 sg. mid. Ys. 10.3, GAv. qs-aj-u-tS 'it has 
been accomplished'. The may be anaptyctic, or is it from a pres. for- 

652. Instances of the true causative aorist with 
strengthened reduplication (cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 1046, 
856) are : y~var- 'to believe, cause to believe', GAv. vdur&te 
(3 sg. subjunct. mid.); vdurayd (i sg. opt. mid.), vduroi- 
m&dl (i pi. opt. mid.). On vdurd l te etc. for vd-vr-d^e 
see 62, 2 above. 

Note i. The forms zlzamn, zizanSf (cf. Skt. ajtjanat, Whitney, Skt. 
Gram. 864, 869) are best reckoned under Cl. 3 in Av. on account of 
pres. indie, zizamriti Yt. 13.15. 

Note 2. The form vaozirtm Yt. 19.69 is reckoned under pluperf. 
above 6 I 6. 

ii. Sigmatic Group. 

4. A- (s-) Aorist. 
(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 878 seq.) 

653. The characteristic mark of this aorist is an 
orig. sibilant s (= Av. h, s, s) which is added in forming 
the stem. The inflection is unthematic, the endings 
being attached directly to. the root which shows different 
degrees of strengthening, see next section 654. 

654. The indicative sg. act. has the vrddhi-strengthening ; 
the indie, plur. act. and generally both numbers of the indie, mid. have 
the guna form. The imperative mid. and the entire subjunctive 
act show likewise guna. The optative and some instances of indie, 
plur. mid. generally have the weak form. 

655. Examples of inflection of this aorist are 
taken from the following roots: 

Av. Ye/1- 'regard, think' = Skt. ~\[dhl-; Av. ~\[dar- 'hold, hold 
back' = Skt. "\fdhar-; Av. "\fsand- 'show, present, appear' = Skt. 
ychand- 142; Av. ~\[man- 'think' = Skt. ~\[man-; Av. ~\[]rwars- 
'shape, create' ; Av. ~\ffras- 'ask' = Skt. ~\fprai- ; Av. "\fprS- 'pro- 
tect' = Skt. ~\[tr&-; Av. ~\[van- 'win' = Skt. ~\fvan-; Av. yinqs-, 
nas- 'cause to vanish' = Skt. ]finqs-, nai-; Av. "\fvarz- 'work' 

Aorist-System : 4. h- (s-) Aorist. j g 7 

= Skt. Vvarj-; Av. |/>J- 'protect' = Skt. YfS-; Av. -\[vac- 'speak' 
= Skt. \fvac~; Av. "|/Va- 'give, do, make' = Skt. ][d&-, dhd-; Av. 
~\f 2 nqs-, nas- 'attain' = Skt. ~\f '2 nqs-, nas-. 

656. i. Indicative. Aorist (Preterite). 

(G)Av. Singular: cf. Skt 

2. ddi-S, Sqs 1 ......... MOi-s*, ach&n 

3. ddr'St, dor'St*, S%S* ..... a-bh&r*. achdn 

ii. MIDDLE. 

1. mzvh-i 6 , fra$-i ....... tnqt-i 

2. mtygha .......... 

3. mq,S-td .......... mqs-ta 


1. a-mzh-mcpdi' 1 , mSh-maidV .... a-gas-mahi 

2. pwaroz-dum* ........ d-vr-4hvam 

657. 2. Imperative. 


2. f'rasva 

Plural: . 

2. prdz-dum 9 ....... . . trA-dhvam 

658. 3. Subjunctive. 


(G)Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

I VStlvh-Wtl ......... vqs-ati 

' V2llgh-at ......... vqs-at 



' 1 vSllgh-3n ......... vqs-an 

1 Ys. 46.19. Wh., Skt. Gram. 891. 8 39. Ys. 43.11. 
4 Wh., Skt. Gram. 890. 8 Also minhi. 7 i. e. wk. form, *masmatfi from 

||7i l 179- - 9 i?'. - io 158 -y + *. ' 165 .-f/. 

184 Inflection: Conjugation of Verbs. 

Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

1. p&vh-e, mSngh-di* mqs-ai* 

2. P&vk-ahe* mqs'asg 

3. var'f-a'te* mqs-au 

2. d&vh-5dum* d&s-adh-vam 

3- va^nte* vaks-antl 

659. 4. Optative. 


Av. Plural: cf. Skt 

i. nd$-tma (YAv.) 

660. 5. Participle. 

, , (Y)Av. mavh-dna- 1 .... 8 

H. MIDDLE. ' v ' 


(G)Av. di$-amna- 9 dhis-amana- (RV.) 

Forms to be observed. 

66 1. GAv. ra)-vhan)h-5i 'thou wilt give' 2 sg. sub- 
junctive mid. Vrd-, cf. YAv. p&vhahe (in paradigm). 

Note. GAv. minghsi (above) is by transfer thematic like Skt 
mqsSi cf. 663. 

5. ha- (sa-) Aorist. 
(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 916 seq.) 

662. The orig. .ra-aorist (= Av. ha, who) in Av. is 
really only a variety of the preceding 5-aorist. It arises 
by transfer of the j-aorist to the ^-inflection. 

663. Examples of the ha- (sa-) aorist inflection 
are the following: 

x. Indicative, i. ACT. 85.3. YAv. asqs-a-{ 'he fulfilled, offered' 
(Y^and- above 656) Vd. 19.15 = Skt. d-chant-s-at. 

2. Imperative, i. ACT. PI. 3. YAv. javhititu 'they will smite' 
(V>-) Vd. 2.22. 

1 themat. 661. * Yt. 8.1. 165. 4 Ys. 45.1, cf. 39, 5 = a. 

b "\fvac- 'say, call'. Ys. 70.4, ~\[ 2 nas- = orig. -s -\- s. 7 Yt. 8.47. 

8 Cf. Whitney, S*t. Gram. 897. 9 themat. Ys. 51.1. 

Aorist-System : 5. 6a-(sa-)Aorist. 6. ii- Aorist. 7. A/7- Aorist. 185 

3. Subjunctive, i. ACT. Sg. 3. YAv. n5j-S-*ti 'will disappear' 
Yt. a. 1 1 (\finas- = Skt. Vinos- 158); jafiSf Ny. i.i. ii. MID. 
YAv. na$-&-*tl. Likewise here I sg. subj. mid. mirigh&i above 66 1. 

5. Participle, ii. MID. GAv. jfttaof-ytana- (\f%jnu- 'to gratify'), 
dijtmna above in paradigm 660. 

6. //-Aorist. 
(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 898 seq.) 

664. One or two instances (GAv.) of the ?j-aorist 
see Whitney, Skt. Gram. 898 are quotable. They are 
from yku-, c*u- 'look for, hope', Yty$nu- 'gratify, delight': 

I. Indie. H. MID. Aor. (pret.). Sg. I. c'v-if-i (on long -/- after 
v see 20). 3. c'v-rj-tS. 

3. Subjunct. 1. ACT. Sg. I. 

(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 911.) 

665. An instance (YAv.) of the his- (sis-) aorist is 
apparently the following: 

I. Indie, i. ACT. Sg. 2. da-hiJ 'thou hast made' (\fda-] Yt. 3.2 
cf. Skt. glasts, Whitney, Skt. Gram. 912, 913. 

666. No certain instance of a precative seems 
to be found in A vesta. 

Aorist Passive, third Singular. 
(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 842.) 

667. In Av. as in Skt. an aor. 3rd. singular in -/ 
with passive meaning occurs, though it is not of common 
use. The form is made by adding i to the verbal root 
which has either the vrddhi or guna strengthening. The 
form may take the augment as in Skt. 

668. Examples of 3rd. sg. Aor. Pass, are the 

(a) With vrddhi. From Av. "\fvac- 'speak, call' v&ci , avSci 
(GAv.) = Skt. vdci, avdci ; Av. "\fsru- 'hear, call' srSvi (GAv.) = 
Skt. srdvi; so Av. S'di 'is said, spoken of "\fad- (so Geldner) = Skt. 

1 86 Inflection : Conjugation of Verbs. 

aA-.^(b) With guna (or middle) form. From Av. ~\fmru- 'say' 
mraol (GAv. i. e. rnrav-i), Av. ~\fvat- 'understand' va'tt (GAv.), 
Av. "\fjan- 'slay' ja'nt (YAv.). 

Note. The form YAv. tr'n&vi 'it was granted, obtained* (\f ar ~} K 
made, not directly from the root, but from the prepared stem tr f -nu-, >r'-nau-. 


(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 932 seq.) 

669. The characteristic mark of the future 
in Avesta as in Sanskrit is -hy- (-$y- 13 3) = Skt. -sy- (-$y-) 
added to the root. The root assumes the gun a- form; 
the inflection is thematic (-hya, -$ya). Cf. Whitney, Skt. 
Gram. 932 seq. 

Modes of the Future. 

670. The instances of the future are in general not 
very numerous; they are confined to the indicative mode 
and to the participle. The place of the other modes is 
often taken by a subjunctive of other parts of the verb 
used in a future sense. Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 938. 

Future Formation and Inflection. 

671. Examples of future formation and inflection are 
taken from the following roots. Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 933. 

Av. "\fvac- 'to speak' = Skt. YVOC-; Av. "^Aarz-.'let go, drop' 
= Skt. \fsarj-; Av. ~\[sa~ 'further, save' = Skt. yVtf-. 

672. i. Indicative. Future. 

Av. Singular: cf. Skt. 

I. vafy-<iy-d (GAv.) ....... vak-ty-ami 

11. MIDDLE. 
3. vafy-Sy-eite 1 ......... -vak-ty-ati 

3. Har'-Sy-etlte* ........ sark-ty-anU 3 

1 Ys. 19.10; Vsp. 15.3. * Vsp. 12.1. On z-\-s see 165. * Cf. 
Skt. varkfyanti from 

Future-System. Secondary Conjugation: Passive. 187 

673. 2. Participle. 

I. ACTIVE. Av. sao-sy-atlt- . . . . cf. Skt. kfl-fy-dnt- 
ii. KIDDLE. har'-Sy-amna- yak-fy-dmdna- 

Foras to be observed. 

674. Notice the long vowel instead of strengthening in the Av. 
participles ba-$y-atit- from ~\[b-a-, opp. to Skt. bhav-i-fydnt- ( 61 Note 2), 
cf. Skt. RV. sA-fy-ant-. Observe also %rvt-$y-at[t- beside $rvf-fy-artt- from 
l/~$rvi- 'be raw, bloody'. 

675. The secondary conjugations consist of the 
following formations (thematic), a. Passive, b. Causative, 
c. Denominative, d. Inchoative, e. Desiderative, and f. In- 
tensive (unthematic). 

A. Passive. 

(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 768 seq.) 

676. General Remark. The passive force may be 
given in any tense-system simply by employing the middle 
voice in a passive sense. In the present-system, however, 
there is also a formative passive made by means of the 
passive sign -ya- (cf. Cl. 4) attached to the prepared root. 

Note. The connection between this formative passive in ya and 
Cl. 4 of the present-system is generally acknowledged. In Skt. the diffe- 
rence of accent distinguishes the two , the passive having accented yd, 
but Cl. 4 an unaccented ya. As no written accent is found in Av., 
such a distinction cannot always be sharply drawn ; it is therefore some- 
times doubtful whether a given form is really a passive or merely a middle 
used with passive sense, e.g. manyeti (pass.) Ys. 44.12 identical in form 
with manyete (mid.) Yt. 10.139 = Skt. manydtl, many ate. 

677. Formation of the Passive. The passive sign 
is -ya- (= Skt. accented -yd-} attached to the root which 
then assumes the weak form. 

Note. The ar-roots require some remark as they frequently show 
MS. variations as to the way in which the radical r-vowel is expressed: 
e. g. Av. ~\fmar- 'to die', mir-ye-'ti, mir-ye-'te, mfr'-ye-'ti, ma'r-ye-'te 
Vd. 3.33 = Skt. mriydtl; again Av. ykar- 'to make', kir-ye-*ti Yt. 10.109, 

1 88 Inflection: Conjugation of Verbs. 

kir-ye-'utt v. 1. ka^-ye-^te Vd. 3.9, cf. 48 above. The development in 

such cases evidently is 


Av. mar-ya-te (or -a'r- 48) Skt. mr-'-yd-M 

or mir-ya-te (-*>- 70) mr-i-yd-tl 

678. Endings. In Skt. the passive form assumes 
the middle endings, but some exceptions with active end- 
ings occur, cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 774. In Av. also, 
the middle endings are used but the active ones like- 
wise are not very uncommon. Observe especially the MS. 
variants in final e, i ( 35 Note 2) kirye*ti, kiry&te. The 
intransitive passive force seems therefore to lie in the ya- 

Note. An undoubted example of act. ending but passive force is 
fr&-yez-y&t in Yt. 13.50 kahe vo urvS (nom. masc.) frSyezySf 'of which one 
of you will the soul be worshipped?' Apparently also with active ending 
(from y </<!-) daySf (subjunct.) Vd. 3.32, ni-dayat (impf.) Yt. 12.17, 

Modes of the Passive. 

679. The modes of the passive are the usual ones 
of the present-system; a complete list of forms, however, 
cannot be gathered from the texts. 

Passive Inflection. 

680. Examples of passive voice with middle and 
active endings are the following: 

I. Indicative, a. Pres. Sg. 3. bair-yeHe v. 1. ba'ryefti 'he is 
borne', kirye'ti v. 1. kirye'te 'it is made' ; PI. 3. kiryeiqte v. 1. ka'r- 
ye'nte 'they are made' ( 48). Pret. Sg. 2. ma'ryavha 'didst die' 
v. 1. mir*yavha, 3. vl-sruyata 'was heard', ni-dayaf 'was placed'. 

3. Subjunctive. Sg. 3. ma'ryS'te v. 1. mirya'te , miry&'ti Ms 
destroyed, dies'; yezyaf 'is worshipped'; PI. 3. fiairyOtyte 'they will 
be borne', jany&nte 'they will be slain' Yt. 14.43. 

5. Participle. Av. suyamna- 'being advanced, saved'. 
Note. From ]fvar- 'to cover* is found a form ni-vd'r-ye-'te (v. 1. //), 
on o, cf. 39. 

681. A Perf. Pass. Participle in -ta or -na also 
belongs to the passive conjugation. See 710 below. 

Secondary Conjugation: Causative. l&Q 

682. A Put. Pass. Participle (Gerundive) in 
ya- is formed according to 716 below. 

683. The Aorist Passive 3rd. Singular likewise 
falls under this formation. It is treated above, 668. 

B. Causative. 

684. General Remark. In Av. as in Skt. the cau- 
sative C-aya-), like the Denominative is identical in form 
with Cl. 10, the latter being originally a causative forma- 
tion. The causal is found in the Present-System. 

Note. In Skt. many of the so-called causatives do not have a strict 
causative value and are therefore reckoned as belonging to the Skt. cur- 
Class(io); similarly in Av., a number of causative forms have been treated 
above under Class 10, cf. 482 seq. 

685. Formation. The present-stem of the causa- 
tive is formed by adding the causal formative element -aya- 
to the root which is usually strengthened. The strengthen- 
ing of the root is subject to certain variations. 

a. Internal or initial a before a single consonant is generally 
lengthened ( vrddhi ) , but sometimes it remains unchanged , thus : 
Lengthened S, Av. "\fvat- 'to comprehend', caus. 'make known' 
vataya- = Skt. valdya-; Av. ~\[tap- 'to warm, be warm', caus. 'make 
warm' t8f>aya- = Skt. t&pdya- ; Av. ~\[gam-, Jam- 'go, come' jamaya- 
= Skt. g&mdya- (Whitney, Skt. Gram. 1042 g). Unchanged S, 
Av. "\fpat- 'to fall, fly' pataya- = Skt. patdya- ; Av. ~\fsad- 'appear' 
sadaya- = Skt. chaddya- ; Av. ~\fap- 'obtain', apaya-, opp. to Skt. 

b. Internal and initial a before two consonants (i. e. long 
by position) remains unchanged : Av. ~\fda^i- 'to know, cause to 
know' dalfiaya- = Skt. dakfdya-; Av. ~\fva^- 'grow, cause to grow' 
vafyjlaya- = Skt. vakfdya-; Av. "\fband- 'bind' baqdaya- = Skt. ban- 
dhdya-; Av. "\fzamb- 'crush* ztmbaya- = Skt. jambhdya-. 

c. Final long a disappears: Av. "\fsta- 'to stand, cause to stand' 
slaya- opp. to Skt. slh&pdya-, cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 10421. 

d. Internal or initial /', u before single consonants (i. e. in 
light syllables) have the guna-strengthening : Av. ~\fvid- 'to know', 
caus. 'inform' vaidaya- = Skt. vlddya-; Av. "\fruc- 'light up' rao- 
caya- = Skt. rocdya-. 

IO/> Inflection: Conjugation of Verbs. 

e. Final u (or i) receives the vrddhi-strengthening : Av. "\fsru- 
'to hear' srOvaya- = Skt. irttvdya-. 

Note I. The nasal of the present-stem (Cl. 9) appears in Av. 
kr*ntaya- from ^karl- 'to cut' as in Skt. krnt&ya-, cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 
1042 h. So also Av. bunjaya- from "\fbuj- 'to release'. 

Note 2. The root zd- 'to let go' makes zayaya-, cf. Whitney, Skt. 
Gram. 1042. 

Note 3. Observe with lengthening instead of strengthening of 
root ( 6l Note) GAv. *rapayt*na 'they cause pain' (\frup-~) = Skt. ropd- 
yanti; GAv. *rtidoyata 'he caused to lament' = Skt. rodhdyata. 

Modes of the Causative. 

686. The Causative shows the same modes, i. In- 
dicative, 2. Imperative, 3. Subjunctive, 4. Optative, in- 
cluding also 5 . Participle, as the present-system naturally does. 

Inflection of the Causative: Present-System. 
687. The causal in the present-system is inflected 
after the ^-conjugation (thematic), see Cl. 10 above, 481, 

482 seq. 

Other Causative Formations. 

688. To the causal formation belongs not only the 
causative of the present-system, but also a causal aorist 
(see 652); possibly likewise a causative perfect (plu- 
perfect), and some other parts. 

689. On the reduplicated Causative Aorist, see 652 above. 

690. Possibly here belongs as Periphrastic Perfect (Plupf.), 
Av. biwivOtvha 'he had frightened', see 623. 

691. A causal derivative from "\ffrap- 'to sleep' is made by at- 
taching the root dS- 'to make, do' in its causal form directly to the radical 
element; thus, Av. hrabdaye'ti 'puts to sleep'. 

692. Other causative derivatives made with root da- (cf. 691) 
but without causal form, are ava-vhab-daeta 'he would cause to sleep' 
(\fhap-), Iraoidaf 'caused to howl' (~\f^rus-}, yaoidSHi 'makes pure' (Vyaol-). 

693. Some forms with causal signification but without the -aya- 
formation occur: Av. vafaj 'he caused to grow' Ys. 48.6 opp. to va$f- 
aya-to 'they both cause to grow' Ys. 10.3. 

694. An occasional verbal noun (infinitive) or adjective (participle) 
is likewise to be noted under the causal formation: Av. frasruta- 'made 

Secondary Conjugation: Denominative. |OI 

famous, renowned', *rvatita- 'turned' Ys. 11.2. Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram, 
1051 seq. 

C. Denominative. 

(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 1053 seq.) 

695. Denominative verbs are formed from a noun- 
stem (substantive or adjective) by adding -ya or -a = 
Skt. -yd or -a to the stem. In Skt. the -yd is accented, 
but as there is no written accent in Av. , it is sometimes 
hard to decide whether a certain given verb-form in -aya 
be really a denominative from an #-stem or not rather 
simply a causative. As to meaning, the denominative 
usually signifies 'to make, use, cause, be, or practise' that 
which the noun-stem itself denotes. 

696. Formation and Inflection. The denomi- 
native is found in the Present-System and is made I. by 
adding -ya (= Skt. -yd}, or more rarely 2. -a (= Skt. -a) 
directly to a noun-stem. The inflection is therefore that 
of the present-system - conjugation (thematic). Cf. 
Whitney, Skt. Gram. 1054, 1068. 

1. ya added : Av. a fa- n. 'holiness' (a-stem) denom. afa-ya- 'to 
gain by holiness', afaye'li = Skt. rtayd- ; Av. v&ra- m. 'rain' denom. 
vSra-yt-mi 'I rain down'; Av. avhu- m. 'lord' (-stem) denom. 
avhu-ya- 'to become lord of, avhuy&ife ; Av. nimah- n. 'homage' 
(cons, stem) denom. mma^-ya- 'do homage' mma/iy&mahi = Skt. 
namasya-; Av. ijud- f. 'debt 1 (cons, stem) denom. i$ud-ya- 'incur 
a debt', i^dy&mahl = Skt. ifudhyd-. 

2. Simple a added: Av. pa'ti- 'lord' (/-stem) denom. pa'py-a- 
'to possess as lord', #a'ye'ti = Skt. pdtya- ; Av. fyratu- m. 'wisdom' 
(w-stem) denom. fyrafw-a- 'be wise', ptcpl. mid. fyrajrwtmnahe 'of 
him that is wise* ; Av. fyavhu- m. 'mist' (#-stem) denom. fyavhv-a- 
'to fall as mist', fyavhuntal-ca ( 63, 493, 582); Av. alnah- n. 
'sin' (cons, stem) denom. alnavh-a- 'to commit sin', alnavha'ti 
Ys. 9.29 opp. Skt. Inas-yd-. 

Note. Final a of a noun-stem seems occasionally to disappear (cf. 
in Skt. after n or r, Whitney, Skt. Gram. 10590). Thus, Av. baijaz- 
ya-ti etc. 'he practises healing' Yt. 8.43 (baljaza- n.), v&stryal-ta 'let him 
pasture' (v&stra- n.), par'san-ye-'ti 'he asks' Yt. 8.15. So probably also 

IQ2 Inflection: Conjugation of Verbs. 

Av. fyjana'ti 'he fights' (ptfana- n., ft/ana- f.), cf. Skt. Pftanyati, Whitney, 
Skt. Gram. 1 060. 

D. Inchoative. 

(Cf. Whitney, Stt. Gram. 608, 747.) 

697. The existence of the inchoative in Av., as in 
Skt., is shown by a few verbs. The inchoative sign 
is s = Skt. ch ( 142) added directly to the root in its 
weak stage. The thematic ^-inflection is then assumed. 
The instances of inchoative are comparatively so few that 
these inchoative J-forms have sometimes been reckoned as 
independent roots. 

698. Examples of Inchoatives. The forma- 
tion and inflection is shown by the following instances. 

Av. ~\fgam-, jas- (i. e. >-*-) 'to go, come' f ja-s-a-*ti, cf. {Jdoxet 
= Skt. gd-ch-a-ti; Av. ^yam-, yas- (L e. ym-i-') 'come, reach' ya- 
s-a-ite = Skt. yd-ch-a-tl ; Av. "\ffras-, ptr's- (i. e. pari-i-) 'ask' 
pfr'-s-a'te, cf. Lat. po(r)scit = Skt. pr-ch-a-ti; Av. ~\fvah-, us- (L e. 
us-J-) 'to light up' us-a-t'ti = Skt. uchdti ; Av. \ftap-, taft- 'to 
warm, grow warm' taf-s-a-f, cf. Lat. ttpesco. Also a few others. 

Note. Observe the assimilation and loss of consonants before J in 
the following examples: Av. (tr'sa'ti 'he trembles' (i. e. *ttr's-s-a*ti) , cf. 
Skt. ~\ftras-; Av. ttsa'ti just above 698. So Av. bisa/ 'he began to 
sweat' -\fhid- = Skt. -\fsvid-. See 184, 185 above. 

E. Desiderative. 
(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 1026 seq.) 

699. The desiderative in Av. resembles the Skt. 
in formation and signification. The root is reduplicated 
and the formative element -ha (-vha, -fa, -zd) = Skt. 
sa as desiderative sign is added. The vowel of the re- 
duplicated syllable is always -i- (-?- 21 Note); the 
initial consonant of the root in reduplicating follows the 
usual rules above 465. 

The root of the desiderative appears ordinarily in its 
weak grade; sometimes, however, in its strong (middle) 

Secondary Conjugation : Inchoative; Desiderative ; Intensive. 

form. The desiderative is confined to the present-system ; 
the inflection (-ha, -sa) is thematic. 

700. Examples of Desiderative Formation. 
The instances of the desiderative are not very numerous; 
the following may be noted. 

Av. "\fji- 'to conquer, win', desid. jt-ji-ja- 'seek to win over' = Skt. 
ji-ji-sa; Av. "\ffifnu- 'gratify, rejoice', desid. ci-finu-$a- ; Av. ~\fznii- 
'know', desid. zi-$?n<B-v/ta- ( 164, 465 Note 2) = Skt. ji-jfia-sa-; 
Av. ~\fdab- 'deceive', desid. GAv. di-w-ia- (i. e. di-^bh-la 89) 'seek 
to deceive' = Skt. dipsa- ; Av. "\fsac- 'teach, learn, can', desid. sffa- 
(i. e. *si-J&-sa-) = Skt. si-k-fa-. Likewise a few other forms, e. g. 
dtdzr'Za- from ~\fdarz- 'make firm', mimajZa- from ~\fmatij- 'magnify', 
vtvar'/a- from "\fvarz- 'do*. 

701. Examples of Inflection. These are con- 
fined to the present-system thematic. 

1. Indicative, a. Pres. i. ACT. PI. 3. GAv. ji-ji-jmtt Ys. 39.1. 
H. MID. PI. 2. di-draj-soiiuyg Ys. 48.7. b. Fret. I. ACT. Sg. 2. '- 
$HU-$O Ys. 45.9. H. MID. Sg. 3. didar'-$al& 'he held back' (\fdar-~). 

2. Imperative, i. ACT. Sg. 3. GAv. vi-vingka-tii 'let him seek 
to surpass' (\fvan-\ H. MID. Sg. 2. YAv. mi-mar>fy-$avu/ia. 

3. Subjunctive, i. ACT. Sg. I. GAv. ci-fyfnu-ja Ys. 49.1; 
3. YAv. ji-ji-jS-iti.U. MID. Sg. 3. mi-marfyia-itl. 

5. Participle, i. ACT. GAv. ti-fenu-/atit- Ys. 43.15. H. MID. 
YAv. zi-li$n&-vh}mna- 465 Note 2. 

Note. A P e r f. Participle of the desid. Act. is ja^jav^ 'having the 
desire to slay' (]fjan-) ZPhl. Glossary p. 92. 

F. Intensive. 

(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 1000 seq.) 

702. The characteristic features of the Intensive are 
reduplication and the unthematic inflection. In forma- 
tion, the Intensive in Av., as in Skt., closely resembles 
the reduplicating class (Cl. 3) of the present-system; it is 
distinguished from Cl. 3 by having a strengthened re- 
duplicated syllable. 

703. As regards the reduplication, the forma- 
tion of the Intensive in Av. is twofold. 

1 04 Inflection : Conjugation of Verbs. 

1. The reduplicated syllable is made by repeating the initial conso- 
nant followed by the radical vowel in a strengthened form (a being streng- 
thened to 5; i to al, di; u to ao). Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 1002. 

2. The reduplicated syllable is made by repeating the entire root. 
Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 1002 ii. 

704. As regards the radical syllable itself, this 
assumes sometimes the strong form, sometimes the weak 
grade, according to the person or the mode in which it 
is found. The inflection as stated above is unthematic. 

705. Examples of Formation. As instances 
to illustrate the Intensive formation the following may 
be taken: 

1. Strengthened Reduplication: Av. "\fpart- 'to fight', intens. p5- 
pir*t-; Av. J/Vj'j- 'show, teach' dai-dois-, dai-dis- Skt. di-des-, 
di-dis-; Av. ~^vid- 'find' voi-md- = Skt. vt-vid-; Av. yz- 'call' 
zao-sao- = Skt. jo-hav-, 

2. Repeated Root: Av. ~\fdar- 'to tear' dar-dar- = Skt. dar- 
dar-; Av. ~\fkar- 'make' car-kjr*- = Skt. cdr-kr-; Av. ~\[jlar- 
'stream, flow' jiar-jiar'- (in participle) opp. Skt. ca-kfar-. 

Note. An intensive with the j/a-inflection (Cl. 4 thematic) is to be 
found in the following instance : Av. ~\frai- 'to wound-, GAv. rS-rtj-ye^ti 
(indie.) Ys. 47.4; r&-r>$-yqn (subjunct.) Ys. 32.11 ; YAv. ra-n^-ya-rito (nom. 
pi. ptcpl.) Yt. 1 1.6; but un-thematic GAv. rS-nf-o (ptcpl.) Ys. 49.2 cf, 
Skt. r5-rakf-; see also Whitney, Skt. Gram. 1016. Similarly, Av. ~\fyah- 
'be heated, boil 1 yagfya- (i. e. ya-if-ya-) in the ptcpl. yagjyatit- Skt.yd-yas-. 

706. Examples of In flection. These are con- 
fined to the present-system unthematic, and they are mostly 
from GAv. Thus: 

i. Indicative, a. Pres. i. ACT. Sg. I. GAv. zao-zao-mt; PL I. 
GAv. car*-kjr>-mahi Ys. 58.4. ii. MID. Sg. I. GAv. voi-vid-g. 
b. Fret. Sg. 3. dae-doiS-t. 

4. Optative, i. ACT. Sg. 3. YAv. dar-da'r-ySf (with sir. rad. 
stem -dar- instead of expected wk. -d)r'-\ 

5. Participle, i. ACT. YAv. jiar'-jiar-ttjt- (a-inflect). 

707. Transfers to the ^-inflection are found, e.g. 
Indie. Pres. 3 sg. act. YAv. nae-niz-aiti 'it removes', et al. 

Verbal Abstract Forms: Participle. 195 

Participle, Gerund, Infinitive. 

708. To the verbal system there also belong the 
Participle or verbal adjective, the Gerund, with Ge- 
rundive, and the Infinitive or verbal noun. 

A. Participle. 

I. Participle in -ant, -at (Act.) ; -mna, -dna (Mid.). 
(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 583, 584 etc.) 

709. Participial forms in -a^t , -at (i.e. -/), 
fern, 'olitti, -aitl in the Active, and forms in -mna, -ana 
(-ana) in the Middle, are found in each tense-system. As 
these attach themselves directly rather to the tense-systems, 
they have been discussed above under the respective systems, 
cf. 488, 533 etc. 

2. Passive Participle in -ta. 
(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 952 seq.) 

710. A passive participle or past passive parti- 
ciple, is made in Av., as in Skt., by adding the suffix -ta 
= Skt. -td (accented) directly to the verbal root, which is 
subject however to certain euphonic changes. This verbal 
adjective in -ta (m. n.) , -td (f ) is regularly declined ac- 
cording to the ^-declension 236, 243. Examples of the 
formation are Av. pdta- 'protected' (}//-) = Skt. pdtd-; 
Av. gar'pta- 'grasped' (Ygarw- 74) = Skt. grbh!td; Av. 
drufyta- 'deceived' (ydruj- 90) = Skt. drugdhd-. 

711. Treatment of the Root before -ta. The 
form of the root is subject to modification and is liable 
to vary before the added suffix. The following points 
may be noted: 

I. The root very commonly (but not always) shows the weak 
form, if it has one, before -ta; a penultimate nasal is accordingly 
dropped. Thus, with weak form, from Av. ~\fvac- 'to speak' 
ptcpl. u^ta- = Skt. uktd- ; Av. "\fhit- 'press out' huta- = Skt. sutd-; 
Av. "\[panj- 'draw, drive' pa^ta- ; Av. ~\fhanj- 'encircle' hafta- = 

1 0,6 Inflection : Conjugation of Verbs. 

Skt. svuktd-; Av. *\[band- 'to bind' basta- ( 151) = Skt. baddhd-. 
Strong form or unchanged, Av. ~\fda- 'to place" data- opp. Skt. 
hitd-; Av. "\ftai- 'cut, form' laitta- = Skt. taffd-. 

2. Roots in final -d retain this. Thus, Av. "\fsta- 'to stand' 
stSta- opp. Skt. stkitd-; Av. yVa- 'place' opp. Skt. hild-; Av. 
1/W- 'bathe' = Skt. snStd- ; Av. ~\fpa- 'protect' = Skt. fata-. 

3. Roots in -ar often show MS. variations between -trta and 
-ar'la, cf. 47 Note. Thus, Av. ~\fbar- 'to bear' btr'ta-, bar'ta- 
(e. g. Ys. 62.9) = Skt. bhrtd-; Av. ~\[star- 'stretch, strew' frastir'ta-, 

4. Roots in -a, -am in Av., as in Skt., often form -ata (i. e. 
-/, ~tptd); sometimes they show -ata. Thus, Av. ~\[jan- 'to slay' 
ya/a- = Skt. hatd-; Av. J/Owaw- 'think' *wa/a- = Skt. tnatd-; Av. 
~\[gam- 'go' a/a- = Skt. gatd-; Av. za- 'beget, bear' zJ/a- = 
Skt. jStd-. 

5. But roots in -an, -am often retain the nasal (m being assi- 
milated to n before t). Thus, Av. "\fkan- 'to dig' "ka^ta- (cf. also 
kata-} opp. Skt. khatd-; Av. yzaw- 'know' za^ta- ; Av. ~\fgram- 
'be angry' grayta-. 

6. Sometimes a radical short appears as long Z before -/a, 
cf. 20. Thus, Av. ~\fsru- 'to hear' sruta- = Skt. irOtd-; Av. 
~\[dru- 'run' drUta- = Skt. druld-. 

712. The past participle in -/to, although common 
in Skt., hardly appears in Av. ; the instances Av. dar$ita- 
Ys. 57.11 = Skt. dhr$itd-, Av. raodita-, z&rita- are best 
treated under Suffixes below, 786 Note I. 

3. Passive Participle in -na. 
(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. % 952.) 

713. The wa-formation of the passive participle is 
very rare in Avesta. The instances are hardly distinguish- 
able from adjectives. As examples may be given, Av. 
Ytan- 'to stretch' us-tdna- 'upstretched' = Skt. uttdnd-; 
Av. YU~ 'be wanting* una- = Skt. und-; Av. YP ar ~ '^ 
- = Skt. purnd-. 

4. Perfect Active Participle in -vah. 

(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 802.) 

7 1 4. The formation of the Perf. Act. Participle has been 
treated above under the Perfect-System, see 61 1, 618, 399. 

Verbal Abstract Forms: Participle, Gerundive. IQ7 

5. Perfect Middle Participle in -ana, -fina. 
(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 806.) 

715. On the formation of the Perf. Mid. Participle, 
see above under Perfect-System, 6n, 618. 

B. Gerundive and Gerund. 

i. Gerundive: (a) Fut. Pass. Participle in -ya (declined). 
(Cf. Whitney, Ski. Gram. 961.) 

716. A declined derivative adjective with verbal 
force is made from some verbs by attaching the forma- 
tive element -ya to the root. Such an adjective is regu- 
larly inflected according to the ^-declension. In meaning, 
it often corresponds to the Latin form in -ndus; it is there- 
fore commonly called a gerundive or future passive participle. 

Examples are from Av. y/7- 'to wish', a gerundive (vbl. adj.) 
i/ya- = Skt. ifya-; Av. "\fkar3- 'draw furrows, plow' karjya- = 
Skt. "kj-fya- ; Av. ~\fvar- 'choose, believe' va'rya- = Skt. varya-. 
Other instances occur. 

2. Gertindive: (b) Fut. Pass. Participle in -tva, -p-wa (declined). 
(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 966 a.) 

717. A declined derivative adjective of like signi- 
fication (-ndus) with the preceding ( 716) is made by. add- 
ing -tva, -pwa, -diva ( 94, 96; see also under Suffixes) 
directly to the root in its strong form. Such a verbal 
adjective is regularly inflected after the ^-declension. 

Examples are: Av. jqpwa- 'worthy to be killed' ("|/yaw-) = Skt. 
hantva- ; Av. fanaopwa- 'worthy to be satisfied' (Yfifnu-); Av. 
varftva- 'to be done' (]fvarz-) t mqpwa- 'to be thought', vafrtfwa- 
'to be spoken". 

3. Gerund (Absolutive) in -ya (indeclinable). 

(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 989 seq.) 

718. A species of Gerund or Absolute (indeclinable) in -ya 
seems to occur in the following instances with daipt: Av. aibiga*rya 'seiz- 
ing' = Skt. "gtrya; Av. pa'tirlcya 'throwing away'. But cf. Bartholomae 
in B.B. xv. 237. 

198 Inflection: Conjugation of Verbs. 

C. Infinitive. 

(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram, 538, 968.) 

719. The Infinitive is a verbal noun, an abstract 
derived from a verb. It is formed either directly from the 
root, or sometimes from a tense-stem. Such a derivative 
noun is used with an infinitival or a semi-infinitival force. 
The noun form is found most often in the dative case; 
sometimes, however, in other cases. The abstracts used 
as infinitives are most commonly cases of a substantive 
stem made by means of the suffix -di, -ti, -ah; less often 
they are formed from stems in -man, -van, -a; or they 
are from suffixless stems. 

720. Examples of Infinitives or Verbal Nouns so 
used, are the following. Cf. also Whitney, Skt. Gram. 970. 

1. Ending Av. -dyai, -dyai dative = Skt. -dhyai. 

(Chiefly GAv. ; rare YAv.) 

From root: GAv. djr'dyai 'for holding' (]fdar-\ From pres. 
stem: GAv. vtrzye i dyai 'to work', YAv. vaza'dy&i 'for driving' 
(\fvaz-} Yt. 15.28, srSvaye'dysi 'to proclain 1 Yt. 24.46. 

2. Ending Av. -tfe, -tayai-ca dative = Skt. -tayi. 

(Only YAv., but frequent.) 

From root: YAv. anu-matie, anu-matayal-ca (254) 'to think, 
according to' (^man-) = Skt. dnu-niatayg; Av. kir'tie 'for making* 
(\fkar-) = Skt. kftayg; Av. brtSe 'for bearing', etc. 

3. Ending Av. -avhe dative = Skt -asl. 

(Chiefly GAv.) 

From pres. stem: GAv. valnavhg 'to see' tyvain-}, srava- 
yeighl 'to repeat' (\fsru-, causal), GAv. avavhl, GAv. ava'yke, ava- 
vhai-ca 'to aid' ("\fav-}. From a or. stem redupl., GAv. vaocawhl 
'to speak' (1/Wr-). 

4. Ending Av. -ma'ne, -va'ne dative = Skt. -mane, -van!. 

(GAv. and YAv.) 

From pres. stem: YAv. staoma'ne 'for praising' (|Ar/-), GAv. 
vldvanoi 'to know' (\fvid-) 56. Also a couple of others. 

Periphrastic Verbal Phrases. jog 

5. Ending Av. -ai dative (a-decl.) = Skt. at. 

(GAv. and YAv.) 

From root: YAv. jayai 'to win' (|/yV-). From stem: GYAv. 
fradap&l 'to promote' (J/V5-). 

6. Ending Av. -e dative (radical) Skt. -S. 

(Chiefly GAv.) 

From root: GAv. dar'soi 'to see' (\fdars-], sttye, savoi 'to profit, 
save' (y~j-), poi 'to protect'. 

7. Ending -te locative. 

(GAv. and YAv.) 

From root: GAv. </<? 'to go to' (J/V-) Ys. 31.9. From stem: 
YAv. daste 'to put, make' Vsp. 15.1. 

721. A number of other formations in the ace., 
gen., loc., cases of abstract nouns may be regarded as in- 
finitives. For examples, see Geldner, in K.Z. xxvii. p. 226; 
Bartholomae, in K.Z. xxviii. p. 17, B.B. xv. p. 215 seq. 


722. In the Av., there is an inclination occasionally 
to use periphrastic phrases made up by means of an adj., 
a participle or a noun, with a copula verb or auxiliary, 
instead of a regularly formed tense-stem. The auxiliary 
may sometimes even be omitted. The periphrastic phrase 
is chiefly found in YAv.; its presence, however, is re- 
cognized in GAv. Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 1069 sec l- 

723. The possible existence of a Periphrastic Perfect has 
been noted above, 623. 

724. A number of Periphrastic Expressions made 
by means of an adjective, a participle, or a noun com- 
bined with a verb, deserve special mention. 

1. Periphrastic with Av. "\fi- 'to go' = Skt. J/V-, cf. Whitney, 
Skt. Gram. 1075 a - GAv. stavas aytnl 'I shall praise 1 Ys. 50.9. 

2. With Av. \fah- 'sit' = Skt. J/"<fr-, and Av. |/".r/<f- 'stand' = 
Skt. "\fstha-, cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 10750. YAv. upa.maHim 
aite 'remains', tl Aijfteifti jiar'jiaryitti? 'they keep flowing'. 

2OO Inflection : Conjugation of Verbs. 

3. With Av. Yah- 'be' = Skt. -\fas-, and Av. -\fkil- 'be 1 = 
Skt. |M4*?- , cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 1075 d. GAT. ahva fri~ 
mmna 'let us both pray to', I du. injunct. Ys. 89.5; GAv. fiySf 
cijfnufo 'let one be gratifying' Ys. 43.15; GAv. isva hqs 'being able, 
possessed of; YAv. pa'rikjr'^tiJ avhtn 'may be looking about'; 
YAv. yaoldayqn avhtn. Cf. also /rao'rist& Yt. 13.25. YAv. yaf 
bav&ni a*wi.vany& 'that I may be conquering' ; YAv. yaold&ta bun 
'they become cleansed", vavam buye 'become victorious'. 

4. With ~\fda- 'give, make, do'. So apparently YAv. a'bigairyd 
'I do accept', pa*liricya daipl 'he does throw away' cf. 718. 


725. General Remark. The indeclinable words in 
Avesta, correspond in general to those in Sanskrit and in 
the other Indo-Germanic languages. Under Indeclinables 
are comprised Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions, and 
Interjections. These may be taken up in detail. 

A. Adverbs. 

726. The adverbs in Av., as in Skt, may be made 
either from a pronominal stem or from a noun-stem by 
means of a suffix, or their forms are merely crystallized 
cases of old or abandoned nouns. 

i. Adverbs made by Suffix. 
(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 1097.) 

727. A number of adverbs are made by adding 
suffixes to a noun or an adjective stem, or especially to 
a pronominal stem. Their meaning is various. 

a. Adverbs of Place. 

(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 1099, noo.) 

728. The principal adverbs of place made by means 
of a suffix are: 

Suffix Av. -to = Skt. -las, Av. a*wito 'around' = Skt. abhitas. 
Suffix -pra = Skt. -tra, Av. ktipra 'where' = Skt. kutra; Av. 
hafrra 'along, with' = Skt. satrd. Suffix -da = Skt. -ha, Av. ida 
'here, now' = Skt. ihd. Likewise a number of others. 

b. Adverbs of Time. 
(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 1103.) 

729. The number of temporal adverbs that are 
made by means of a suffix is not extensive but corresponds 
in proportion to the Sanskrit. Examples are: 

2O2 Indeclinables. 

Suffix GYAv. -<U, -<& = Skt. -da, -dha, -dha, Av. yadtt, yada 
'when' = Skt yadd; Av. kada, kada 'when?' = SkL kada. So Av. 
ada 'then' = Skt. ddha, adha. 

c. Adverbs of Manner and Degree. 
(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. uoi, 1104 seq.) 

730. The adverbs of manner and degree made by 
means of a suffix are numerous. 

Suffix Av. -p&= Skt. -tha, GYAv. yaj>a, ya]>a 'as' = SkL ydtha; 
Av. apt, apa 'so' = Skt. atha (dtka).S\iiiir. -/=Skt -s (Whitney, 
1105), Av. /r// 'thrice' = SkL /r/j. Suffix -ti = SkL -ti (Wh., 
1 102), Av. Wti 'thus'. Suffix -vaf (aCc. sg. advbl.) = Skt. -vat 
(Wh., 1106), Av. vacastaXtivaf 'after the manner of the text'. Simi- 
larly Av. haktr't 'once' = Skt. sakft. 

a. Case-forms as Adverbs. 
(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. mo seq.) 

731. Many adverbs in Av., as in Skt., are really 
only stereotyped cases of nouns, adjectives, or pronouns, 
used with an adverbial force. 

1. Accusative as Adverb frequent (cf. Whitney, 1 1 1 1) : 

(a) From pron. stem, Av. if 'even' = Skt. *'// Av. kaf 'how' = 
Skt. kdt; Av. / particle = Skt. cit; Av. coif (cpd. w. /) particle 
= Skt. eft; Av. noif, nalda 'not' = SkL nit. (b) From adj. stem, 
Av. ntirqm (ace. sg. f.), nUnm (ace. sg. n.) 'now, quick', cf. Skt. 
ntinam; Av. apartm 'hereafter' = Skt. dparam. (c) From noun- 
stem, Av. nqma 'by name' = Skt. ndma. 

2. Instrumental as Adverb (cf. Wh., 1112): (a) From 
pron. stem, Av. yavata 'as long' = Skt. y&vata; Av. ta 'by this, 
therefore', yd 'by which, whereby 1 , Gii 'thereby' ( 431). (b) From 
adj., Av. dafyjina 'to the right' = SkL ddkfi&na; Av. yesnyata 
'praiseworthy' (cf. Wh., 1112 d); Av. tarasca 'across' ( 287 above) 
= SkL tiraica; Av. fraca 'forth' Ys. 9.8 (cf. 287), cf. Skt. praca. 

3. Dative as Adverb (cf. Wh., 1113): Av 4 . lityai, prily&i 
'for second, third time', Vd. 16.15, v - ! 

4. Ablative as Adverb (cf. Wh., 1114): (a) From pron. 
stem, af (GAv.), Saf (YAv.) 'then' cf. 431 above = Skt. it. 

(b) From noun-stem, aritar.nalmSf 'within'. (c) From adj. stem, 
Av. dUraf 'from afar' = Skt. darai; Av. paskSf 'behind' = Skt. paicat. 

5. Genitive as Adver b in temporal sense (cf. Wh., 1115): 
Av. tfapo 'at night*. 

Adverbs, Prepositions. 

6. Locative as Adverb (cf. Wh., 1116): From noun and adj. 
stems, Av. du*re, dtiral-ca 'afar' =. Skt. dtiri; Av. asne, asnai-ca 'near 1 . 

3. Miscellaneous Adverbs and Particles. 
(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 1122.) 

732. A number of adverbial words, chiefly mono- 
syllabic forms, deserve mention here. Examples are : 

a. Place. Av. kva (k a va) 'where' = Skt. kva; Av. haca 'with, 
forth' = Skt. s&ca; Av. paryytar* 'outside*. Likewise some others; 
see 728 above. 

b. Time. Av. nu 'now' = Skt. nu, n&; Av. mogu 'soon, quickly* 
( 38) = Skt. makfti; Av. pascaetS 'after'. 

c. Manner. Av. agva 'so* = Skt. evd; GAv. nana 'differently, 
specially' ( 17) = Skt. ndnS; Av. ca 'how*. 

d. Negative. Av. m& 'not* (prohibitive) = Skt. md. 

e. Asseverative. Av. ba 'indeed, truly', bada 'even, indeed, 

4. Adverbial Prefixes. 
(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. nr8 seq.) 

733. Here belong the verbal prefixes treated below 
( 749) some of which however show at times more or 
less distinctly their original adverbial value. Examples are : 

Av. a* pi, a'pi (GAv.) 'even, for, afterward' = Skt. dpi; GAv. a'ti, 
YAv. a'wi 'to, unto* (occasionally advbl.) = Skt. abhi; Av. ava, 
avli (GAv.), avo (Ys. 30.10 extra metrum) 'down* = Skt. ava, avas ; 
Av. paro 'forth, before, beyond' = Skt. paras ; Av. haca 'with, forth' 
= Skt. sdcff; Av. upa'ri 'above* = Skt. updri. 

B. Prepositions. 

(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 1123 seq.) 

734. Prepositions in the sense of words that 'govern' 
oblique cases do not strictly exist in Avesta, any more 
than in Sanskrit. There are, however, a number of ad- 
verbial words which are used with the oblique cases and 
which define such cases more precisely. Their office is 
thus directive. These are termed Prepositions, and some- 
times they seem really to govern the cases with which 
they stand. 

204 Indeclinables. 

735. A fuller discussion of the Prepositions and of the 
cases with which they are used, belongs rather to Syntax. 
A mere enumeration of these forms in comparison with the 
Skt. is here given. Some of the words are case-forms used 
adverbially with a prepositional value; see under Syntax. 

Principal Avesta Prepositions. 

a*pi (with ace., loc.) 'upon, after, for', cf. Gk. inl = Skt. dpi 

a'wi, GAv. a'6i (w. ace., dat., loc.) 'to, unto, upon', cf. dnqpt = Skt. abhi 

ada'ri (w. ace.) 'under, beneath', cf. Skt. adhdr (adv.) 

ana (w. ace.) 'along, upon', cf. Gk. dvdc 

anu (w. ace.) 'along, after, according to' = Skt. dnu 

atftar' (w. ace., instr., loc.) 'between, among', cf. Lat. inter = Skt. antdr 

apa (w. dat.) 'away, off', cf. Gk. &n6 = Skt. dpa 

arSm (w. abl., Ys. 51.14) 'without', opp. Skt. dram 

avi, aoi (w. ace., dat., gen.) 'to, upon'; (w. abl.) 'from'; (loc.) 'in' 

a (w. ace., dat., abl., gen., loc.) 'hither, from, to, until' = Skt. a 

upa (w. ace., loc.) 'unto, in', cf. Gk. imo = Skt. upa 

upa'ri (w. ace., instr.) 'above, over', cf. Gk. \mip = Skt updri 

faro, tarasca (w. ace.) 'through, across', cf. Lat. trans = Skt. tiros, tirascd 

pti'ti (w. ace., instr., dat., abl., gen., loc.) 'to, at, for, with', cf. TCOTI = Skt. prdti 

pa*ri (w. ace., abl.) 'around, from around', cf. nspl = Skt. part 

para (w. ace., instr., abl., gen.) 'before, from', cf. nipa. = Skt. pdrd 

pard, GAv. par? (vi. abl., gen., loc.) 'before, beside', cf. rcdpog = Skt paras 

pasca (w. ace., instr., abl., gen.) 'after, behind' = Skt. paicd 

pascaita (w. ace.) 'after, following' 

pasne (w. ace., gen.) 'behind, on the other side of, cf. Lat. pone 

maf (w. instr., abl., gen.) 'with' = Skt. smdt ( 140 above) 

haca (w. ace., instr., abl., gen.) 'with, in consequence of = Skt. sdcd 

hapra (w. ace., instr:, dat.) 'with, along with' = Skt. satrd 

hada (w. instr., dat, abl.) 'with, along with' = Skt sahd. 

736. The Prepositions, as in other languages, are 
not infrequently placed after the case which they de- 
termine, instead of before it; they thus become 'Post- 
positions'. Examples are numerous: 

Av. aptm a 'to the water', raocamm pa'ti 'at the window', afSf 
haca 'in accordance with righteousness', etc. Similarly in the loc. 
case -hva, -fva = j -|- a ; so ahmya 'therein' = akmi -J- a. Others 

Prepositions, Conjunctions. 205 

737- The abl. phrase YAv. a^taraf naemdf 'within' is employed, 
in addition to its adverbial use, also with a force that is practically equi- 
valent to a preposition : Av. aqtaraf naemdf yar'drajo 'within a year's time'; 
an.taraf tiaeniaf banprifua 'within the wombs'. 

C. Conjunctions. 

(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 1231 seq.) 

738. The conjunctions and particles of adverbial 
value have in part been treated above under Adverbs. It 
remains only to emphasize the conjunctive force of some 
of the most important Co-ordinates and Subordinates. They 
are mostly postpositive in position. 

1. Co-ordinate Conjunctions. 

739- The chief co-ordinate conjunctions, copulative, 
adversative, etc. are here noted. 

a. Copulative. Av. ca 'and, que' = Skt. ca; Av. ca . . . ca 
'both . . . and' = Skt. ca . . . ca; Av. uta 'also* = Skt. utd; Av. 
uta . . . uta 'both . . . and' = Skt. uta . . . uta. Negative , Av. tidif 
'not' = Skt. niti; Av. naif . . . naif, noif . . . naeda, nava . . . noif 
'neither . . . nor'. 

b. Adversative. The only one in use seems to be Av. tu 
'but, however' = Skt. tu. 

c. Disjunctive. Av. z'5 'or, else', e.g. Vd. 12.1 = Skt. va; 
Av. va . . . TJ& 'either ... or' = Skt. v a . . . va. 

d. Causal. Av. zl 'for' (orig. asseverative, and often so used 
in Av. as in Skt.) = Skt. hi. 

e. Illative. Here may be noticed Av. apa 'so, therefore" = 
Skt. dtha. Perhaps also some others. 

2. Subordinate Conjunctions. 

740. The subordinate conjunctions, temporal, modal, 
final, etc., with adverbial force, have been noted above 
under Adverbs ( 728 seq.), e. g. Av. yada 'when', yapa 
'as, that', etc. To these may be added the conditional 
conjunction Av. yezi, yedi 'if = Skt. yddi. 

2o6 Indeclinables: Interjections. 

D. Interjections. 

741. A few exclamations are worthy of notice; they 
are, in part, remnants of cases of unused words crystallized 
as Interjections. Examples are not numerous. 

742. The most important Interjections are: Av. di 
'O' (w. voc.) = Skt. di; Av. usta 'hail' (an old loc.). Like- 
wise a few others, probably originally case-forms of nouns 
or adjectives, e. g. Av. dvoya 'alas* (old instr.), cf. dvoya 
me bdvoya 'woe, woe indeed to me' Yt. 3.14; Av. inja 
'ha, here', tinja 'ho, there'. 



743. General Remark. Words are made from roots 
either directly without an affix, or they are more com- 
monly formed by means of added suffixes, or again by 

(1) Only a small proportion of declinable stems, how- 
ever, are made directly from verbal or pronominal radicals 
in their bare root-form without any affix. The simple 
root does sometimes serve as a declinable stem (see dis- 
cussion below, 744), but this happens chiefly in com- 

(2) The great majority of words, in Av. as in other 
tongues, is derived from radicals by assuming an affix 
(suffix or prefix). The root-part of the word contains the 
fundamental idea ; the prefix or suffix modifies its meaning. 

(3) A third method of making new words is by com- 
bining words already formed so as to build up a compound. 

The formation of verbs and pronouns has been suffi- 
ciently treated above; attention is here given to the for- 
mation of noun-words. 

i. Suffixless Formation. 


(Cf. Whitney, SAt. Gram. 1147.) 

744. A limited number of declinable stems, nouns 
and adjectives, in Av. as in Skt , are made directly from 
a simple root without assuming any suffix. The suffix- 

208 Word-Formation : Declinable Stems. 

less stems have been discussed above, under Declension 
248, 261 etc. They occur oftenest as finals of com- 
pounds ; they are therefore frequently made up with verbal 

As to signification, the root-words, as in Skt. 
(cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 1 147 a), are action-words, espe- 
cially infinitives ; or they may be nouns of agency. Some- 
times they are adjectives. 

745. As examples of Root- Words without Suffix 
may be given: 

Av. vac- 'voice, word' = Skt. vac-; Av. druj- 'de- 
ceit, Fiend' = Skt. driih-; Av. adruh- 'undeceiving' 

= Skt. adruh-; Av. aiwi-$ac- 'following' = Skt. abhi-$dc-. 

Note I. In Av., as in Skt., root-words at the end of a compound 
are subject to some variation, (a) Internal a is often lengthened, anujf- 
hac- 'attending'. (b) Radical i, u remain unchanged. (c) Roots ending 
in a short vowel including -ar usually assume a /, as in Skt. (cf. Whitney, 
Skt. Gram. 1 147 d), Av. Mtrt- title of a priest (V^ar-), cf. Skt "bhrt-, 
Whitney, Skt. Gram. 383 h. Similarly in the prior member of a com- 
pound, Av. sruf.gaoja- 'of listening ears' (\fsru-\ cf. Skt. irut-karpa-; Av. 
jif.aja- (;/>'-), cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 11476, 383 h. 

Note 2. Reduplication is perhaps to be sought in Av. tu-tuc-, cf. 
loc. pi. tatujjva Vd. 6.51, cf. Skt. tvdc-. 

2. Derivation by Prefix and Suffix. 

(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 1118, 1136.) 
746. Words are derived from radicals chiefly by 
the addition of prefixes and suffixes. The Prefixes and 
Suffixes may now be taken up in detail. 

a. Nominal Prefixes, Substantive and Adjective. 

(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 1121.) 

747. A number of prefixes are used in making new 
words of substantival or adjectival value out of words al- 
ready formed; these may be called nominal or noun- 

Nominal and Verbal Prefixes. 


prefixes. The most important Nominal Prefixes (subst. and 
adj.) in Av. are: a- negative, hu- 'well', dus- 'ill'. 

748. Examples of nouns and adjectives formed with 
modifying nominal prefixes are: 

Av. a- negative (an- before vowels, 3- before v; rare ana-) = 
Skt. a-, an-: e. g. Av. a-sruJti- 'disobedience' ; Av. an-ar'pa- 'wrong' 
= Skt. anartha-; Av. 3-visti- 'ignorance* = Skt. dvitti-; Av. ana- 
maridika 'unmerciful'. 

Av. hu- (occasionally hao-} 'well' = Skt. su- : e. g. Av. ha-jiti- 
'prosperity' = Skt. suksiti-; Av. hao-zq/nva- 'friendship'. 

Av. du?- (sporadic <#/-) 'ill' = Skt. dus-: e. g. Av. dufiti- (i. e. 
duf-fi/t- 1 86) 'distress'; sporadic Av. d/uf-srava/i- 'inglorious'. 
Likewise a few others. 

b. Verbal Prefixes. 

(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram, 1076 seq.) 

749. A number of verbal prefixes or so-called 'pre- 
positions' occur in combination with verbs; they modify 
or define the meaning of these more clearly. Some of 
these prefixes were originally stereotyped cases of nouns 
that have assumed an adverbial character, 

750. The most important verbal prefixes in Av. 
are the following. The meanings given are of course only 
general and approximate. See Whitney, Skt. Gram. 1077. 

Ay. a'ti 'past, over, beyond', ~\fbar- -\- a*ti 'bring over to' = Skt. dti 

a'pi 'upon, on', "\fjan- -j- a'ft 'smite upon" = Skt. aft 

a*wi, GAv. a*lri 'to, upon, against", "\fgam- -j- a'wi, a>/>t 'come upon' = Skt. abhi 

ami 'after, along', "J/V- -}- ami 'go after' = Skt. ami 

atjtar* 'between, among', "\fmru- -}- antar* 'interdict' = Skt. antdr 

apa 'away, forth, off', ~\fl>ar- -j- apa 'bear away' = Skt. dpa 

ova 'down, upon', "\fjan- -j- ava 'strike down' =: Skt. ava 

avi, aoi 'to, upon', ~\fbar- -\- avi 'bring to' 

& 'to, unto', Y6ar--{-a 'bring to' = Skt. d 

upa 'to, unto, toward', ][bar- -\- upa 'bring up' = Skt. upa 

us, ttz 'up, forth, out', ~\fbar- -\- us, uz 'bring forth" = Skt. nd 

ni 'down, in, into', "\fjan- -j- / 'smite down' = Skt. ni 

nil, nil 'out, forth, away', "\fbar- -j- nil, nil 'bring away' = Skt. nit 

para 'away, forth', "\fbar- -J- para 'bear away' = Skt. para 

fa'ri 'round about, around', "\fbar- -\- fa'ri 'bear around' = Skt. fdrt 


2IO Word-Formation: Prefixes and Suffixes. 

frS 'forth, fore, forward', \~bar--\-frH 'bring forth' = Skt. prd 
pa'ti 'towards, against, back', ~\fbar- -\-paili 'l)ring towards' = Skt./r<M 
vt 'apart, away, out', "\[bar- -\- vt 'bear asunder 1 = Skt. vt 
hqm, hart-, GAv. hSm, hJtf- 'together', ~\fbar- -\- hqm 'bear together' = 
Skt. sdtti. 

Note. Instances of stereotyped case-forms of a noun entering into 
verbal combination as prefix , are to be found : e. g. Av. yaoi -j- \fdS-, 
yaoi-dS'ti 'makes pure', cf. Av. yaoi Ys. 44.9 = Skt. ySs. 

751. The connection between the prefix and the 
verb, in Av. as in Vedic Skt. (Whitney, Skt. Gram. 1081) 
is very loose ; several words, therefore, often intervene be- 
tween the prefix and the predicate, so that sometimes it 
is difficult to tell whether the prefix is to be connected 
directly with the verb or is to be regarded merely as an 
adverb: e. g. apa haca qzakibyo \ mtfra barois 'mayest 
thou, O Mithra, bring us away from distresses' Yt. 10.23, 
beside apa-baraiti 'he brings away' Vd. 5.38. 

752. A repetition of the prefix is not uncommon, 
that is, the prefix may stand at some distance before the 
predicate and then be repeated in combination with the verb : 

As an example of such repetition compare, Av. 
hc^in ida ^aetsm hqm.baraym 'let them collect 
possessions together there' Vd. 4.44. 

Note I. In GAv., the metre shows that the second prefix is re- 
gularly to be expunged: e.g. GAv. hya( him voh& \\ mazda [li?m']-fraJtS 
manavhd 'when he conferred with Vohu Manah' Ys. 47.3. Again hya( 
PW& /iS/ti cajmaini [hfy]-grabim 'when I conceived thee in mine eye' 
Ys. 31.8. Similarly us . . . [uz]-jSn Ys. 46.12; et al. 

Note 2. In the case of a long predicate, when several subjects or 
objects belong to the same verb, the verb itself is sometimes expressed 
but once, the prefix being then repeated each time with the subject or 
object as the case may be : e. g. aya dalnaya fraorf^la \ ahuro inaztl& 
afava \ frd vohu mano , frS . . . fra . . . frS . . . 'Ahura Mazda professed 
his faith according to this law, Vohu Manah professed it , so did' etc. 
Ys. 57.24. 

753. When the prefix immediately precedes the verb 
to which it belongs, the form of the prefix is sometimes 

Verbal Prefixes. 211 

made subject to the rules of sandhi (see Sandhi , below) ; 
sometimes, however, it undergoes no change but is allowed 
to remain unaltered, cf. 51, 52 above. Thus: 

(a) With Sandhi. Av. Y az ~ <to drive' + ava, 
upa, para may give avdzoif (ava + az), updza*ti 
(upa-\-az), pardzanti (para -f as) ; Av. ]/"/- 'to go' 
4- upa, para gives upaeta- (upa -\- ita), parditi (para 
-\- aeiti); Av. Y vac ~ <to speak' shows paHyaolita 'he 
spoke' Ys. 9.2, and aipyufyda- (alpi -f- utydd), cf. 52 
Note I ; Av. y/tac- 'follow', upavhacaifi (upa 4- hac); 
Av, yharz- 'let go', upawhar'zaiti, fravhar'za^i. 

(b) Without Sandhi. Av. Y as ~ <to reacn ob- 
tain', ava.a$na&ti , pa^i.a^nao^ti (beside frafna&ti 
with sandhi). Also many other examples. 

Note I. The metre sometimes determines whether sandhi is to take 
place, or whether the hiatus is to be allowed to remain; compare in- 
stances like paiti.apayaf Yt. 8.38, patriMfaya Yt. 10.105, et a ^ 

Note 2. The forms us, w/7 (with voiceless j) are used chiefly be- 
fore voiceless consonants, the forms uz, nil are used before voiced; 
but this rule is likewise by no means without exception. Thus Av. uz/>a- 
rfnti, uzufy$yqn, nilbjr'ta, so 3r*Zufyia- (z before voiced sounds); but usaja-, 
nifqsya Ys. 50.12, arin^da- (s before voiced). 

Note 3. The preposition Av. hqm 'ouv' = Skt. sain appears in various 
forms, the form being assimilated to the sound following: thus, ham- (be- 
fore vowels), hqm (before labials and some other consonants), Aay (before 
gutturals, palatals, dentals), also him, Afy- occur in GAv. Examples are 
Av. hamar'na-, hqmbaraytn , /uitikSrayetni , Ita^jasyttle , Aatt/aca'tt. Some 
exceptions to the law of assimilation occur, e. g. ma'nyu./iqm.taita- 'con- 
structed by the spirit' ; et al. 

754. Specially to be observed in compounds is the 
treatment of an original s after a prefix ending in i, n. 

I . The original s, as expected, becomes .? after i, u, cf. Whitney, 
Sltt. Gram. 185. Thus, YAv. nilta'ti (Ys(u-) Yt. 14.42; YAv. 
niilayeili (\fstS-) Yt. 10.109 (but GAv. pa*tistavas with s Ys. 50.9); 
Av. a'wig&t~ 'accompanying' Ys. 52.1= Skt. abhif&c- ; Av. pa'tiima- 
rtinna- (v. 1. pa^ti-imanmna-, pa'ti.martmna-) 'thinking upon" (Av. 
y ///;- = Skt. "\fsmar- 140) Yt. 1 0.86. Similarly in internal 

212 Word-Formation: Primary Suffixes. 

reduplication, unless followed by / 155, 109. Thus, Av. hiima- 
rttit- 'remembering'. But (with j/) Av. li'upostntim , hisposjmna 
'spying' Yt. 8.36, Yt. 10.45. 

2. Frequently the peculiar writing //4, J/A> is found after i, ft. 
It seems to be an attempt at etymological restoration. Thus, Av. 
Untd.hac- 'attending' Ys. 31.12 = Skt. Snufdc- ; Av. a'wijf/iuta- (v. 1. 
a'lvii.huta-} 'pressed haoma-juice' (Av. "\fhu- = Skt. ~\f st< ~) Vs> Ix< 3! 
Av. pairiUJvafyta- 'encircled' Ys. 1 1.8 = Skt. paripvakta- ; Av. huSha/a 
'soundly sleeping' ( 95) Ys. 57. 17. ^Similarly in internal redupli- 
cation, Av. hifhafyti 'it clings' (\ftiac-}. 

3. Complicated are the following formations : GAv. ni!-a~Aaratt? 
'let him protect' Ys. 58.4 (beside Av. nt . . . Aara'te Ys. 19.10); 
YAv. niS-a-vhasti 'he settles down' Ys. 57.30 (beside niJddayaf 
Ys. 9.24) ; Av. pa'riav/tarl/a- 'imbrued' (beside v. 1. pa'rivharilta-.) 


755. Most derivatives, in Av. as in other languages, 
are made by means of suffixes. These resemble the cor- 
responding suffixes in Skt., and they may likewise be divided 
into two general classes: 

a. Primary Suffixes, or those added directly to 
original roots or to words resembling such. 

b. Secondary Suffixes, or those added to deri- 
vative stems which have already been formed with 
a suffix. 

These two classes may now be taken up in detail. 

A. Primary Derivatives. 

(Cf. Whitney, Ski. Gram. 1143.) 

756. A Primary Derivative is a word that is 
formed by adding one of the so-called Primary Suffixes 
directly to an original root. 

757. Form of the Root. The root to which the 
primary suffix is added may undergo more or less change 
in its form. Most generally the root is strengthened 
either to the guna or the vrddJii stage. Such variations 

Primary Derivatives. 


for the most part answer to corresponding changes in Skt. ; 
they will n o t be taken up in detail here ; reference may be 
made to Justi, Handbuch der Zendsprache pp. 366383. 
758. Some general remarks, subject to excep- 
tions, however, may be made with regard to the strengthen- 
ing of the root. 

(a) In Av., as in Skt., internal radical a is commonly vrddhied 
before the suffix a; but it commonly remains unchanged before the 
suffix /. 

(b) Internal and initial /, u are gunated before the suffix a and /. 

(c) Internal and final /, u are gunated before the suffixes -ana, 
-ah, -pra, -fnva, -man. 

(d) The root generally remains unstrengthened before the suf- 
fixes -la, -ti, -u, -pu, -ra, -van, and in some other cases. 

The Principal Primary Suffixes. 
(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 1146 a.) 

759. A list of the principal primary suffixes may 
here be given in connection with the Sanskrit, see Whitney, 
Skt. Gram. 1146 a. One or two of these here given 
might perhaps be further resolved and regarded as secon- 
dary, but it is found convenient to include them here. 

I -a 

17 -a/ 

33 ' ma 

2 -nn 

18 -u 

34 -/ 

3 -ana 

19 -X;a (-Ika) 

35 -' 

4 -a'ni 

20 -/</ fW/a^ 

36 -mna, -mana 

5 -aqt (-*nt) 

-//a, -fl/fl 

37 -/ 

6 -ar 

21 -tar (-dar) 

38 -yah, -iita 

7 -cA 

22 -//' 

39 '^ 

8 -a 

23 -lu 

40 -ra 

9 -<?# (-Una) 

24 -/; (-pra, -dra) 

41 -n' 

10 -/ 

25 -/z/a (-pvja) 

42 -rtt 

1 1 -/ 

26 -/a f-</a,) 

43 -z/0 

1 2 -/MA 

27 -// 

44 -^ffM (-pvan) 

13 -'/ 

28 -/ 

45 -t'a/K/ (-pwan 

14 v/f 

29 -na (-na) 

46 -fa/* 

5 * 

30 -;wA 

47 -z/ar (-vara) 

16 - 

31 -ni 


32 - 

2 1 4 Word-Formation : Primary Suffixes. 

A few other Primary Suffixes. 

760. A few other suffixes occur sporadically and may also for 
convenience be classed under the primary division, though their secondary 
origin may be possibly traced. As examples may be taken: 

Suffix, Av. ~aya in zar'daya-; Av. -Sra in Ja^Hra-; Av. -ura 
in razura- ; Av. -lak in paritSh- (Whitney, 11522). Likewise 
some others. 

Discussion of the Primary Suffixes. 

I. Av. -a = Skt. -a (Whitney, 1 148). 
761. With this suffix a great number of derivatives 
are formed. Their signification is various; they are ad- 
jectives, action-nouns, agent-nouns. The root is generally 
strengthened by gu$a or vrddhi. Examples are very 
numerous : 

Noun (masc., neut.). Av. vdsa- 'strength' = Skt. 
vdja-; Av. maeja- 'cloud' = Skt. meg/id-; Av. gao$a- 
4 ear' = Skt. gho$a~; Av. ca^ra- 'wheel' (neut.) = Skt. 
cakrd-, A d j e c t i v e. Av. ama- 'strong' = Skt. dma- ; 
Av. asdra- 'headless' ; Av. amjja- 'immortal' = Skt. 
amfta-; Av. draoja- 'deceitful' = Skt. drogha-. Also 
many others. 

2. Av. -an = Skt. -an (Whitney, 1160). 
762. This suffix forms a limited number of neuter 
and masculine nouns of action and agency, including also 
a few adjectives. Examples are: 

NToun. Av. t/$fan- in. 'ox' = Skt. ukfdtt- ; Av. tafmi- m. 'shapcr' 
= Skt. lakfan- ; Av. u rvan- m. 'soul'; Av. niasan- n. 'greatness' -- 
Skt. ma/idn-. Adjective. Av. tvitjtlan- 'not receiving'; Av. 
tarv(iii- 'conquering'. 

3. Av. -ana (-jna) = Skt. -ana (Whitney, 1150). 

763. This suffix, as in Skt., forms many deriva- 
tives, nouns and adjectives of varied value. Roots in i, u 
commonly receive the ^w/w-strengthening before this suffix. 

Primary Derivation: Suffix -a, -an, -ana, -a'ni, -an/, -ar, -ah. 2\^ 

Some of the adjectival derivatives made with this element 
can hardly be distinguished from participles. Examples are : 

Noun. Av. vavhana- n. 'clothing' = Skt. vdsana- ; Av. Sianja- 
niana- n. 'assembly* = Skt. sqgdmana- Av. bajina- n. 'dish* = Skt. 
bhajana-, 17, 30; Av. inaepana- n. 'dwelling'; Av. raocana- n. 
'light, window' = Skt. rocana-. Adj. Av. zayana- 'wintry'. 
764. After an r, the Av. form ->na answers in some instances to 
orig. -ana, while in others it corresponds to -na (i.e. -'na, see 802). 
These must be distinguished. As examples after r: 

(a) Av. -ina = Skt. -ana (i. e. - a tia), Av. vartna- m. 'choice, 
belief = Skt. varayd- ; Av. haimrma- n. 'battle , conflict' = Skt. 
samdrana-. Likewise some others. But observe Av. karana- (-ana) 
'side, shore' Yt. 5.38 etc. opp. to Av. kar'na- (-na) 'ear' Yt. 1 1.2 
= Skt. kdrna-; yet consult the variants. 

(b) Examples of Av. -ma (i. e. ->a) = Skt. -na, after r, are 
given below under -na 802. 

4. Av. -a'ni Skt. -ani (Whitney, 1 1 59). 

765. Sporadic traces of the suffix -ani in Av., as in Skt., are to 
be found. As example may be quoted: 

Av. dui-a'ni- adj. 'evil' Vd. 14.5. 

5. Av. -ant (~9tit, -if(.t) = Skt. -ant (Whitney, 1172). 

766. This is the suffix which forms the pres. and 
fut. participles. It has been sufficiently treated above, 
477, 5H- 

6. Av. -ar (-ara) = Skt. -ar (Whitney, 169 a, 1151 1). 
767. This suffix forms a limited number of nouns; they are al- 
most all of the neuter gender. It occurs likewise in adverbs and pre- 
positions, probably there representing old case-endings. In some nouns 
the form becomes -ara by the a-transfer. The prefix -ar must be con- 
nected with -an, cf. 337. Examples: 

Av. vadar- n. 'weapon' = Skt. vddhar-; Av. zafar- n. 'jaw'; 
Av. batvar-, balvara- (o-inflection) 'thousand'; Av. nar-, nara- m. 
'man' = Skt. nar-, nara-. Observe the adverbs Av. an.tar* 'be- 
tween, inter' = Skt. antdr; Av. ijar* 'immediately*. 

7. Av. -alt = Skt. -as (Whitney, 1151). 
768. From this very common suffix, in Av. as in 
Skt., a great number of derivatives are made. They are 

2 1 6 Word-Formation : Primary Suffixes. 

chiefly abstract neuter nouns and some adjectives (probably 
originally distinguished from the latter by a difference of 
accent, cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 11516). The roots in 
i, u show ^/^-strengthening before this suffix. Examples are : 
Noun. Av. avah- n. 'aid ' = Skt. dvas-; Av. aenah- 
n. 'sin' = Skt. /nas-; Av. hmah- n. 'darkness' = Skt. 
faunas-; Av. raocah- n. 'light'. Noun, Adjective. 
GAv. dvae$ah- n. 'hate', dvae$ah- adj. 'hateful' Ys. 43.8 
= Skt. dv/$as~; Av. vasah- n. 'will', vasah- adj. 'will- 
ing' Ys. 31.11, cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 11516. A 
feminine noun in Av., as in Skt., is Av. ufa/i- f. 
'dawn' = Skt. n$ds-, cf. 357 above. 

8. Av. -a = Skt. -a (Whitney, 1149). 
769. This suffix makes feminine adjectives 
answering to masculine and neuter fl-stems. It also makes 
a considerable number of feminine action-nouns. Its form 
is often obscured, as it frequently appears as a 25, 17, 1 8. 
Examples have been given under declension of fem. nouns 
and adjectives 362, 243. 

9. Av. -ana (-ana) = Skt. -ana (Whitney, 1175). 
770. This suffix is used in forming middle and 
passive participles; it has therefore been treated under 
the different tense-systems, 477, 507 etc. Examples of 
participles mid. and pass, are: 

Av. isdna- 'ruling' = Skt. isana-; Av. mavhdna- 
'thinking' (aorist ptcpl.); Av. yasdna- 'worshipping', 
pdpjr'tdna- 'fighting'. Also others. 

Note. A few noun-stems in -an also show -ana as a sporadic heavy 
form with a-lransfer, e. g. arcana- 'male' 3 IC - 

10. Av. -i = Skt. -i (Whitney, 1155). 
77 1 . With this suffix a considerable number of de- 
rivatives are formed. They are adjectives and substantives. 

Primary Derivation: Suffix -S, -Una, -i, -in, -ina, -if, -ift. 217 

The masculines are chiefly agent-nouns; the feminines are 
abstracts; there is an occasional neuter. The root generally 
shows the guna stage. Examples are: 

Nouns. Av. azi- m. 'dragon' = Skt. dhi-; Av. 
kavi- m. 'Kavi, king' = Skt. kavi-. Av. kar$i- f. 'circle, 
circuit' = Skt. kr$i-; Av. ddhi- f. 'creation' = Skt. 
dhdsi-; Av. maeni- f. 'wrath, punishment' Ys. 31.15, 
44.19 = Skt. meni-. Av. aft- n. 'eye' = Skt. dkfi-. 
Adjective. Av. zairi- 'yellow, golden' = Skt. hdri-; 
Av. dar$i- 'bold', etc. 

772. On Av. -Ha = Skt. -it a, see 786 below. 
773. On Av. -iti = Skt. -iti, see 789 below. 

II. Av. -in = Skt. -in (Whitney, 1183). 

774. Only a few undoubted instances of this suffix asaprimary 
derivative are noted ; its use in secondary formation of possessives is more 
familiar ( 835), though not so common as in Sanskrit. Quotable exam- 
ples of the primary usage of this suffix are: 

Noun. Av. kafnin- f. 'maiden*. Adjective. Av. tadn (in 
afjlacinu) 'flowing, running'. 

12. Av. -ina = Skt. -ina (Whitney, 11770). 
775- There are a few quotable derivatives that show this suffix. 
Examples are: 

Adjective. Av. Ja^ina- 'right' = Skt. ddkfina- ; Av. za*rina- 
'golden' = Skt. harina-, 

13. Av. -// = Skt. -is (Whitney, 1153). 

776. A small number of neuter nouns are made by means of 
this suffix. Instances are: 

Noun. Av. far'zil- n. 'cover, mat", cf. Skt. barhis-; Av. hcuii?- n. 
'abode'; Av. vipii- n. 'judgment', sna'fi?- n. 'weapon', cf. 359 above. 

14. Av. -tfi = Skt. -ift (cf. Whitney, 1153, 11563). 

777. This suffix belongs perhaps rather under secon- 
dary derivation than under primary endings. It occurs in 
only one or two words and may best be mentioned here. 
It seems to answer as a corresponding feminine formation 

2 I 8 Word-Formation : Primary Suffixes. 

to the preceding -is. The root is strengthened be- 
fore it. Examples are: 

Noun. Av. ta/z'/z- f. 'power, might' = Skt. tdvisi-; 
Av. hd'riji- f. 'mother'. 

778. On -iSta in superlatives see 813 below. 

15. Av. -z = Skt. -i (Whitney, 1156). 
779. This suffix is to be sought in feminine nouns 
and adjectives, cf. also Whitney, Skt. Gram. 1 156 b. Such 
feminincs correspond for the most part to masc. and neut. 
stems in -a, -i or a consonant. Sometimes it is doubtful 
whether it would not be better to regard some of the 
nouns and adjectives as secondary in origin. 

Noun. Av. matyst- f. 'fly', vafdi- f. 'stream, river'. 
Adjective. Av. daevi- 'fiendish' = Skt. devt-; Av. 
drivl- f. 'poor' ( 187, fern, to driju- m. n.). Like- 
wise certain others, cf. 362. 

1 6. Av. -u = Skt. - (Whitney, 1178). 

780. This suffix which closely resembles the cor- 

responding one in Skt., forms derivative nouns and ad- 

jectives. The nouns are chiefly masculine. Examples are: 

Noun. Av. qsu- m. 'branch, twig' = Skt. qsu-; 

Av. tfu- m. 'arrow' = Skt. tfit-; Av. pasu- m 'small 

cattle' = Skt. pasu-; Av. tanu-, tanu- f. 'body' = Skt. 

tanii-, tanu-; Av. madu- n. 'honey' = Skt. mddhu-. 

Adjective. Av. p^ru- 'full' = Skt. puru-; Av. 

vavhu-, vohu- 'good' = Skt. vasu- ; Av. driju- 'poor'. 

Likewise others. 

781. On Av. -una = Skt. -una, see 802 below. 
782. On Av. -ura = Skt. -ura, see 816 below. 

1 7. Av. -/ = Skt. -us (Whitney, 1 1 54). 

783. This suffix forms a few derivatives; they are chiefly neuter 
nouns. As examples may be quoted : 

Av. ar*dui- n. 'assault, battery', garbui- n. 'milk', tanul- n. 
'person' Ys. 43.7, cf. 360. Add also manul- masc. nom. propr. 

Primary Derivation : Suffix -/, -u, -ujf, -u, -ka, -fa. 2 I Q 

18. Av. - = Skt. -K (Whitney, 1179). 

784. With this suffix only an occasional feminine noun is made. 
As an example may be quoted Av. tanft- (tanu-) f. 'body' = Skt. tanu- 

19. Av. -ka Skt. -ka (Whitney, 1186). 

785. This suffix forms a few primary derivatives; they are nouns 
and adjectives. Its use in secondary derivation, as in Skt., is more com- 
mon. Examples of -ka as primary suffix are: 

Noun. Av. adka- m. 'garment, robe' Yt. 5.126 = Skt. dtka- ; 
Av. mahrka- m. 'death' = Skt. markd-. Adjective. Av. huSka- 
'dry' = Skt. siifka-. 

20. Av. -fa (-ita, -ata) = Skt. -fa (-ita, -a fa), Whitney, 1 1 76. 
786. The suffix -fa is used chiefly (i) in forming 
past-passive participles directly from the conjugation-stem 
as explained above under Participles, 710 seq. It ap- 
pears also (2) in a few general nouns and adjectives which 
show more or less of a participial character. The feminine 
form shows -fa. Examples are: 

(i) Past-Passive Participles in -fa, see 711 

above. (2) Nouns and Adjectives: Av.duta-m. 

'messenger' = Skt. dutd-; Av. angusta- m. 'toe' = Skt. 

avgu$tha-; Av. zasta- m. 'hand' = Skt. hdsta-; Av. a$a- 

n. 'right' (-fa = -rta, 163) = Skt. ftd-; Av. andhitd- 

fem. 'Anahita' nom. propr. 

Note i. The suffix Av. -ita = Skt. -if a (Whitney, H76d) appears 
in a few adjectives: e.g. Av. za'rita- 'yellow, green' Skt. harita-; Av. 
mtuita- 'great' ; perhaps in Av. raodita- 'red'. Likewise in the ptcpl. adj. 
Av. Jar$ita- 'emboldcnd, daring 1 (]/"<///-) Ys. 57.11 = Skt. dhrfita-, cf. 
712 above. 

Note 2. A suffix -ata (stem a -\- /<*) = Skt. -ata (Whitney, U76e) 
may be assumed in a few nouns and adjectives which show partly a 
gerundive force. Av. tr'zata- n. 'silver' = Skt. rajatd-; Av. yazata- m. 
'adorable, divinity*. 

Note 3. The suffix -ta is sometimes disguised as -da in accor- 
dance with certain phonetic changes , cf. 89 etc. Av. vtr'zifa- 'grown 
great, mighty' (i. e. van/A -f- to) = Skt. Vfddhd-. So Av. dnwda- Yt. 13.1 1. 
Likewise -r-ta is often disguised as -/a, cf. 163. 

22O Word-Formation: Primary Suffixes. 

21. Av. -tar (-dar) = Skt. -tar (Whitney, 1182). . 

787. This suffix is used in forming masculine, and 

a few feminine, nouns of agency and relationship, cf. 

321 seq. The suffix is attached directly to the root; and 

radical i, u are generally strengthened before it. There is 

a corresponding feminine -prl besides. Examples of -tar are: 

(i) Nouns of Agency. Av. ddtar- m. 'giver, 

creator' = Skt. d(h)dtar-; Av. saotar- m. name of 

priest = Skt. hotar- et al. (2) N o u n s ofRelation- 

ship. Av. patar- m. 'father' = Skt. pi tar-; Av. mdtar- 

f. 'mother' = Skt. mdtdr-. 

Note i. The suffix -tar is sometimes disguised (cf. 163): Av. 
kdfar- m. 'eater' ; Av. fidfar- m. 'rider' = Skt. bhdrtar-. 

Note 2. Observe the form of the suffix in YAv. dujJar-, GAv. 
dug* Jar- f. 'daughter' Yt. 17.2, Ys. 45.4 = Skt. duhitar-. 

Note 3. Observe -tar as neuter in infin. YAv. vidoipre Yt. 10.82 
(perhaps here hartyrt v. 1. Ys. 62.2). 

22. Av. -// = Skt. -//' (Whitney, 1157). 

788. This suffix is used in forming a large number 

of feminine nouns, chiefly abstracts, and also an occasional 

masculine noun or adjective. The suffix is added directly 

to the root in its weak form. Examples are numerous: 

Noun. Av. anuma'ti- f. 'thought, agreement' = 

Skt. dnumati-; Av. cisti- f. 'wisdom* = Skt. citti-; Av. 

stuifi- f. 'praise' = Skt. stuti-; Av. supti- f. 'shoulder' 

= Skt. supti-; Av. p&ti- masc. 'lord' = Skt. pdti-. 

Disguised form, Av. afi- f. 'Rectitude' = *ar-ti 163. 

789. A form Av. -ill = Skt. -Hi (Whitney, H57g) is found in 

a few words: Av. spafiti- Yt. 19.6, askt'ti- (cf. 32) Ys. 44.17. 

23. Av. -tu = Skt. -tu (Whitney, 1 161). 

790. With this suffix, in Av. as in Skt., are formed 
a number of abstract and concrete derivatives. They are 
prevailingly masculine. The root is commonly strengthened 
before the -tu. Examples are: 

Primary Derivation: Suffix 'tar, -ti, -tu, -tra, -tva. 221 

Av.ydtu- m. 'sorcerer* = Skt. ydtu-; Av. haetu- m. 
'bridge' = Skt. s/tu- ; Av. fyratu- m. 'wisdom' = Skt. 
krdtu-; Av. pitu- m. 'food' = Skt. pitu~; Av. vantu- 
m a s c. 'spouse' ; Av. jydtu- (fern. ?) 'life' = Skt. jivdtu-. 

24. Av. -tra (-pra, -dra) = Skt. -tra (Whitney, 1185). 
791. The suffix -tra (-pra, -dra, -dra) forms nu- 
merous nouns, which are chiefly neuter, and a few adjec- 
tives. The root usually has the ^-ww^-strengthening , but 
sometimes it remains unaltered. The original form (i) -tra 
of the suffix is preserved only after sibilants or a written 
nasal ( 78); otherwise it becomes regularly (2) -pra ( 77, 2). 
The forms (3) -dra (in -f'dr-, -fydr-} and -dra (in -zdr-, -zdr-} 
appear only under special circumstances, see 79, 89, 90. 
The corresponding feminine is -tra. Examples are: 

Noun. Av. ustra- m. 'camel' = Skt. u$fra-; Av. 

vastra- n. 'garment' = Skt. vdstra-. Av. pupra- m. 

'son' = Skt. putrd-; Av. fy$apra- n. 'rule, kingdom* = 

Skt. ksatrd-. Av. "yaotydra- n. 'girdle' Yt. 15.54 (cf. 

79) = Skt. yoktra- ; Av. vatydra- n. 'word', cf. Skt. 

vaktrd--, Av. vazdra- m. 'bearer'. Adjective. Av. 

frao u rvaestra- 'productive'. Av. broipra- 'cutting' 

Yt. 10.130 etc. (Ybrt-). Av. mqzdra- 'learned, wise' 

( 90), sizdra- Yt. 8.36; Vd. 13.2. 

Note. A few feminines with suffix Av. -trd = Skt. -tra (Whitney, 
Ii85d) may here be noted: Av. aftrti- f. 'goad' = Skt. df(rS-\ Av. 
taofira- f. 'libation* = Skt. h&tra-. 

25. Av. -tva (-pwa, -<hua) = Skt. -tva (Whitney, 966 a). 
792. The suffix -tva, (-fiwa, -dwa 94, 96) is used (l) chiefly 
in forming the Gerundive , or declinable future-passive participle of ad- 
jectival value (Latin -nifus) as described above 717. But it is found 
also (2) in a few abstract nouns. The feminine form is -trS, -Jrjv3. 

I. Gerundive. Examples of the suffix so used have been 
given above. a. Noun. Av. staofiwa- n. 'praise'; tiqsMl- f. 'skill 1 , 
- f. 'herd*. 

222 Word-Formation: Primary Suffixes. 

26. Av. -pa (-da, -da) = Skt. -tha (Whitney, 1163). 

793- With the suffix -pa (-da, -da 89, 90, 77 
Note 3) are made, in Av. as in Skt., a number of action- 
nouns of different genders, and a few verbal adjectives 
with passive signification. The root usually appears in its 
weak form. The feminine is regularly -pa. Examples are : 
Noun. Av. rapa- m. 'chariot' = Skt. rdtha-; Av. 

hamzr'pa- m. 'foe'; Av. mcipa- m. 'decision'; Av. 

z<%pa- m. 'birth'. Av. ar'j>a- n. 'subject, thing' = Skt. 

drtha-. Av. gapd- f. 'song, hymn' = Skt. gdthd-; Av. 

gaepd- f. 'being, creature'; Av. cipd- f. 'penalty'. 

Adjective. Av. utyda- 'spoken, word' ( 77 Note 3) 

= Skt. ukhthd-; Av. prqf'da- 'gratified'; Av. yiilida- 

'girt, compact' Yt. 10.127. 

Note I. On Av. -da = orig. -to, see 786 above. 

Note 2. The form -0/0 (probably thematic a -\- /) = Skt. -atha 
(Whitney, 11630) occurs in some words: Av. va^apa- n. 'growth' = 
Skt. vakfdtha-. 

27, 28. Av. -//, -pu = Skt. -//', -thu (Whitney, -1164). 
794. The suffix Av. -// = Skt. -thi occurs in one or two words ; 
it is also disguised as -/;'. The suffix Av. -pu = Skt. -thu is likewise 
quotable. Both of these elements are used in making nouns, the suffix 
being attached to the weak form of the root. Examples are : 

Suffix -//': Av. dpi- f. 'punishment'; Av. aipi- f. 'dread, terror'. 
So Av. astl- m. 'minister 1 , cf. Skt. at'thi-; Av. hafyti- n. 'thigh* = 
Skt. sdkthi-. Suffix -pu: Av. hipu~ m. 'dweller, socius'. 

795- C> n tne f rm -P ra > see ~ tra 79 1 above. 

796. On the form -Jnua, see -tva 792 above. 

797- O -pwan, see -van 820 below. 

798. On the form -/nuaiit, see below, 821. 

799. On the form -da, see -ta 786, and -Pa 793 above. 

800. On -da see above, -pa 793. 

80 1. On the form -dra see -tra, -pra 791 above. 

29. Av. -na, (-una) = Skt. -na, (-una), Whitney, 1177. 
802. The suffix -na is used (i) in making a few 
past-passive participles equivalent to those in -ta. It is 

Prim. Deriv. : Suffix -pa, -pi, -fu, -na, -una, -nah, -ni, -nu, -fnu. 22$ 

also employed (2) in forming some abstract nouns and 
likewise adjectives whose verbal character is easily recog- 
nized. The root is generally not strengthened. 

(i) Passive Participle in -na. Examples of 
this formation have been given at 713 above. 
(2) Noun. Av. fra$na- m. 'question' = Skt. flrasnd- : 
Av. yasna- m. 'sacrifice' = Skt. yajnd-; Av. Jvafna- 
m. 'sleep' = Skt. svdpna-. Av. par'na- n. m. 'wing' 
= Skt. parqd-. Av. haend- f. 'army* = Skt. s/nd-. 
Adjective. Av. majna- 'naked' = Skt. iiagnd-; Av. 
kamna- 'few'. See also 713. 

803. The suffix form Av. -una = Skt. -una (Whitney, 11770), 
doubtless of secondary origin, is distinguishable in a few words: Av. ta- 
runa- 'young' = Skt. tdru\ta-; Av. a*runa- 'fiery' = Skt. arund-. 

30. Av. -nah = Skt. ~nas (Whitney, 1152). 

804. The suffix -nah is perhaps somewhat more common in Av. 
than in Sanskrit. It forms neuter abstracts. Radical /', are strengthened 
before it; a remains unchanged. Examples are: 

Av. raefynah- n. 'possession' = Skt. rtknas- ; Av. har'nah- n. 
'splendor'; Av. draonah- 'offering' = Skt. dravinas-; Av. par*nah- 
n. (in par'navhun.t3ni) 'fulness' = Skt. fdrtnas- ; Av. rafnah- n. 
'help, comfort'. 

31. Av. -ni Skt. -ni (Whitney, 1158). 

805. With this suffix , as in Skt., are made a small number of 
nouns and adjectives. Strengthening of the root occurs. Examples are : 
Av. varjni- m. and adj. 'virile, male' = Skt. vffni-; Av. sraoni- 
f. 'hip' = Skt. Sroni-; Av. fjaoni- f. 'fatness'. 

32. Av. -nu, (-jnu) = Skt. -nu, (-snu), Whitney, 1162, 1194. 

806. With the suffix -nu , as in Skt., a small number of nouns 
or adjectives are made. Examples are: 

Av. bSnu- m. 'light, ray' = Skt. bh&nu-; Av. gar'nu- m. 'itch' = 
Skt. gfdhnu-; Av. tafnu- m. 'fever' = Skt. tapm'i-. Av. dainu- f. . 
'female, cow' = Skt. dhinii-. 

807. The suffix Av. -/nu = Skt. -snu (Whitney, 1194) is like- 
wise quotable: e. g. Av. rao^jnit- m. 'light, brightness' = Skt. rdc'fau-; 
Av. pqsnti- f. 'dust', cf. Skt. ptjsu. 

224 Word-Formation: Primary Suffixes. 

33. Av. -ma = Skt. -ma (Whitney, 1166). 

808. With this suffix a considerable number of derivatives are 
made; they are adjectives and nouns. The nouns are chiefly masculine. 
The root is often strengthened. Examples are: 

Noun. Av. haoma- m. 'haoma' = Skt. soma- ; Av. aijma- m. 
'fury* ; Av. "ruftnta- m. 'growth'. Av. gar*ma- n. 'heat' = Skt. 
gharmd-. Adjective. Av. "bam a 'shining' = Skt. bMma-; Av. 
taty/iia- 'strong, swift'; Av. gar'ma- 'hot' = Skt. gharmd-. 

34. Av. -man = Skt. -man (Whitney, 1168). 
809. The suffix -man in Av., as in Skt., forms a 
number of derivative action-nouns; most of these are neuter; 
a few are masculine. The root generally shows the guna- 
strengthening. Examples are: 

Noun. Av. as man- m. 'stone, heaven' = Skt. dsman- ; Av. 
rastaan- m. 'column, rank'. Av. tiSman-, nqman- n. 'name' = Skt. 
naman- ; Av. vaesman- 'dwelling' (in vaismtn-da Yt. 10.86) = Skt. 
vciman- ; Av. taofyman- n. 'seed* = Skt. tokman- ; Av. bar'sman- n. 

35. Av. -mi Skt. -mi (Whitney, 1167). 

810. This suffix, as in Skt., is found in a very few masculine and 
feminine nouns. Examples are: 

Av. var'mi- m. 'wave, billow' = Skt. 6rmi-; Av. dqmi- m. 'crea- 
tor* Ys. 31.8; Av. "zami- m. 'birth' = Skt. jami. Av. bunri- f. 
'earth' = Skt. bhumi-, bhiimt-. 

36. Av. -mna, -mana = Skt. -mdna (Whitney, 1174). 

811. This suffix is used in forming the middle 
(passive) participles of the different systems. It has been 
discussed above, 709 etc. Furthermore on Av. -mna, 
-mana (Gk. -;/.svo;) opp. to Skt. -mdna, see 18 Note 2. 

37. Av. -ya = Skt. -ya (Whitney, 1213). 
812. This suffix is used in making the Gerundive 
(fut. pass, ptcpl. 716) and also verbal adjectives; like- 
wise a few nouns. It is sometimes difficult, in Av. as in 
Skt., to distinguish the primary from the secondary deri- 

Suffix -ma, -man, -mi, -mna, -mana, -ya, -yah, -ifla, -yu, -ra, -ri. 22$ 

vatives made with this suffix. The root is usually weak. 
The corresponding feminine form is -yd. Examples are: 

Gerundive and Adjective (cf. also 716): Av. ijya- 'desir- 
able' = Skt. ifya; Av. jivya- 'living, fresh' = Skt. jivya-; Av. 
ma'rya- 'deadly'; Av. katyya- 'true' = Skt. satyd- ; Av. ma'dya- 
'middle' = Skt. mddhya-. Noun. Av. hahya- n. 'grain' = Skt. 
sasyd-; Av. qtyya- fern, 'beam', cf. Lat. antae. 

38. Av. -yah, (-ista) = Skt. -iyas, (-iff ha), Whitney, 1184. 
813. These suffixes are used respectively to form 
the comparative and superlative degree of a number of 
old adjectives The form -ista is perhaps more strictly 
secondary, but as both forms are practically added directly 
to the crude stem ( 365) it is more convenient to keep 
both together under the head of primary derivation. For 
examples, see 365. 

39. Av. -yu = Skt. -yu (Whitney, 1165). 

814. This suffix is attached in forming a very few nouns. The 
root remains unstrengthened before it. Examples are: 

Noun. Av. ma'nyu- m. 'spirit', cf. Skt. manyu-; Av. mtr'pyu- 

m. 'death' (\fmar (- / as in Skt.) = Skt. mftyu-; Av. daJiyu- 

da'yhu- fern, 'country', cf. Skt. ddsyu-. 

40. Av. -ra = Skt. -ra (Whitney, 1188). 
815. This suffix is common, in Av. as in Skt.; 
numerous adjectives are formed by it; these adjectives 
may also be used as nouns of all three genders. The root 
is usually weak. Examples are: 

Noun. Av. vazra- m. 'club' = Skt. vdjra-; Av. ca^ra- n. 'wheel' 
= Skt. cakrd- ; Av. hura- f. 'a drink' = Skt. sura-. Adjective. 
Av. ujra- 'mighty' = Skt. ugrd- ; Av. cifrra- 'bright' = Skt. citrd- ; 
Av. sufyra- 'red' = Skt. iukrd-; Av. gufra- 'deep'. 
816. The form Av. -ura = Skt. -ura (Whitney, n88f) used 
apparently as a primary suffix has sporadic traces : Av. razura- m. f. 'forest'. 
Perhaps also ar'zura- n. nomen propr. Mt. Dem&vand (-ura). 

41. Av. -ri = Skt. -ri (Whitney, 1191). 

817. This suffix is found in a very few derivatives. Examples 
are: Av. fai'ri- f. 'abundance', cf. Skt. bhurt-; Av. tijri- m. nomen propr. 


226 Word-Formation: Primary Suffixes. 

42. Av. -ru = Skt. -ru (Whitney, 1192). 

8 1 8. This suffix occurs in a very few words. Noun and adjective 
examples are quotable: 

Noun. Av. asru- n. 'tear 1 = Skt. dJru-. Adjective. Av> 
vandru- 'desiring'. Uncertain amru-, camru-. 

43. Av. -va (-dwa, -spa) = Skt. -va (Whitney, 1190). 

819. With this suffix are formed a few derivative 
adjectives and nouns. The root generally appears in its 
weak form. The suffix is sometimes disguised in "spa, "dwa 
96, 97. The corresponding feminine form is -va. 

Noun. Av. sarva- m. nomen propr., cf. Skt. iarvd- ; Av. aipa- 
m. 'horse' ( 97) = SkL diva- ; Av. avftvS- f. 'soul' ; Av. gadwa- i. 
'bitch*. Adjective. Av. ha*rva- 'whole' = Skt. sdrva-; Av. 
tyraoldva- 'hard* ; Av. tr'dwa- 'high, arduus' = Skt. tirdkvd- ; Av. 
arva- 'speedy 1 . 

44. Av. -van (-]nvan) = Skt. -van (Whitney, 1169). 
820. The suffix -van is comparatively rare in Avesta. It forms 
derivative nouns and adjectives. The root remains unstrengthened. A t 
is added, as in Skt., to roots ending in a short vowel, including -ar ; this 
gives rise to the form -fwan 94. Examples are: 

Noun. GYAv. advan-, advjan- m. 'way' = Skt. adhvan-; Av. 
ktr'Jnoan- m. 'doer' (\fkar |- /, see just above) = Skt. kftvan-; 
Av. karivan~ f. n. 'clime, zone'. Adjective. Av. irvan- 'able, 
potent' (]fis-). With reduplication Av. yoipwan- 'active' (i. e. ya- 
it-van fr. ~\[yat^). 

45. Av. -van.t (-pwanj) = Skt. -vant (Whitney, I233g). 
821. The ending -vayt as primary suffix occurs in a few words, 
chiefly verbal adjectives. Some of these derivatives bear resemblance to 
an aigl-participle of Cl. 8. As above ( 820) , a / is added after a root 
ending in a short vowel, including -ar; this gives rise to the form -Jrwan.1 
94. The weak form of the root is the rule. The suffix -vaqt some- 
times seems to add the force of possession as it does when secondary. 
Examples are: 

Av. a*rvanj- adj. and noun 'swift, courser* = SkL drvant-; 

Av. s*runvan.t- 'audible'; Av. b)zvan.t- 'advantageous' ( 31); Av. 

vivaahvan.t- m. nomen propr. = Skt. vivdsvant-; Av. stfr'frwan.t- 

'levelling 1 tystar- -f- /, see above) ; Av. vitfr'pwanj- 'divided, having 

pauses' (V&ar- -j- / added). 

Primary Derivation: Suffix -ru, -va, -van, -vatit, -vah, -var. 227 

46. Av. -vah (-vcovh-, -us) = Skt. -vas (-vqs, -j^Whitney, 1173. 
822. With the suffix -vah (-v&vh str., -us wk.) is 
made the perfect active participle. The root is redupli- 
cated except in a few words which make the perfect with- 
out reduplication. For examples, see 348 seq. 

47. Av. -var (-var a) = Skt. -var a (Whitney, 1171). 

823. With the suffix -van (-var a) are made a con- 
siderable number of neuter nouns. They commonly show 
a parallel stem with suffix -van ( 820). The form -var a 
arises by transfer to the ^-declension. Examples are: 

Av. karfvar- n. f. beside karfvan- 'clime, zone' ; Av. za/ar- (i. e. 
*zap-var 95) n. beside zafan- 'jaw' ; Av. batvar- n. beside baevan- 
'myriad'. So mibwara- n. (-vara) beside mibwan- 'pair'. Observe 
Av. srvara- (for sruvara- 68) 'horned, Sruvara'. 

B. Secondary Derivatives. 

(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 1202 seq.) 

824. The so-called Secondary Suffixes are those 
which are added to make new derivatives from primary 
derivatives or words which already show a suffix. The 
forms thus arising are termed Secondary Derivatives. 
The great majority of them are adjectives, but often they 
are nouns. 

825. Form of the Stem. In assuming the secon- 
dary suffix the stem, though it is already prepared, may 
still undergo other changes in form. 

(a) Final -a of a stem disappears before suffixes beginning with 
a vowel or y. 

(b) Final -i, -u of a stem are generally strengthened before suf- 
fixes beginning with a vowel, though u, as in Skt, sometimes re- 
mains unchanged, cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 1203 a, b. 

(c) Final -an of the stem appears as -an, -n, depending chiefly 
upon the difficulty of pronunciation (cf. Whitney, 12030): Av. 
bar'smanya- 'relating to the barsom', vya\a*nya- 'ruling in the 
council'; Av. v&r*prajni- 'victorious' (from a-stem), cf. Skt. var- 


Word-Formation: Secondary Suffixes. 

(d) The initial syllable of the stem receives the vrddhi- 
strengthening in secondary derivation less often in Av. than 
in Skt., cf. Whitney, 1204. Examples of vrddhi (cf. 60) are: 
Av. Shu'ri- 'of the Ahurian', cf. Skt. fisuri-; Av. m&zdayasni- 'be- 
longing to the worship of Mazda' ; Av. gSvya- beside gaoya- 'be- 
longing to the cow', opp. Skt. gdvya- ( 60 Note d); Av. h&vani- 
'relating to Havana' ; Av. arUtya- 'belonging to a spear'. For guna- 
forms, see above 60 Note c. 

The Principal Secondary Suffixes. 
(Cf. Whitney, Silt. Gram. 1207.) 

826. A list of the principal secondary suffixes may 
here be given in connection with the Sanskrit, see Whitney, 
Skt. Gram. 1207. 

i -a ii -u 

12 -ka (-aha, -ika) 

13 -ta 

14 -tar a, -titna 

15 -tat 

1 6 -ti 

17 -Pa (-da) 

1 8 -Pya 

19 -pwa 

20 -pwana 

A few other Secondary Suffixes. 

827. A few other secondary suffixes occur sporadically and may 
for convenience be mentioned here. 

Suffix. Av. -/va in numerals, prijva- 'a third', cafirufva- 'a fourth', 
pavtavhva- 'a fifth 1 Ys. 19.7. Also Av. -sa = Skt. -ia (Whitney, 
1229), Av. navasa-, ijasa-, aejasa-. 

i. Av. -a = Skt. -a (Whitney, 1208). 

828. This sufnx, in Av. as in Skt., is very com- 
mon. It forms secondary derivatives from nouns or from 
adjectives. The derivatives thus made are chiefly adjec- 
tives denoting 'relating to', 'of, 'with' ; but there are also 
numerous nouns, including patronymics. 

The secondary a is especially common in compound 
words, transferring the whole compound to the #-declen- 

2 -aina (-aini, -aini) 

3 -aona 

4 -an 

5 -ana (-ana, -ani) 

6 -aye 

7 -i 

8 -in 

9 -ina 
10 - 

21 -na 

22 -ma 

23 -man (-mana, -inna) 

24 -mqnt 

25 -ya 

26 -ra 

27 -va 

28 -van 

29 -van a 

30 -van.t 

Secondary Derivation: Suffix -a, -alna, -aona, -an, -ana. 22Q 

sion ; the treatment of that , however, does not really be- 
long here. Examples of a as secondary suffix are: 

Noun. Av. haozqpwa- n. 'the goodly company'; 
Av. ayavha- m. n. 'iron' Ys. 11.7 = Skt. dyasd-; Av. 
narava- m. 'descendant of Naru' (patronym.). Adjec- 
tive. Av. tzmanha- 'dark' = Skt. tdmasa- (w. vrddhi); 
Av. upa-sm-a- 'upon the earth' (z'm-) 836. 

Note. Final -/, - of the primitive generally, but not al- 
ways, appear as -ay-, -av- before this suffix. Thus, Av. kavaya- 'kingly' 
(kavi-) = Skt. k&vyd-; Av. dar'ja.arUaya- 'long-speared'; Av. ma'nyava- 
'spiritual' (ma'nyu-). But simple y, v in staomya- (fr. staomi-), haozqpwa- 
(fr. huzaritu-} above 828. 

2. Av. -alna (-aini, -aini) = Skt. -ina (Whitney, 1223 e). 
829. This suffix in Av. makes adjectives of material , of. Skt. 
samidhind-, Whitney, 1223 e. The form -aini is found beside it in the 
same adjectives; the sporadic -aini appears to be a mere variation of the 
latter, cf. 193 Note 2. Examples are: 

Av. ayavhaena-, ayavhaini- 'made of iron' ; Av. tr'zataSna-, aini- 
'of silver' ; Av. zaranaena-, acni- 'golden' ; Av. bawraini- 'of beaver-skin'. 

3. Av. -aona, cf. Skt. -ana. 

830. This suffix (perhaps primitive -stem -j- ana 832) occurs 
in Av. praitaona- m. Thraetaona' = Skt. traitand-; Av. ar'jaona- m. nomen 
propr. Yt. 13.117 (? cf. Skt. arhana- n.); Av. pitaona- m. nomen propr. Per- 
haps also in Av. mar$aona- adj. 'deadly'. 

4. Av. -an (cf. Skt. -in). 

831. This derivative suffix forming secondary nouns and adjec- 
tives occurs in a few words. It corresponds in part to the Skt. suffix -in. 
A final stem vowel disappears before it. Examples are: 

Noun. Av. mqfiran- m. 'prophet', cf. Skt. mantrin-; Av. ha- 
vanan- m. nomen propr. Adjective. Av. pufran- 'having a son", 
cf. Skt. puirin-; Av. vtsan- 'possessing a house'. 

5. Av, -ana (-ana, -dm) = Skt. -ana (-ana, -dm), Whitney, 

1 175 a, 1223 a, b. 

832. This suffix is a patronymic and is found chiefly 
in proper nouns and adjectives. Before -ana a final stem 
vowel a may be dropped, or it may coalesce with the 

2 7Q Word-Formation : Secondary Suffixes. 

ending, thus giving -ana, A final / is strengthened before 
-ana. The form -ant (-dm) seems to be a corresponding 
feminine. The initial syllable is not always strengthened. 
Examples are: 

Noun. Av. jSmSspSna- m. 'son of Jamaspa' ; Av. gaoray&na- 
m. 'son of Gaori" Yt. 13.118; Av. vthrk&na- m. 'Hyrcania'; Av. 
ahurSni- f. 'daughter of Ahura'. Adjective. Av. halfaf.asfSna- 
'descended from Haecataspa' ; Av. Zpwyftna-, UpwySnf- 'belonging to 
the Athwyas' (Skt. aptyd-). 

6. Av. -an.c, -ac = Skt. -afic, -ac (Whitney, 407 seq.). 
833. The ending Av. -aye, -ac (of verbal origin) is combined with 
prepositions and some other words to make a few derivative adjectives. 
It may practically be regarded as a secondary suffix. See 287 above. 
Av. pa*rvavc- 'advancing' ( 287 above) ; Av. frayc-, frac- 'for- 
ward' = Skt. pr&fic-, pr&c-; Av. nyan.c- 'downward' = Skt. nyanc-; 
Av. vltvane- 'on all sides' = Skt. viyvanc-, 

7. Av. -i = Skt. -/ (Whitney, 1221). 
834. With this suffix are made some derivative ad- 
jectives and substantives chiefly patronymic. They are 
formed from noun-stems in -a; and most of the examples 
show the vrddhi-strengthening. 

Noun. Av. fiSvani- m. nomen propr. (cf. Av. havana- = Skt. 
sdvana-); Av. uzdalzi- m. beside uzdagza- 'heap'; Av. kvavhrvi- m. 
'blessedness' Ys. 53.1. Adjective. Av. Shu'ri- 'of the Ahurian' 
( 60), cf. Skt. dsuri-; Av. mSzdayasni- 'Mazdayasnian' (fr. mSzda- 
yasna-) ; Av. var'^rajni- 'victorious', cf. Skt. vdrtraghna- ; Av. zSra- 
Pujtri- 'of Zarathushtra' ; Av. raji- 'belonging to Ragha' (raja-). 

8. Av. -in = SkL -in (Whitney, 1230). 

835. The suffix -in is used as a secondary ending in Av., as in 
Skt., in forming possessive adjectives. They are not numerous. A final 
vowel disappears before the suffix. Examples are : 

Av. ptr'nin- adj. 'having a feather" (par'na-) Yt. 14.38 Skt. 
parnin- ; Av. myezdin- 'having offering' Yt. 13.64; Av. drujin- 'pos- 
sessed of a devil' (druj-) Yt. 4.7. 

9. Av. -ina = Skt. -ina (Whitney, 1 209 c). 

836. A secondary suffix -ina (apparently an a-inflection of -in) 
may be assumed for a few nouns and adjectives. As examples: 

Suffix- aye, -ac, -i, -in, -ina, -t, -u, -ka, -fa, -tara, -tj/tia. 2\l 

Noun. Av. rapifwina- m. nomen propr. ; Av. ujahitta- m. nomen 
propr. Adjective. Av. vacahina- 'consisting of a word, verbal* 
Vd. 4.2. Similarly the ending -ini in Av. mai/ini- 'belonging to 
sheep' (fr. magfi-), 

10. Av. -f = Skt. -t (cf. Whitney, 1156 a). 

837. The primary derivatives in -f have been treated above ; one 
or two words however seem to show a more distinctive secondary origin, 
e. g. Av. tiS'rt- f. 'woman' (observe vrddhi) = Skt. ndri-. 

II. Av. //. 

838. The suffix u, used in forming secondary derivatives, is to 
be recognized in one or two instances : Noun. Av. hajdavhu- m. 'satis- 
faction, fill' Ys. 62.9. 

12. Av. -ka (-aka, -ika) = Skt. -ka (-aka, -ika), Whitney, 

1222 seq. 

839. With the suffix -ka are made a number of 
nouns and adjectives. The forms in -aka, -aka, -ika may 
conveniently grouped with it, cf. Whitney, I i86c, 1 181 d. 
The corresponding feminine is -kd. As examples: 

Noun. Av. araska- m. 'disorder'; Av. pasuka- m. 'cattle, beast'; 
Av. draffaka- m. 'banner' (in drafjakavatit-} ; Av. dahaka- m. nomen 
propr.; Av. majy&ka- m. 'man'; Av marldika- n. 'mercy' (cf. 
Whitney, Ii86c) = Skt. mrdikd-; Av. ainika- m. n. 'face' = Skt. 
dnika-; Av. tiS'rikS- f. 'woman'; Av. pa*rik8- f. 'fairy, Peri'. 
Adjective. Av. karvika- 'trifling' ; Av. kutaka- 'small'. Pronominal 
adj. Av. ahmttka- 'ours' = Skt. asmdka-; Av. fyjmaka- 'your' = Skt. 
yufmika-, cf. Whitney, 12220. 

13. Av. -ta = Skt -ta (Whitney, 12450). 

840. This ending as secondary suffix occurs in a few words, ad- 
jectival and substantival. Examples are: 

Noun. Av. prita- m. 'Thrita', cf. Skt tritd- ; Av. bajyqstS- f. 
'Bushyansta'. Adjective. Av. afavasta- adj. 'righteous', m. 'righ- 
teousness* ; Av. p a ttr'ta- 'winged'. 

14. bx.-tara, -tema = Skt. -tara, -tama (Whitney, 1242). 
841. These suffixes are used respectively in form- 
ing the comparative and superlative degree of adjectives, 
the latter also in the ordinals visqshma-, satotoma; ha- 

232 Word-Formation: Secondary Suffixes. 

zavrotema-. The treatment of the stem-final before these 
endings has already been given. Examples, see 364, 374. 

15. Av. -tat = Skt. -tat (Whitney, 1238, 383k). 
842. This suffix makes feminine abstracts. Its in- 
dependent origin is shown, for example, in l te 
beside yavaetd'taeca Ys. 62.6, Yt. 13.50, cf. 893. Examples: 

Av. uparatSt- f. 'supremacy' = Skt. upardt&t-; Av. ha*rvatdt- f. 
'completeness, Salvation' = Skt. sarvdtat-. Likewise others. 

16. Av. -ti = Skt. -ti (Whitney, H57h). 

843. The suffix -ti appears as secondary ending in a few words; 
the most important of these are the numerals. Examples are: 

, ,Av. paitwar'ti- f. 'bow* (cf. fanvar-); Av. $/va?ti- 'sixty' = Skt. 
fafti-; Av. hapta*ti- 'seventy' = Skt. saptatt-; Av. nava'ti- 'ninety' 
1= Skt. navati-, see 366 above. 

17. Av. -pa (-da) = Skt. -tha (Whitney, 1242 d). 
844. The secondary suffix -pa is to be sought in one or two 
numeral and pronominal words. As examples : Av. haptapa- 'seventh' = 
Skt. saptdtha-; Kv.pufyfa- 'fifth', cf. Skt. pafic-a-tha- ; Av. avafia- 'thus, so'. 

1 8. Av. -pya = Skt. -tya (Whitney, 1245 b). 

845. This suffix in Av., as in Skt., makes one or two derivative 
adjectives from prepositions and adverbs. As instances: Av. a'wi^ya- 
'away, distant' ; Av. pascqtyya- 'behind'. 

19. Av. -pwa Skt. -tva (Whitney, 1239). 

846. With this suffix , as in Skt., a few neuter nouns denoting 
'condition', 'state' are formed from adjectives and nouns. Examples : 

Av. avhupwa- n. 'lordship' ; Av. ratufwa- n. 'mastership' ; Av. 
vavhupwa- n. 'good deed' = Skt. vasutvd-. 

20. Av. -Jrwatia = Skt. -tvana (Whitney, 1240). 

847. This suffix is hardly more than an extension of the pre- 
ceding, which it resembles in meaning. A quotable example is the abstract 
noun, Av. n&'ripwana- n. 'marriage', cf. Skt. patilvand-, Whitney, 1240. 

21. Av. -na = Skt. -na (Whitney, 1223 g). 

848. With this suffix a very few secondary derivatives are formed. 
Examples are : 

Suffix -lot, -li, -pa, -Pya, -pwa, -pwana, -na, -ma, -man, -man.t, -ya. 233 

Noun. Av. ahuna- m. 'the Ahuna formula'. Adjective. Av. 
fyayana- 'belonging to a well' Yt. 6.2 ; Av. zrayana- 'of the sea' ; 
Av. vahmana- 'praiseworthy' ; Av. airyana- 'Aryan'. 

22. Av. -ma = Skt. -ma (Whitney, 1224!)). 
849. With -ma as secondary suffix are made a few 
superlatives from prepositions, a few ordinal numerals, a 
small number of adjectives from nouns, and one or two 
derivative substantives likewise. Examples are: 

Noun. Av. spitama-, spitama- m. 'Spitama'. Adjective. Av. 
aptma- 'last' = Skt. apamd- ; Av. upama- 'highest' = Skt. upama-; 
Av. fratima- 'first' = Skt. pratkama- (Whitney, 487 h) ; Av. 
ii&uma- 'ninth' ( 64, 374) = Skt. navamd-; Av. daliyuma- 'be- 
longing to the country' (Jafyu-); Av. zaqtuma- 'belonging to the 

23. Av. -man (-mana, -mna) = Skt. -man (-mna), Whitney, i i68i, 12240. 
850. A very few words show the suffix -man, or its variations 
-mana, -mna. The examples are : 

Noun. Av. a'ryaman- m. 'connection, family, Airyaman', cf. 
Skt. aryamdn-. Adjective. Av. yatumana- 'relating to a sor- 
cerer' ; Av. zaranimna- 'angered' Yt. 10.47. 

24. Av. -matit = Skt. -mant (Whitney, 1235). 
851. The secondary suffix -matit, like -vant below, 
is used in making a number of possessive adjectives from 
noun-stems. The noun-stems with which it is used, as in 
Skt., are chiefly -stems. Examples are: 

Av. Jiratumatit- 'having wisdom' = Skt. krdlumant- ; 
Av. gaomatit- 'having milk, flesh' = Skt. gomant-; 
Av. madumatit- 'rich in sweets' = Skt. mddhumant- ; 
Av. ar'pamatit- 'right, true to fact' (from tf-stem) ; 
Av. afra$lmaiit- 'not progressing' (fr. z'-stem). 

25. Av. -ya (-ay 'a) = Skt. -ya (-iya, -iya), Whitney, 1210, 

1214, 1215. 

852. The suffix -ya corresponds to Skt. -ya, -iya 
( 68, i), and forms a large number of secondary deriva- 

234 Word-Formation: Secondary Suffixes. 

tives. These are chiefly adjectives; less often they are 
nouns. The vrddhi-strengthening which is often found in 
Skt. (Whitney, 1211) is almost wanting in Avesta. The 
feminine form is -yd. 

Before this suffix, the stems in -a, -a, drop their final 
vowel ; the stems ending in -u retain the u unchanged, un- 
less it unites with a preceding t into PW, 94. 

A few forms in -aya occur, either by retention of 
stem-rt, or by extension ( 68 Note 3), compare Skt. -iya, 
Whitney, 1214. Examples of -ya are: 

Noun. Av. afyrya- m. 'pupil' ; Av. n&vhaipya- n. nomen propr. , 
cf. Skt. nasatya-; Av. v&strya- adj. 'farming', m. 'farmer'; Av. 
avhuya- f. 'lordship'. Adjective. From a-stem: Av. aha'rya- 
'lordly' (observe vrddhi fr. akura-) Yt. 13.82, 14.39; Av. ajrya- 
'topmost' = Skt. dgrya-, agriyd-; Av. haomya- 'relating to haoma" 
=^ Skt. somyd- ; Av. fyaflrya- 'kingly' = Skt. kfatriya- ; Av. yesnya- 
'revered' = Skt. yajfiiya-. From <f-stem : Av. halnya- 'belonging 
to an army' = Skt. sinya- ; Av. galpya- 'material, earthly'. From 
a-stem: Av. rapwya- 'reasonable', cf. Skt. ftviya-; Av. po*ruya- 
'first' = Skt. purvyd-; so Av. gaoya-, gSvya- 'belonging to the cow* 
= Skt. gdvya-. From consonant stem: Av. visya- 'of the clan' = 
Skt. viiya-. 

Note. Observe the few forms that show -aya as remarked upon 
just above 852 c. Examples are: Noun. Av. zar*daya- n. 'heart' = Skt. 
hfdaya- ; Av. zar'maya- adj. 'green', n. 'verdure', cf. Skt. harmyd-. Ad- 
jective. Av. aspaya- (ace. aspalm] 'belonging to a horse' = Skt. dtvya-; 
Av. nSvaya- 'flowing, navigable' = Skt. n&vya.-, cf. 68 Note 3. 

26. Av. -ra Skt. -ra (Whitney, 1226, 474). 
853. This suffix occurs in a very few words , chiefly pronominal 
derivatives. Examples are: 

Av. adara- adj. 'under, lower* = Skt. ddhara-; Av. afara- adj. 
'later, behind' = Skt. dpara-; Av. upara- adj. 'further, above' = 
Skt. upara-. Probably Av. hazavra- adj. and n. 'thousand' = Skt. 
saAdsra-. Observe Av. ahura- m. 'lord, Ahura' = Skt. dsura-, 

27. Av. -va, (-vya) =. Skt. -va, (-vya), Whitney, 1228. 
854. The ending -va as secondary suffix occurs in a very few 
adjectives. These must be distinguished from orig. ^-adjectives transferred 
to the a-inflection. Examples of -va as secondary suffix are : 

Second. Deriv. : Suffix -ra, -va, -vya, -van, -va'rf, -vana, -vatit. 235 

Av. ajrava- 'belonging to the head' (ajra-); Av. bftnava- 'be- 
longing to the tail' (buna- 185). 

Note. The suffix Av. -vya = Skt. -vya (Whitney, 12280) is dis- 
guised in one or two words, names of kindred : Av. br&tu'rya- m. 'uncle' 
191, cf. Skt. bhratrvya-. 

28. Av. -van, (f. -va'ri) = Skt. -van, (f. -vari\ Whitney, 1 234. 
855. A few secondary derivatives are made with 
the suffix -van. They show also a corresponding feminine 
-va l ri. Examples are: 

Av. ajavan- adj. m., afava'ri- (beside afaont-) adj. f. 'righteous* 
= Skt. ftavan- (f. -vart); Av. apravan- m. 'priest' = Skt. dtharv an-; 
Av. hapto.karjyan- n. 'seven karshvars", Av. haptd.karj>vairi- 'belong- 
ing to the seven karshvars'. 

29. Av. -vana = Skt. -vana (Whitney, 1245 1). 
856. This suffix arises apparently by transfer of the preceding 
-van to the a-inflection. It bears also a relation to -var 337. It is to 
be recognized in a couple of instances : Av. Sfrivana- n. 'blessing' ; Av. 
panvana- m. 'bow' ; Av. hapravana- adj. 'splendid'. 

30. Av. -vant = Skt. -vant (Whitney, 1233). 
857. The suffix -vatit is closely akin to the suffix 
-man.t, and like the latter it is used in making a large 
number of possessive adjectives from nouns. The suffix 
-vatit is used with a-, i- and consonant stems, -maqt being 
employed chiefly with -stems as noted above 251. 
Examples are numerous: 

From tf-stem: Av. amavatit- adj. 'strong' = Skt. 
dmavant-; Av. pupravan_t- 'having a son' = Skt. / 
travdnt-; Av. haomavan^t- 'having haoma' = Skt. soma- 
vant~. From /-stem: Kv . fraza^tivarit- 'having off- 
spring' ; Av. ndirivarit- 'having a wife' ; Av. raevant- 
'radiant' = Skt. revdnt-. From consonant stem: Av. 
aojavhvan.t- } aojdvhvatit- 'mighty' Ys. 57.11, Ys. 31.4 
= Skt. djasvant-; Av. tomavhvant- 'dark' = Skt. td- 
masvant-; Av. paemavant- 'with milk' (paeman-); Av. 
ar$navan.t- 'possessing a stallion' 

236 Word -Formation : Compound Stems. 

Note I. A trace of the lengthening of the final vowel before 
-vatft (cf. Whitney, 1233^) is to be found in Av. za'rimy3va%t- 'pro- 
ducing verdure* Yt. 7.5, cf. Skt. vj-fiyydvanl-. So Av. yufmdvatft-, fijmdvattt-. 

Note 2. A few words, chiefly pronominal derivatives in -vatjt, have 
the meaning 'like to', 'resembling', cf. Whitney, Skt. Grain. 1233 f. 
Examples are: Av. mavat^t- 'like me' = Skt. mdvant-; Av. pw&vaiit- 'like 
thee, your Grace' = Skt. tv&vant-. So also Av. visa'tivant- 'twenty-fold' ; 
Av. satavaijl- 'hundred-fold', 376. 


858. General Remark. Compounds, Verbal and 
Nominal, occur in Avesta as in Sanskrit, but in Av. since 
most words are written separately in the MSS. and each 
is followed by a point, the compounds are not always so 
easily recognized as in Skt., nor are the rules of Sandhi 
so rigorously carried out. 

Verbal Composition has been sufficiently treated above, 
749 seq. ; it is necessary here to take up only the Noun- 

Note. In printed texts the compounds are differently marked in 
different editions; Geldner's Avesta has the compound united in printing 
and retains the separating point (.) ; Westergaard likewise but a small 
dash (-) is used; Spiegel's edition does not designate the compounds. 


859. Noun-compounds have either a substantival or 
an adjectival force. They consist usually of two members, 
more rarely of three ( 894), e. g. drva-a$a-ci]>ra 'the sound 
offspring of righteousness'. The members which enter into 
composition may be nouns, adjectives, or indeclinables ; 
or they may be parts of a verb, either radical or parti- 
cipial. The final member of the compound receives the 
inflection. The first member is subject to some modifica- 
tion in form, generally assuming the weak grade. 

860. Examples of different combinations, nouns, 
adjectives, etc., entering into composition are: 

Noun-Composition: Union of the Members. 237 

Av. vispa'ti (subst. -f- subst.) m. 'lord of the clan' = Skt. vispdti-; 
Av. dar'ja.l>azu- (adj. -j- subst.) adj. 'longimanus' = Skt. dirgha- 
liahu-; Av. wspo.bamya- (adj. -\- adj.) adj. 'all-shining'; Av. kvaspa- 
(indecl. -J- subst.) adj. 'well-horsed' = Skt. svahia-; Av. rafaelta-, 
rapaeitar- (subst. -j- rad.) m. 'warrior standing in chariot' = Skt. 
ratheffhd- ; Av. nidasnaipiH- (rad. -f- subst.) adj. 'having weapons 
laid down'; Av. star''sman- (ptcpl. -j- subst.) adj. 'with out- 
spread barsom'. Likewise some other combinations. 

Union of the Members of Compounds. 

a. Contraction and Hiatus. 

86 1. The rules of Sandhi for concurrent vowels and 
consonants are in great measure carried out, though some- 
times they are disregarded. Hiatus, for example, is at 
times allowed to remain between concurrent vowels. 

862. Examples of the different methods of treat- 
ment of vowels are : 

With Contraction or Resolution. Av. a"ru$Sspa- 'having white 
horses' (a u ruja -j- aspa); Av. a'wydma- 'over-mighty' (a*wi -j- aw); 
Av. pa'lySsti-, pa'tyasti- (v. 1. fa'^i.asti-), paipyesti- 'repetition' (pafti 
-j- as } Ys. 53.3, Afr. 1.8, Vd. 22.13; so Av. u^tyaojana- beside '// 
aojana- 'thus speaking'; Av. paityaotya beside paiti aofyta 'he an- 
swered'; Av. mazdaofyta- 'spoken by Mazda' (a -j- ufcta) Ys. 19.16. 
With Hiatus. Av. asu.aspa- 'swift-horsed' = Skt. Sfvasva-; 
GAv. cipra.avah- beside YAv. cipravah- 'manifestly aiding' Ys. 34.4, 
Ny. 3.10; Av. %/viwi.iJfu- 'having darting arrows'. See 51,52 above. 
Note. In the Gathas, as is shown by the metre, all contractions in 
compounds are to be resolved. See 51 Note 2. 

863. Examples of consonant Sandhi in compounds 
are common. The following examples illustrate the inter- 
change of voiced and voiceless 74. Observe orig. s. 

Av. duifktr'la- 'ill-done' = Skt. dufkftd-; Av. duJcipra- 'of evil 
seed'; Av. dulutya- 'ill-spoken' = Skt. durukla-; Av. duldalna- 'of 
evil conscience' ; Av. -vavhazdah- 'giving what is best'. 

b. Treatment of the prior Member. 
864. Owing to the tendency in Av. to write all 
words separately the connection between the parts of the 

238 Word-Formation: Compound Stems. 

noun-compound is much looser than in Skt. ; hence the 
frequent variations in the form of the prior member. Ob- 
serve particularly that the first member often assumes the 
form identical with its nominative singular. The princi- 
pal points may be presented in detail. 

865. Final -a of the stem may remain unchanged before con- 
sonants, but more often it appears as -o like the nominative. Occasionally, 
though more rarely, it is lengthened. Examples are : 

Av. hazavra.gaofa- , hazavro.gaoja-, hazattra .gaoja- 'thousand- 
eared* Yt. 17.16, Yt. 10.91, Yt. 10.141 etc. So kX-, kva- 'self in 
composition, ktidata- 'self-governed 1 , kvavastra- 'self-clothed'. 
Note. Observe that a when preceded by y may give ya, yd, y3, 
but sporadic traces of reduction ( 67) are found, e. g. Av. na're.manah- 
(na'rya -\- m) 'manly-minded' Ys. 9.1 1, beside haipy&.d&ta- Yt. xi-3, hai- 
Py&.var'z-. Similarly traces of u for va, v& are found in Av. var*dusma- 
'soft-earth' (var'dva-). 

866. Original a of feminine stems may remain unchanged , but 
sometimes, like a, it becomes -o. Examples are: 

Av. dalna.vazah- nomen propr., daino.disa- m. 'teacher of the 
law' (dalna-) , urvaro.6aejaza- adj. 'having the balm of plants' 

Note. Original mS (prohibitive) appears as ma- in composition in 
YAv. makasvil mastrt 'no dwarf, no woman' et al. Yt. 5.92; GAv. ma- 
vaefa- 'not failing' Ys. 41.1. 

867. Final i, ;, u, (u) of a stem remain as a rule unchanged in 
the prior member of a compound, though T usually appears for f. 
Examples are: 

Av. zairi.gaona- 'yellow-colored' (za*'ri-}, muilti.masah- 'large as 
the fist' (muiti-), nS'ri.cinah- 'seeking a wife' (tiS'rt-). Av. Ssu.- 
kairya- 'quickly working', voTu.gaoyaoiti- 'having wide pastures'. 
Note I. The -stems occasionally show -/, like the nominative 
singular : e. g. Av. b&zuf.aojah- 'strong-armed' (observe -/), nasuj.ava.dfrta- 
'corpse-defiled'. Somewhat different is the -/ in Av. Snui.hac- 'accompany- 
ing' (Skt. Snufdc-), Av. pasuH.ha*rva- 'cattle-protecting', see above 754, 2. 
Observe also YAv. nasuspaeya- 'corpse-burning' (with j before /, 754). 
Note 2. Av. g&u-, gao- 'cow' appears in composition as gao-, gava~, 
gavo- (cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 361 f): e.g. Av. gaoyao*ti- 'cow-pasture' 
= Skt. gdvy&ti- ; Av. gavaJiti- 'abode of cows', Av. gavo. s tana- 'cow-stall' 
= SkL gosthana-. 

Noun-Composition : Treatment of the Prior and Final Member. 239 

868. Simple stems ending in / show forms identical with the 
nominative singular. Examples are: 

Av. aflcipra- 'containing the seed of waters' (ap-), awldSta- 
'contained in the waters', ktr'flhvar- 'corpse-eating' (kthrp-). 
869. The aift-stems as a rule show the weak form -a/ as final 
of a prior member. Sometimes, however, they show -6, -as, like nomina- 
tive, 295. Examples are: 

Av.>a- 'having splendid horses', var'da^alpa- 'increas- 
ing the world'. Av. baro.taopra- (observe -0), beside taraf.zaopra- 
(observe -af) 'bearing the libation' Yt. 10.30, Yt. 10.126; ratvas.- 
cipra- 'of splendid family* (but cf. also 1 51). 
Note. Observe the form th instead of / in Av. zaralhultra- 'Zoroaster', 
hamaspaf>maidaya- name of a season. 

870. The a-stems show a in composition as in Sanskrit (cf. 
Whitney,, Skt. Gram. 13153), or they appear as -o. Examples are: 

Av. ajavajan- 'slaying the righteous' (afavan-J, nqma.azb&'ti- 
'invocation by name', r&ma.jayana- 'having an abode of repose* 
(ra'man-). Beside Av. r8rnd.fiti- 'abode of repose* (rSman-), zrvo.- 
d&ta- 'created in eternity' (zrvan-). 

871. The or-stems naturally have anaptyctic (') 72, and form 
respectively ar, 9r f . As examples may be noted: 

Av. ayar*J)ara- 'day's journey', hvar*J>ar*zah- 'height of the 
sun';*zah- 'height of a man'. Observe commonly Ottr*.- 
pttta-, Httr.savah- t Sttr'- etc. Yt. 13.102, but Stravafta- name of 
priest Vsp. 3.6 etc. 

872. The <M-stems may appear in their original form -as under 
certain circumstances ( no), but otherwise they become -d as usual 
( 120). Examples are: 

Av. timascipra- 'containing the seed of darkness', manaspao*rya- 

'having the mind pre-eminent'. Av. ayd.fyaoda- 'having a helmet of iron' 

(ayah-), savd.galfa- 'useful to the world', hrar'no.ddh- 'glory-giving'. 

Note I. Observe * ( 170) in Av. vatthazdah- 'giving what is better' 

Ys. 65.12. Remark also the weak form of -vah in Av. yaltuigao- nomen 

propr. Yt. 13.123, viduj.yasna- 'knowing the Yasna'. 

Note 2. Observe the peculiarity (-ah retained) in mipahvaca 'false- 
speaking' (mifah- -}- v) Ys. 31.12. 

c. Treatment of the final Member. 
873. The final member of a compound in Av. as 
in Skt. (cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram, 1315) often undergoes 

240 Word-Formation: Compound Stems. 

changes in its original inflection; these will be noticed in 
the following in detail. 

874. There is a special tendency for the final member of a 
compound to assume the ^-inflection ; a compound is often thus trans- 
ferred from the consonant to the vowel declension (cf Whitney, S&t. 
Gram. 13160). Examples are: 

Av. hvar> .dar'sa- (Skt. svarrffs-) 'sunlike', beside paro.dar's-, 
paro.dar'sa- ; Av. ator'.vafyja- title of a priest, beside attr'.va^- 

875. An a-stem in the final member often undergoes transformation, 
as in Skt. (cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 1315). As examples may be taken : 
Av. cafiru.cajma- (observe -a) 'four-eyed', beside bafvar'.cajmana- 
(observe -and) 'thousand-eyed', from cabman-. 

876. The final member sometimes undergoes abbreviation, owing 
to an original change of accent in assuming the weak form , or to other 
causes (cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 1315). As examples: 

Av. upasma- 'upon earth* (z'm-), frabda- 'fore part of the foot" 
(pada-), frafju- 'abundance of cattle' (pasu-). Likewise others. 

d. Case-form appears in prior Member. 

877. In Av., as in Skt. (cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 1 250), 
a case-form is sometimes found in the prior member of a 
compound. Examples are: 

a. Accusative (especially before radical finals). Av. ahtim.- 
mfr'w- 'destroying the soul', ahmaoja- 'confounding righteousness' 
(ahm maoja, m -J- m = m, 1 86), ahumbiS- 'healing the soul', 
daeum.jan- 'daeva-smiting'. b. Dative. Av. yavae-jt- 'living for 
ever'. c. Genitive. Av. z'mascipra- 'having the seed of earth'. 
d. Locative. Av. duraedars- 'seeing at a distance', rafiaeSta-, 
rapailtar- 'warrior standing in a chariot 1 (rapt-), ma''tiitSna- 
'to the middle of the breast'. 

Classes of Compounds. 

(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Grain. 1246 seq.) 

878. Modelled after the Sanskrit Grammar the com- 
pounds in Avesta may conveniently be divided into the 
following classes: 

Classes of Compounds. 24! 

i. Copulative. 

[ a. Dependent. 
11. Determinative < , 
[ o. Descriptive. 

iii. Secondary Adjective Compounds 
iv. Other Compound Forms. 

[a. Possessive, 
b. With governed 



These different classes may be taken up in detail in 
comparison with the corresponding Sanskrit divisions. 

i. Copulative Compounds. 

(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 1252, 1255.) 

879. Copulative Compounds (Skt. Dvandva). 
Two co-ordinate terms which would form a pair connected 
by 'both and' may dispense with the conjunction and 
unite into a compound. The Av. Dvandva-Compounds 
differ from the Skt. in this that in Av. each member 
assumes the dual form and is separately declined. Exam- 
ples of Copulative or Dvandva-Compounds are : 

Av. pasii vira 'cattle and men' Ys. 9.4 etc. ; pasubya viraPbya 
'by cattle and men' Vd. 6.32 etc. ; pasvtS viraya) 'of both cattle 
and men* Vsp. 7.3 etc. ; apa urv&re, ape urva're 'water and trees' 
Ys. 9.4, Gah 4.5 ; payu pwor$tara 'the keeper and the judge' Ys. 57.2. 
Note. A rather late instance may be cited in which several suc- 
cessive members, though ordinarily found only in the singular, unite as a 
series each in the plural and form an aggregative compound: Vsp. I O.I 
ayese yeSti ar'zahibyO savahibyo fradaf$ubyo vtdadafjtubyd vo v'Htibyd 
vo u nt.jar':!tibyo aheca kargvan} yaf hanirapahe. 

ii. Determinative Compounds. 

(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 1262 seq.) 

880. Determinative Compounds are divided 
into two classes, (a) Dependent Compounds, (b) Descriptive 
Compounds. In regard to signification, the Determinative 
may have either a substantival or an adjectival value. 

a. Dependent Compounds. 
(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 1264 seq.) 

88 1. Dependent Compounds (Skt. Tatpurusa) 
are those in which the former member stands in relation to 


242 Word-Formation: Compound Stems. 

the latter member as though it were governed by the latter. 
The force of the prior member is that of an oblique 
case (ace., instr. gen. etc.) depending upon the latter; 
and actual case-forms in such instances do sometimes occur, 
see 877 above. The compound has noun or adjectival 
value according to its final member. 

1. Noun value (Whitney, 1264): Accusative relation. Av. 
mipro.druj- m. 'one that breaks his pledge". Gen. relation. Av. 
vispani- m. 'lord of the clan'. Loc. relation. Av. rafiaiita- m. 
'warrior standing in a chariot' (rape = actual loc., cf. 877). 

2. Adjective value (Whitney, 1265): Ace. relation. Av. 
kanur'dd.jan- 'smiting the head'. Dat. relation. Av. damiddta- 'created 
for all creatures'. Instr. relation. Av. ahuradata- 'made by Ahura'. 
Abl. relation. A\. qzo.buj- 'freeing from distress'. Loc. relation. 
Av. z'mar'guz- 'hiding in the earth'. 

b. Descriptive Compounds. 
(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 1279 seq.) 

882. Descriptive Compounds (Skt. Karmadharya) 
are those in which the former member stands not in a 
case-relation but in attributive relation to the second 
and adds some qualification to it. The value of the com- 
pound itself is substantival or adjectival according to its 
final member. 

1. Noun value (Whitney, I28ob, d): Av. darjo.$iti- f. 'a 
long residence', pir'no.m&aha- n. 'full-moon' ; Av. ultradaenu- f. 
'she-camel', cf. Whitney, Ski. Gram. I28od. 

2. Adjective value (Whitney, 1282): Av. vispo.bamya- 'all- 
brilliant', upard.kairya- 'making higher, raising up'. With advbl. pre- 
fixes (a-, an-, hu-, duS-, ar?- etc.), Av. hukfr'ta- 'well-made', Av. 
arlu^da- 'right-spoken'. Likewise some others. 

iii. Secondary Adjective Compounds. 

(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 1292 seq.) 

883. The secondary adjective compounds are of 
two kinds, (a) Possessive, (b) those with governed' final 

Noun-Composition: Determinative, Adjective Compounds. 243 

a. Possessive Compounds. 
(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 1293 seq.) 

884. Possessive Compounds (Skt. Bahuvrihi) are 
composite adjectives formed from a corresponding Deter- 
minative compound ( 880) merely by adding to the latter 
the idea of 'having' or 'possessing' that which the deter- 
minative itself denotes. 

885. The Skt. shows a difference of accent between a 
Determinative and its corresponding Possessive'; in Av., as there is no 
written accent, the distinction cannot be drawn in that manner. 

886. The second member of the Possessive is ge- 
nerally a substantive ; the first member may be a substan- 
tive, adjective, pronoun, numeral, participle or indeclinable. 
The force of the compound always remains adjectival. 

Possessive Adjectives. Noun initial. Av. aftcipra- 'having 
the seed of waters'. Adj. initial. Av. dar'jo.lazu- 'having long 
arms, longimanus'. Pron. initial. Av. hvavastra- 'having own cloth- 
ing', ya.jyaopna- 'having what actions' Ys. 31.16. Num. initial. 
Av. hazavra.gaoSa- 'having a thousand ears' (cf. Whitney, 1300). 
Ptcpl. initial. Av. utgir'ptS.draffa- 'with uplifted banners'. 
Indecl. initial (Whitney, 1304). Av.aka/tui- 'not-sleeping', a'wyania- 
'having excessive might' (Whitney, 1305). 

b. Adjective Compounds with governed final Member. 
(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 1309 seq.) 

887. These adjectives are exactly the reverse of 
Dependent compounds; they are attributives in which the 
first member practically governs the second member. The 
second member is always a noun and stands in case-relation 
to the first. The compound itself has an adjectival value. 

This group shows two subdivisions, (i) Participial, 
(2) Prepositional, according as the prior member is a 
participle or a preposition. Details follow. 

I. Participial Adjective Compounds. 

(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 1309.) 

888. These compounds are old in Av. as they are in Sanskrit. 
The prior member is a present participle which in meaning governs the 
second part. The whole is an adjective. Examples are : 

Word-Formation: Compound Stems. 

Av. vanaf.pjfana- adj. 'winning battles', var'daf.gat^a- 'increasing 
the world', inktr't-uitSna- 'cutting off life'. Likewise in no mi n a 
propria hatcaf.aspa- 'Haecataspa'. 

2. Prepositional Adjective Compounds. 

(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 1310.) 

889. These are combinations in which the first member is a pre- 
position (adverb) that governs the second member in meaning. The whole 
is equivalent to an adjective. Examples are : 

Av. 8$fnu- 'reaching to the knee", cf. Skt. abhijftu~ (Whitney, 
1 310 a); Av. a*wi.daJiyu- 'around the country', aqtar'.da/iyu- 'within 
the country' (cf. Skt. antarhastd-'), Av. uzdafyyu- 'out of the country' ; 
Av. upas ma- 'upon the earth' (zm- 152); Av. paro.asna- 'beyond 
the present' (i. e. paro -f- azan-} 153, cf. Skt. parokfa-; Av. 
taro.yara- 'beyond a year', cf. Skt. tirbahnya-. 

iv. Other Compound Forms. 

890. Beside the above regular compounds, in Av. 
as in Skt., there are also some other composite forms that 

require notice. 

a. Numeral Compounds. 
(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 1312.) 

891. Numeral Compounds (Skt. Dvigu) are a 
species of determinative that have a numeral as prior 
member, and which are commonly, though not always, 
used as a singular collective noun in the neuter gender. 
Examples are: 

Av. prig&ya- n. 'space of three steps', pripada- n. 'three feet, 
a yard', nava.karja- n. 'the nine furrows', nava.fy$af>ara- n. 'space of 
nine nights'. Av. parica.yaftii;! (fern. ace. pi.) 'five twigs'. Av. 
haptoiringa (masc. plur. ) 'the Great Bear*. 

b. Adverbial Compounds. 
(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 1313) 

892. Adverbial Compounds (Skt. Avyayfbh&va) are composites 
made by the union of a preposition or a particle as prior member and a 
noun as final member, combined to form an indeclinable noun or rather 
neuter accusative used adverbially, cf. 934. The class is quotable in an 
instance or two: Av. apritlm 'up to three times', cf. Skt. advadasdm; Av. 
pa'tySptm 'against the stream, contrary' ( 934) Ys. 65.6, Vd. 6.40 = Skt 

Noun-Composition: Other Compound Forms. Sandhi. 245 

pratipdm (cf. Lanman, Skt. Reader p. 195); Av. fra.apim, nyaptin, upa.- 
apjin 'from out, down, to the water' Vd. 21.2. 

c. Loose Compound Combinations. 
(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 1315.) 

893. One or two other points in regard to com- 
pounds and their formation may be noticed here. 

1. The nomen propr. na*ryo.savha- m. 'Nairyosangha' sometimes 
has its component elements separately declined, e. g. na'ryehe savhahe 
Yt. 13.85, Vsp. II. 16, beside na^yii.savhalte Ny. 5.6. Similarly, the 
derivative yavaeca.ta'te beside yavacla'tacca 'for ever' Ys. 62.6, 
Yt. 13.50, cf. 842. So in verbal derivatives, zPrazda-, z a rasca 
i/ffj, etc. 

2. Observe later such agglomerations , especially from initial 
words of chapters (cf. Te Deum), as Av. kamnamaezqm haHtm 'the 
whither-to-turn Chapter' (ka/n mmoi zqm) Ys. 46 end; tat>pwa.p)r*sa- 
'beginning with the words This-I-ask-Thee'. Likewise in nomina 
propria, resembling the Puritanical names, e. g. Av. a$3tn.ycvhe.raoc& 
nqma 'Bright-in-Righteousness by name' Yt. 13.120, et al. 

894. Long compounds are not common in Avesta; 
as examples merely may be quoted, Av. frdda$.vtspqm.- 
hujyaiti- 'advancing all good life', nairyqm.hqm.var'tivaiit- 
'having manly courage', po u ru.sar 3 do.viro.v({pwa 'having a 
crowd of many kinds of male offspring' Vsp. 1.5. 

Sandhi with Enclitics. 

(Cf. Whitney, Skt. Gram. 109 seq.) 

895. The principles of euphonic combination may 
be regarded as twofold: (i) as applied in the building up 
of a word from its elements ; (2) in the union of words in 
a sentence. The former may be called Internal Com- 
bination or Word-Sandhi ; the latter, though practically 
wanting in Av., is called External Combination or 

896. The laws for the internal combination of for- 
mative elements and endings have been treated above un- 
der Phonology. 

246 Sandhi with Enclitics. 

897. Sentence-Sandhi, or the external combination 
of words in a sentence, is wanting in the Avesta ( 4) 
except in the case of enclitics and in compounds, and 
there only conditionally. The words othenvise are writ- 
ten separately, each followed by a point. Thus, GAv. 
yapd ahu Ys. 27.13; GAv. ymscd uHl Ys. 39.3; YAv. nl 
amam Ys. 9.17; YAv. a'pi imqm Ys. 57.33, and count- 
less others. 

Note I. In Geldner's Mttrik pp. 54 57, numerous instances are 
collected where external sandhi is apparently to be accepted, but they are 
uncertain, and in the edition of the Avesta texts Geldner has rightly fol- 
lowed the MSS. 

Note. 2. Observe the MS. reading GAv. ztf 'for indeed' (but in 
metre properly zf //) Ys. 45.8. Conversely GAv. yjpsii (so also according 
to metre, but better MS. authority for yaj>a Si!, Geldner) Ys. 33.1. 

Combination with Enclitics and Proclitics. 

898. Instances of Sandhi are common in the case 

of enclitics like tu, he, cif, ca which form a unit with the 

preceding word and are often written together with it ; but 

even here the manuscripts often preserve the usual law of 

keeping each word separate and unchanged. As examples: 

YAv. Patrice 'round him' (combined like Skt. hi 

fa(t Whitney, Skt. Gram. 188) Ys. 9.28, beside ni 

him (uncombined) Yt. 13.100. Again YAv. skandam 

$e mano k^r'nu^i 'make his brain cracked' Ys. 9.28; 

GAv. kas.te 'who to thee' Ys. 29.7 ; GAv. kasnd (cf. 

Germ, 'man') Ys. 44.4. So GAv. sask*n-cd (observe n) 

Ys. 53.1 beside uzutysyq/n-ca (observe ) Yt. 13.78. 

Similarly with Sandhi after the manner of enclitics 

and proclitics, GKv.huz*ntus> spJtitoYs. 43.3; YAv. 

havay&s' tanvo 'of his own self ; GAv. vasas 3 fysa- 

prahyd Ys. 43.8 ; YAv. yas ta^mo 'I who am strong' 

Yt. 19.87; YAv. uityaojand 'thus speaking', beside 

#*'/*' aojano. 

Sandhi in Nominal and Verbal Composition. 24? 

Note I. In the MSS., enclitics and proclitics are frequently written 
together as a single word, e.g. GAv. kamma for Ys. 50.1; lapwa 
for ta.pwa Ys. 31.13; tSqga for tSrtg.a Ys. 46.13; na'riva for Ys. 41.2. 
Likewise YAv. ataf and a.ta^ Vd. 5.2, and many others. 

Note 2. Observe that -ca 'que' is always written together with the 
preceding word; notice the difference of treatment of vowels and con- 
sonants before it. See (-aca, -Sea, -ica, -asca, -<&sca, -Ssca) 19, 26 Note, 
120, 124, 129. 

899. Special attention may be drawn to the treat- 
ment of words before an enclitic beginning with t. In 
several instances, especially in the Gathas, a word before 
a ^-enclitic takes a sort of compromise form made by a 
mixture of the usual pause form and the grammatical Sandhi- 
form. Thus are to be explained: 

GAv. vSsta (compromise between vas.ta and w fa, hence S, j) 

Ys. 46.17; GAv. ysrigstu (mixture of ySiig tu and yqs.tu). Contrast 

. GAv. akas-tSrig (&s-\-t) Ys. 50.2, with Av. gae]>s-ca (&s-\-c). 

But GAv. ds-tti Ys. 28.7, cf. 124 above. 

Note. Observe likewise YAv. kas*.J>wqm , yas'.JnuS, a compromise 
between ko pwqm and kastvqm etc. 78 above. 

900. The laws of euphonic combination in Noun- 
Compounds and also in Verbal-Composition have 
been treated above 753, 86 1 seq.; they require no further 
remark here. 

(The Sketch of the Syntax and Metre follows in Part II.) 



Part I. 

Order of Letters. 

Vowels. Av. a, ai, au, af, ao 5, Si, Su i, t a, u t, } e, g 

o, d (S q. 

Consonants, k, $, g , j c , j t, p, d, d, f p, f, b, w v, ?, 
n, niy (i), r , v (y) s, /, /, /, e , $ h, h, h. 


(Grammatical Elements). 

The references throughout are to the sections (). 

Abbreviations are extensively used; but it is believed they will be 
readily recognized. For example, 'cpd.' is compound, 'cpsn.' composition; 
'dcln.' means declension; 'endg.' ending; 'prone.' pronunciation; 'primy.', 
'scdry.' stand for primary, secondary; 'pdgm.' is paradigm; etc. 

The Indexes are comparatively full , but if an element is not found 
under one of its letters look for it under one of its other letters, or under 
the appropriate head in the other Indexes. Remember that long and short 
vowels sometimes interchange in Avesta. 

Av. " a. 

a, prone. 6; = Skt. a 15; for Skt. 5 
1 7 ; interchanges with a (<t) in 
MSS. 18 N., 472 N., 498; la- 
bialized to o 38, 39 ; streng- 
thened or contracted 60 ; str. in 
causat. 685 ; lost after n, r, etc. 
in clenom. 696 N. ; loss of in 
scdry. deriv. 825 a; a-anaptyctic 

o-stems, dcln. 236; transfer of *'-, 
w-stems to a-dcln. 256 N., 269. 

a-, pronom. stem 422 seq., 431. 

a-conjugation (themat), in general 
469-506; classification and for- 
mation 470; class (first) of 
verbs 470, 478-507; (sixth) 
470, 479-507 ; (fourth yn) 470, 
480-507; (tenth aya) 470, 481 
till 507 ; transfer from root-class 
529; transfer from redupl. class 
S^S-S, 573; transfer from -, 

a-class 574, 578, 582; transfer 
from intens. 707. 

a-aorist (themat.), formation 648. 

-a, primy. 761, scdry. 828. 

a-inflection in cpds. 874; final in 
cpds. 865. 

at, as, interchange in MSS. 193 N. 2. 

-a*ti, -a'te (== -pti etc.) 452. 

-a'ni, primy. 765. 

-aini, scdry. 829. 

ag, prone. 7 ; = Skt. I 54-5 ; streng- 
thening of i 60; for aya 64. 

-alna (-aim), scdry. 829. 

aim, for -ayam 494. 

-aevam (orig.) = Av. -oy&m 62 N. 2. 

ao, prone. 7 ; = Skt. o 54, 57 ; streng- 
thening of u 60; for ava 64. 

aoi, aon (dun), aor, for orig. avy, 
avn, avr 62. 

-aona, scdry. 830. 

-aom, -aon, for -avam 494. 

-ao! (accent) = -tuj! 265 (gen.). 


Indexes to Part I. 

-aka, scdry. 839. 

~ac, see -anc. 

-ata, primy. 786 N. 2. 

-ada, in abl. sg. 222. 

-at (= -/) 455. 

-avh-, for orig. -as- 117-119; for old 
-ans- 126. 

av/ie, infin. 720. 

a-stems, dcln. 300 ; interchange with 
ar-stems 311; compar. of ait- 
stems, 365 N. 2 ; in cpsn. 870. 

-an, ptcpl. of roots in -an 711 (5). 

-ait, primy. 762, scdry. 831; treat- 
ment of -an in scdry. deriv. 825 c. 

-ana (-tna), primy. 763, scdry. 832. 

flK-stems, dcln. 287. 

-aye, -ac, scdry. 833. 

aj?/-stems, dcln. 291; treatment of 
in cpds. 869. 

-arit, primy. 766. 

ap-, see Sp-. 

I/a/-, perf. ptcpl. 622. 

-ay-, -av-, for -y-, -v- 68 N. 3 ; for 
-/-, -u- 828 N. 

-aya-, -ava-, reduced to -al-, -0^-494. 

aya- (tenth) class of verbs 470, 481 
to 507. 

-aya (suffix) 760; (for -ya} scdry. 
852 N. 

-aye (orig.) = Av. -9e 66. 

ar (r- vowel), rules for redupl. in 
verbs 465 b. 

ar-stems, interchange with a-stems 
311; dcln. (radical) 329; dcln. 
(neut.) 336-7 ; in composhion87 1 . 
-ar (-ara), primy. 767. 
ar*, for Skt. r 47 ; interchanges with 
r in MSS. 47 ; for Skt. ir, ur, 
Ir, ar 48. 

-ar'la, -tr'ta, in ptcpl. 711 (3). 
-ava-, reduced to -ao- 64. 

-ava-, in loc. sg. w-stem 265. 
avy, avn, avr (orig.) = Av. aoi, aon 

(Sun), a or 62. 
as (old), when it is retained in Av. 

1 20 N. 

ah, for Skt. as 112-116. 
aA-stems, dcln. 339; in cpsn. 872. 
~\fah- 'to be', pdgm. 530 seq. ; it 

forms periphrases 623, 724. 
-ah, primy. 768. 

Av. a. 

a, prone. 6; = Skt a 15, = Skt. a 
1 8; in contractions 51; for a 
after y (i. e. y5 = ya) 52 c; as 
strengthening of a 60. 

M, a, endg. instr. sg. 222. 

5-stems, dcln. 243 seq. 

-ff, in fern, formation 362 ; in 1st. 
pers. sg. 450, 456. 

-a, primy. 769. 

-a (final), how treated in cpds. 866. 

-aa(, in abl. sg. 222. 

Si, prone. 7; = Skt. Si 54, 59; for 
aya 65 ; written for -a/ii 357 
N. 2 ; = -a(h)i 450, 462 N., 502. 

-Sijf, endg. instr. pi. 224. 

au, prone. 7; = Skt. Su 54, 59; for 
ava 65. 

-Sum, in ace. sg. 265. 

-S{, in abl. sg. lightened to -/ 19. 

Sna, -ana, in perf. mid. ptcpl. 715, 

-Sna (-Sni), scdry. 832. 

-obis', -<B&iif, variants 354. 

-Sr*i, -ar>, endg. 455, 464. 

Ss 'was' 192 N. 

asu-, Ssyah-, compar. 365. 

Sh, = old as 122. 

5^-stems, dcln. 352 seq. 

- 'sit', in periphr. expressions 724. 

I. Avesta-Index (Gram. Elements). Reference to the 


Av. i. 

i, prone. 6; = Skt. * 15 ; = Skt. * 
21; long in vicinity of v 23; 
lengthened before final m 23 ; 
strengthened to ae 60; streng- 
thened in caus. and scdry. deriv. 
685, 825 b; stands for Av. t 
(-in, -m) after palatal con- 
sonants 30 ; for orig. ya 63 ; 
interchanges with fin opt. 552. 

i, epenthetic 70; prothetic 71. 

i-, pronominal stem, dcln. 397. 

/'-, f-stems, dcln. 251 seq. 

1/V- 'to go', use ; n periphr. phrases 

- primy. 771; scdry. 834; (final) in 
cpds. 867. 

-ika, scdry. 839. 

-Ha, pass, ptcpl. 712; primy. 786 N. 

-Hi, suffix 789. 

z'M-stems, dcln. forms 316; -in for 
-in, -ytn 491-92. 

-in, primy. 774; scdry. 835. 

-tna, primy. 775 ; scdry. 836. 

-iqt, primy. 766. 

-iitti, for -nti 491. 

-ima, pronom. stem 422 seq. 

*> ( ori g-) = Av - y (i) 68 - 

iv (Av.) = orig. yv 62. 

z'jstems, dcln. 358. 

z'/-Aorist 664. 

-ijf, primy. 776; -/// scdry. 777. 

-iSta, superl. adj. formation 365, 813. 

Av. v i. 
i, prone. 6; = Skt. i 15; = Skt. F 

20 ; in fern, formation 362; 

primy. 779; scdry. 837; (final) 

in cpds. 867. 

fm 'this', pronoun nom. sg. fern. 422. 
-i!, -ui, as general plur. case 231. 

Av. ) . 

u, prone. 6 ; = Skt. a 1 5 ; = Skt. u 
21 ; lengthened before epenthe- 
tic i 20; lengthened in ace. sg. 
before final m 23; strengthened 
to ao 60 ; strengthened in caus. 
685 ; stands for orig. va 63 ; 
for Av. v, w (= orig. bK) 62 N. 3 ; 
stands for t 193 N. 2. 

u, epenthetic 70 ; prothetic 7 1 ; anap- 
tyctic 72. 

u-, tf-stems, dcln. 262 seq. 

u- (eighth) class of verbs 470 ; pdgm. 

-u, primy. 780; scdry. 838; (final) 
in cpds. 867. 

--, for -van- in verbs 493. 

-una, primy. 802-3. 

-urn, ace. sg. of fa-stem 63 N. 

-uy = orig. vy 62 N. 3. 

-ura, suffix 760; primy. 816. 

urv = Skt. vr (vl) 191. 

uv (orig.) == Av. v (y) 68. 

/-stems, dcln. 358. 

-/, wk. form 349-50, 822; see vah. 

-ujf, like nom. in cpds. 867 N. 

-/, primy. 783. 

-w/i, fern, to -vah-, see 362. 

Av. ^ a. 
u, prone. 6 ; = Skt. a 1 5 ; = Skt. ti 

20; for H after y 52 c. 
S-, w-stems, dcln. 262 seq. 
-a, primy. 784. 
-tf/, as general plur. case 231. 

Av. { t. 

i, prone. 6; = Skt. a before m, n, v 
28-9 ; interchange with a in MSS. 
29 N. ; becomes i after palatals 
30 ; stands sporadically for u, i 


Indexes to Part. I. 

in GAv. 31, 193 N. 2; for -*- 

(= ya) 63 N. 3. 
9, anaptyctic 72. 
-nh- = old -ans- 126. 
tna (-ana), primy. 763-4. 
-tttt, primy. 766. 
-r, prone. 6; = Skt. r 47- 
-trq- = orig. r-\-n 49. 

Av. "{ /. 
3, prone. 6; its character in GYAv. 

28, 32 ; = orig. -ans (final) 32 N. ; 

stands for an, ah, & before b 33 ; 

anaptyctic 72. 
/ (-3s-ca) = old -ans 129. 
-it, prone. 7 ; (final) = -aye 66. 
?u, prone. ^ ; = Skt. o 54, 58. 
-3u$ = -aoJ (accent) 265 genitive. 
-> -M- = old -ans- 128-9. 

Av. ?0 e. 

e, prone. 6; = Skt. i (final) 35; 
= Skt. a, & after y 28, 34; 
= orig. ya (final) 67, 493; inter- 
changes with /-final 35 N. 2. 

Av. (jj *. 

I, prone. 6; = Skt. e (final) 36; 
found chiefly in -ai 55. 

o, prone. 6; in -ao- 37; stands for 
a 38. 

Av.> o. 

o, prone. 6; = Skt. au (final) 42; 
stands for a, a through labiali- 
zation (rounding) 39; anaptyctic 
72; =old -as 1 20; in dual 223, 
240; for an in cpds. 870. 

oi = Skt. I 54, 56; (final) in 1st. 
sg. pres. 450. 

-oyum = orig. -afvam 63 N. 2. 
-dhu, -ohva, loc. pi. 342. 

Av. K" a. 

a, prone. 6; = Skt. as 43, 124; 
= Skt. a 44 ; interchanges with 
-au, -at in MSS. 193 N. 2 ; = Skt. 
-os in dual 223. 

&oh = old as 123, 224. 

-<ftf<> = O ld -<Jj 124 N. 

Av. jr 4. 

4, prone. 6 ; = Skt. a, q with nasal 

-<?. -<?" -4. interchange in MSS. 

193 N. I. 
q(n), defective spelling in MSS. 45 

N. 2 ; pleonastic spelling 45 N. 3. 
-qn, -q = old -ans 129. 
-qm, dissyllabic gen. pi. 224; 3 sg. 

aor. imperat. 456, 627 N., 640. 
-qh = old -ans 126-7. 

Av. 9 k. 
k, prone. 8 ; general character 76 ; 

= Skt. k 78; loss of k (I) 

187 (5); interchange of k\c 76 N. 
ka- t interrog. 406. 
*ka, primy. 785 ; scdry. 839. 
~\fkar- 'to make', pdgm. 567 seq. ; 

perf. 606 ; aor. 637-40 ; pass. 

680; intensive 705-6. 
~\fkar- 'to cut', conjugation forms 

555 seq., 565. 

ki-, ti-, interrog. pron. 407. 
y^-, f-, aor. 664. 

Av. <!r f 

^, prone. 9 ; general character 77 ; 
= Skt. kk 77; = SkU k 77; 
introduced before / 77 N. I, 188- 

I. Avesta-Index (Gram. Elements). Reference to the 


\t, in YAv. 90. 

ff 77 N. 3. 
-fydr- = orig. klr 79. 
ft = Skt. k f 158 N. 
/-, aor. 649. 
-, aor, 664. 

Av. V g. 

g, prone. 8; = Skt. , ^A 82-3. 
"\fgam-, jam-, aor. 642-7. 
"\fgarw-, conjugation forms 584. 
-gd- 89. 
gv (GAv.) = YAv. v 187 (i). 

Av. ^ ,;. 

,/, prone. 9; = Skt. g, gk 83. 
^1, in GAv. 89! 
jiar-, intensive 705-6. 

Av. K c. 
c, prone. 8 ; general character 76 ; 

interchange of c\k 76 N. 
-ca 'que', treatment of vowel and 

cons, before it 26 N., 124 N. 
c\j, interchange in MSS. 193 N. 2. 
~\fcag-, pdgm. perf. 622. 
ci; interrog. pron. 407. 
~\fd- 'to atone', conjugation forms 


V7-, pdgm. 555. 
ey (old) = Av. fy ($) 162. 

Av. iJ. 

j, prone. 8 ; general character 88 ; 
= Skt./, k 88 ; = Skt. g 88 N. 2 ; 
= Skt. gh 88 N. 3 ; interchange 
of jlz, j\c in MSS. 193 N. 2. 
"\fjam-, gam-, aor. 642-7. 

Av. 10 t. 

t, prone. 8 ; general character 76 ; 
= Skt. / 78; loss of / 187(6); 

orig. / becomes Av. s 151; as- 
sumption of / after short root 
in deriv. 745 N. I, 820; treat- 
ment of enclitics before / 899. 

ta-, pronom. stem, dcln. 409. 

-fa, ending pass, ptcpl. 68 1, 710; 
primy. 786; scdry. 840; be- 
comes -da 786 N. 3. 

~\[tan- t conj. forms 579-80. 

/ar-stems, dcln. 321. 

-tar, primy. 787. 

-tara, compar. adj. 363 seq., 841. 

-tah, suffix 760. 

-t&t, scdry. 842. 

-//, primy. 788; scdry. 843. 

-tu, primy. 790. 

-t>m, 3 du. 454. 

-tuna, superl. adj. 363 seq. 

-tie, -tayagca, infin. 720. 

-to (beside -/0), ending du. 448 N., 


ty, for -Py- ' 79 N. 

tr (Av.) = orig. tr 79 N. 

-tra, -tra, primy. 791. 

-pri, fern, to -tar 362. 

tv (Av.) = Skt. tv 94. 

-tva, -pwa, in gerundive 716; primy. 

ts (orig.) = Av. j 143. 

Av. 6 p. 

p, prone. 9 ; general character 77 ; 
= Skt. th, t 77; = Skt. i ^^ 
N. 2 ; stands for Av. d 86 ; inter- 
change of Pjd in MSS. 193 N. 2; 
stands for / in cpsn. 869 N. 

-Pa, primy. 793 ; scdry. 844. 

-pi, -pu, primy. 794. 

-po (beside -/(?), ending du. 448 N., 

PW Skt. tv 94. 


Indexes to Part I. 

Pwa- 'tuus', dcln. 439. 

-pwa, in gerundive 716; scdry. 846. 

-pwan, see -van 820. 

-p-wana, scdry. 847. 

-fiwaqt, see -vatft 821. 

-pra, primy. 791. 

-pya, scdry. 845. 

Av. _j d. 
d, prone. 8; = Skt. d, dh 82-3; 

internal d 85 ; dropped between 

consonants 187(2). 
-da (= -ta), primy. 786 N. 3. 
dad-, dap-, interchange of stems 

541-2, 553. 
"\fdar- 'hold', perf. ptcpl. 618; aor. 

opt. 645. 

~\fdar- 'tear', intens. 706. 
\fda- 'give, place' = Skt. ~\fdS.-, dhS-, 

pres. pdgm. 540; aor. pdgm. 

63 1 seq. ; caus. forms 692 ; pass. 

ptcpl. 7 1 1 (2) ; in periphrases 724. 
di-, pronom. dcln. 396. 
-duye = Skt. -dhve 452, 498. 
dr = Skt. dr 85. 
dv (orig.), treatment in Av. 96. 

Av. a, d. 
d, prone. 9 ; = orig. th 77 N. 3 ; 

= Skt. d, dh 83 ; interchange 

of Av. d\P 86. 
-da (= -pa), primy. 793. 
-dar (= -tar), primy. 787. 
dw (Av.) = orig. dv, dhv 96. 
-dvja (= -tva), primy. 792. 
-dyai, -dySi, infin. 720. 
-dra, primy. 791. 

Av. /. 

/, prone. 9 ; general character fk, 
fb etc. 8 1 ; in abl. sg. -af, -&} 

222 ; in ace. sg. of neut. pron. 


Av. v /. 
/, prone. 8 ; general character 76 ; 

= Skt. / 78-9 ; as final in cpsn. 


"\fpar-, conj. forms 588, 591. 
ptr (orig.) = Av. f*dr 79. 
pv (orig.) = Av. / 95. 
ps (orig.) = Av. // (fi) 144, 1 6 1. 

Av. 0> /. 

/, prone. 9; general character 77; 
= Skt. /, ph 77 ; = orig. pv 95. 
f'd (Av.) = orig. // 77 N. 3. 
f'dr (Av.) = orig. ptr 79, 791. 
/? (Av.) = orig. ps 144. 
~\ffri-, conj. forms 584. 

Av. _j b. 

b, prone. 8 ; = Skt. b, bh 82-3 ; inter- 
change of b\w, v 62 N. 

"\fbar-, pdgm. 482 seq. 

-bi$, -bis, -byd, -bya, pada-endings 
22, 85. 

-btt, -biS, instr. ending 22, 224; as 
general plur. case 229. 

~\fbu-, aor. 642-6; fut. ptcpl. 674. 

Av. QW w. 
w, prone. 9 ; = Skt. b, bh 83 ; Av. 

w becomes v 87. 
-wa (in -tfwa), primy. 819. 
wi = Skt. -ps- 89, 1 80. 

AV. ?, -a v, r- 

v, y, prone. 10; general character 


vuh (Av.) = orig. -sv- 130. 
vr = orig. -sr- 139. 

I. Avesta-Index (Gram. Elements). Reference to the 


vh, >'yA, interchange in MSS. ii8N.; 

= orig. sy 134, 135. 
vhv (Av.) = orig. sv 130. 

Av. i, ,p n, n- 
n, n, prone. 10; general character 


ngr (GAv.) .= orig. -sr- 139 N. 
Ugh = orig. -ns- 128. 
-na-, weak form in verbs 590. 
-na, ending pass, ptcpl. 68 1, 713, 

764 ; primy. 802 ; scdry. 848. 
-nah, primy. 804. 

na- (ninth) class of verbs 470, 583-92. 
-ni, primy. 805. 

nu- (fifth) class of verbs 470, 566-74. 
-, primy. 806. 
ns (orig.) = Av. -vh- 125. 
~\[nqs-, nas-, aor. 658, 663. 

Av. -6 m. 

m, prone. 10; general character 105; 
= Skt. sin 140; instead of 
in voc. sg. 193; interchange of 
final // in MSS. 193 N.; end- 
ing of ace. sg. 222. 

-ma, primy. 808 ; scdry. 849. 

-ma'ne, infin. 720. 

ff/a-stems, dcln. 300. 

~\[man~, aor. 656. 

-man, primy. 809; scdry. (-man, 
-mana, -mna) 850. 

-man.t, scdry. 851. 

~\fmar-, mid.-pass. 680. 

~\[mark- (mjr'nc-), conjugation forms 


~\[mard-, conjugation forms 564. 
ma (=. ma), neg. in cpds. 866 N. 
-mi, primy. 810. 
tmr'qc-, see ~\[mark-. 
mdr'n.d-, sec ^mard- 564. 

"\fmra-, opp. Skt. ytrii- 105 N. I ; 

pres. pdgm. 5 1 7 seq. ; aor. 3 sg. 

-mna (-mana) = Skt. -mana 1 8 N. 2 ; 

primy. 811. 

Av. ro (\y (i). 

y (i)> prone. 1 1 ; for / by resolution 
5 1 ; in reductions 6 1 ; vocalized 
to i 62 ; written by abbrevia- 
tion for iy 68, 92 N. I ; y initial 
91; i initial 91 N.; i internal 
91 ; = Skt. y 92 ; = Skt. v (in 
Av. uye~) 92 N. 2, 190; y lost 
after / 187 (3). 

ya (orig.), becomes Av. -/'- (-1-) 63 ; 
becomes Av. -e (final) 67, 222 
(instr.) ; is formative element in 
pass. 676-7. 

ya-, rel. pron. dcln. 399 seq. 

_ya-(fourlh)class of verbs 470, 480-507. 

-ya, in gerundive and gerund 716, 
718; primy. 812; scdry. (aya) 
852 ; final in cpds. 865. 

yah, compar. adj. dcln. 345-6, 365, 

-ya, primy. fern. 812. 

ye, for -ya- in verbs 492. 

-yeht, fern, compar. to -yah 363. 

-yu, primy. 814. 

yv (orig.) = Av. -iv- 62. 

Av. "\ r. 

r, prone. 1 1 ; r-vowel 60 ; = Skt. 
r(I)ioo; = orig.jr 138; trans- 
position 191. 

r-stems, dcln. 333 seq. 

-ra, primy. 815; scdry. 853. 

"\fras-, intens. forms 705 N. 

-ri, primy. 817. 

-ru, primy. 818. 



Indexes to Part I. 

-r?m, secondary ending 3 pi. 455. 

-re, 3 pi. pres. 452. 

rt (orig.) = Av. / 163; = Av. tr't- 

163 N. 
-rta (orig.) = Av. -fa 786 N. 3. 

Av. 1} () v (u). 

v (%), prone. 1 1 ; for by resolu- 
tion 52; in reductions 6l; voca- 
lized to K 62 ; written by ab- 
breviation for uv 68 ; = Skt. 
iv, iv 68 N. 2 ; = Skt. bh 87 ; 
for Av. w 87 ; = Skt. v 93 ; 
for uv 93 N. I ; combined with 
consonants 94; for gv 187 (i). 

z/a-stems, have ace. sg. -um 63 N. i. 

-va, primy. 819; scdry. 854. 

-va'rf, fern, to -van 855. 

~\fvac-, aor. 651, 668; fut. 672; pass, 
ptcpl. 71 1(0- 

~\fvan-, aor. 658. 

-van, primy. 820; scdry. 855. 

-vana, scdry. 856. 

-vaqt (-pwarit), primy. 82 1 ; scdry. 


~\fvar- 'choose', forms 567 seq., 584. 
-var (-vara), primy. 823. 
~\[varz-, pres. 482 seq. ; aor. 658. 
~]fvld-, perf. pdgm. 621. 
vaA-sttms, dcln. 348 seq. 
-vafi, ending perf. act. ptcpl. 714; 

primy. 822. 
-v&vh, see -vah. 
vy (orig.) = Av. -uy- 62. 
-vya, scdry. 854 N. 

Av. u s. 

j, prone. 9; = orig. s log seq.; 
= orig. J>t, 142; = orig. ts 143; 
= older palatal i 146; = orig. 
dental (-{- /) 1 5 1 ; = orig. s (-j- m) 

152; = orig. z (-}-) 153; re- 
tained before -ca 189; ending 
of nom. sg. 222; = Skt. ch in 
inchoative 697 ; j-prefixes, how 
treated 754. 

j-stems (orig.), dcln. 338 seq. 

j-, sa-, j//-aorist, see //. 

-sa, 2d pers. sg. = Skt. -thU: 453. 

-sa, scdry. 827. 

~\[sand-, sad-, aor. 656. 

st, origin 192. 

~\fsta-, in periphrases 724. 

sn = older zn 164 N. I. 

sp (Av.) = Skt. iv 97. 

-spa, see -va 819. 

sy (orig.), treatment in Av. 131. 

sva (orig.), treatment in Av. 130. 

-sva, -fi'a, iinperat. 456. 

Av. -o, eg, ro /, /, /. 
/> / /> prone. 9 ; general character 
106 N., 154 seq.; / in Av. // 

147-9 ; = or ig- s a ^ er ' u ' k> r 
155-6; = Skt. ks 158; = older 
palatal s (-j- /, or -J- ) 159-60 ; 
= Skt. rt 163 ; in jn older zn 
164 ; / = older ss 165 ; = older 
zt (Skt.//) 1 66; /in prefixes 745. 

-fa (Av.) = orig. -rta 163, 786 N. 3. 

-far (Av.) = orig. -rtar 787 N. I. 

-jqm, pronom. gen. plur. 380. 

//, as ligature 3; = Skt. sf 159. 

In = Skt. in 1 60. 

-/, primy. 807. 

$y (j) = older cy 162. 

-/va, ending loc. pi. 224; scdry. 827. 

///, written in compounds 754. 

Av. / :. 

z, prone. 9; = Skt. J, h 88, 168, 
169; = j-voiced 170, 872 N. I. 

I. Avesta-Index (Gram. Elements). Reference to the . 259 

"\fza-, caus. 685 N. 2. 
zd = Slit, dh 89, 171. 
zn (orig.) = Av. sn 153. 
zb = Skt. hv 99. 
zm (orig.) = Av. sm 152. 

Av. OO 5. 

5, prone. 9 ; = Skt.y, // 88 N. i, 177, 
178; in combination j, wl, zn 
89, 164 N. 2; = /-voiced 179; 
= Skt. As 181; = Skt. 4, 4/t 

Av. or, , ** /^, /, h>. 
h, ft, prone. 12; general remark 184; 
orig. j no; = orig. -sy- 137; 
// (= s ) dropped before m 

h- (s) stems, dcln. 338 seq. 

h- (s) aorist, pdgm. 653 seq. 

ha- (sa) aorist, forms 663. 

-ha- (-vha-), in desiderative 699. 

yAari-, fut. 672-3. 

^7-aorist, formation 665. 

"]f.Jtu- 'press j , pres. forms 567, 588, 


-he = Skt. -sya, ending gen. sg. 222. 
Am, as ligature 3; = orig. -sm- 141 ; 

element in pronom. dcln. 379-81. 
hy, hy = orig. sy 131-3. 
-hy&, -fyyaca, in gen. sg. 222. 
hr, for -r- 100 N. i. 
h>, hv, as ligature 3 ; prone. 1 2 ; 

= orig. sv 130. 
-hva, -jva, ending loc. pi. 224, 736; 

ending 2 sg. iinperat. 456. 



Av. " a. 
affi- f. 794- 
a'wi-gac- 745. 
a'fAe 136. 
aipya loc. sg. 281. 
a'wyo dat. pi. 286 N. 
a'ryaman- dcln. 3- 
alia- pron. stem, dcln. 

417 seq. 

aim dcln. 422 seq. 
aeva- dcln. 369. 
ae/a as nom. sg. m. 4 1 1 , 

alfa- (alia-) dcln. 417 


aoi 62 N. 3. 
aoim 369. 
aotyta 90. 
aogd& 90. 


aojana-, aojjmna- 5 2 ^. 
a<?/<3, a0/<9 nom. sg. 341. 
aoj<$s-ca pi. 343. 
aa- 'bad' 365. 
aciSta- 365. 
apa*run- 313 N. i. 
aaV# nom. sg. 315. 
adwan- 820. 
a/a- (adka-) 8 1 N. I. 
apjr'st 484 N. 
afStacino 774. 

avuhe dat. sg. 265. 
a;w- pron. stem 426. 
antar.naim&t 731 (4), 


<ya- instr. 429. 
ar'dus- dcln. 360, form 


ar/- in cpds. 882. 

az/a- pronom. stem 432. 

ava>t t- dcln. 441. 

avavayt- dcln. 442. 

aj, 5y 'was' 453, 532. 

asti- suhst. 794. 

astvatft- dcln. 291. 

asrvaljm 638. 

ajaoni- dcln. 257, fern. 

ajaonijf neut. pi. 315. 

a/az/aw- dcln. 313, com- 
parative 365 N. 3. 

a/a^ 67. 

a/dun- str. form 313, 
315, 62 N. I. 

ajaunqm 62 N. I. 

a/auw voc. sg. 313. 

aikar' 639. 

a$yah-, a/a//- 347, 365. 

atapa 486. 

a;/w dcln. 386. 

azdbis general pi. case 

ahe 137. 

aku nom. sg. 275. 
ahmaka- 839. 
ahmaktm 440 N. 3. 
ahmya loc. sg. 736. 
-*- reflex. 436 N. 5. 

Av. "- . 

/ 53, 73i (4)- 
a'di aor. pass. 668. 
a^tu'rfm 375. 
S^/ww/ 77 N. I, 889. 
a/, aa/ advbl. 731 (4). 
Star-, Str-, apr- dcln. 


apravan- dcln. 313 N. 
Sfbitim 375. 
5/-, a/- dcln. 286. 
3l>fr{- nom. sg. 281, 

formation 745 N. I. 
aftnte 578. 
anui.hac- 754 (2). 
a>o*' pf. 612. 
5j 'was' 453, 532. 
SsiJtta- 365. 

iti- 789. 

Av. ) w. 
v^ta- 711 (l). 
upasma- 876, 889. 
uboibya 68 N. I. 
"ruraost 607. 
"riiruduja 651 N. 2. 

II. Avesta-Index (Word-List). Reference to the 


urudoyata 685 N. 3. 

Av. 6- f 

jamagte, du. subj. 451, 

*rupayein.ti 685 N. 3. 

fcrafstraii 229. 


UfvaeSta 694. 

$&/<?, advl. 731 (5). 

jasa'ti 142. 

*rvan-, "run- dcln. 314. 

//5 642. 

yV/ 22. 

uvae'fya 68 N. I. 

^mdvdya 39"- 

jigtr'zaf, 3 pi. 550. 

usa'ti 698 N. 

ftgnao/tnina 663. 

j'jiftnti 701. 

ujdh-, ujaA- dcln. 357. 

fifnnrigd 664. 

a$qm, u$&hitn 341. 

Av. r /. 

nfi.i/qm 355 N. 
uz, us euph. 750, 753 

Av. c* ^ 
gain-, form 48, dcln. 

ta^ma-, comparat. 365 

N. 2. 

N. 2. 


B0-, gau-, gava-, dcln. 

/a/, pronom. dcln. 409 

Av. ( ?. 

3r'navi 668 N. 

278, in cpsn. 867 

N. 2. 

tat-apam 81 N. 2. 

ar'zucqm 3 sg. aor. im- 
perat. 456, 627 N., 

gar*nu- 806. 
gava- see #0- 278. 

tanuye 190. 
tanu$i, loc. sg. 360. 
tanu-, dcln. 271. 


Av. ,7. 

taqciilta- 365 N. 2. 

Av. { 3. 

J*n& 84. 

tarasca, instr. advl. 287, 

inafita 607, 615. 
3hm& 389. 

jzarvaqt- 581. 
jzonvamna- 581. 

ti$ar-, dcln. 371. 

lUiry a- 374. 

Av.> 8. 

Av. K f. 

tatujfva 745 N. 2. 

dim, oyum 369. 

ra'V/ 407. 

//, dcln. 390. 

caejlaetetn 484. 

t3tnavuh&, "utftym 295. 

Av. t* <9. 

catauro 372. 

t3rsaiti 698 N. 

&vha, pf. 539. 

cap-war-, dcln. 372. 

t3vi$t- 777. 

avha're 609. 

cap-ivar'satym 374. 

-/c, advl. ending 728. 

tSvha're 53> 619. 

capruS 375. 

tqjyah- 365 N. 2. 

caf/aftig, "qm, loc. sg. 

Av. X" . 


qsqsuta 651 N. 2. 

tafyrar*' 606. 

Av. o /. 

ci&dittr'f 60 1, 614. 

/toe- 435, 439. 

Av. 9 k. 

'a 407 N. 

-/wfl, num. suffix 376. 

ka'nin-, dcln. 316, for- 

<7j 192, 557. 

/zt/tf/, advl. 436 N. 4. 

mation 774. 

c'vffi 664. 

p-wavant- 435- 

kataro, katarascif 19. 

for'/ 637. 

p-wor'St&ra, du. 39. 

fcarfvan-, dcln. 315, for- 

cyaha( 407 N. 

/'-, dcln. 371. 

mation 820. 

prisata- 374. 

ku}(lnvqna 465 N. 

Av. jy. 

Prifva 376, 827. 

kir'n&un 571. 

jajmaf 465, 619. 

prizaf&, nom. sg. 315. 

krnnte 591. 

javhiritu, aor. 663. 

Prizaffm, voc. sg. 300. 


Indexes to Part I. 

Av. _3 d, 

hlia, da'difa 463 N. 
da'dii 550. 
da'yhu-, da/iyu-, dcln. 

daium, ace. sg. 63 N., 


daftiS-, dcln. 243. 
daj>u<[a{, abl. sg. 349. 
daduja 350. 
dado, pf. I sg. 599- 
dam-, dcln. 318 N. 2. 
dayfif as pass. 678 N. 
dar'ja- 48. 
dasanqw 373. 
dazde, pf. mid. du. 600, 


dahdka, dah&k&ca 19. 
dStar-, dcln. 322. 
damqm, qn 308. 
ofltt/frf/ 665. 
didactn 607. 
didar'jata 701. 
didrajioduye 498. 
dijtmna 660, 663. 
dujdar-, dug*dar- 787 

N. 2. 

<fcyj 190, 370. 
rtW-, dW- in cpds. 882, 


duz-vacah-, dcln. 339. 
d*b*naota 569. 

</$* 318 N. 2. 

dqnmahi 45 N. 3. 
draomibyo 307. 
drivi- 362, 779. 
drfgvaqt-, form 3 1 , dcln. 


drtg-v&tS. 295. 
drtgvSftl 1 8 N. 

drrwda- 786 N. 3. 
drvaijt-, drvo 295. 
<A/a-, dcln. 370. 

Av. /. 

fkaejah-, tfagfa/i- 8 1, 
96 N. 

Av. /. 

pa'tLJmarfmna- 7 54 ( i ). 
pa'lyafjm, advl. 892. 
pa'ri.aitrSuJ, ace. plur. 


pa'ri.ayharJta- 754 (3). 
fa'rifkafta- 754(2). 
pao'ryo 62 N. 2. 
patar-, ptar-, dcln. 322. 
/a/-, dcln. 288, 310. 
pancanqm 373. 

-, pap-, dcln. 3 IO. 



p>r'navd, nom. sg. 295. 
pjr'nine, dat. sg. 316. 
ffr'sanye'ti 696 N. 
po u ruyO 62 N. 2. 
pavhahe 66 1. 

Av. ^ /. 

/'</r<?, f'droi 322, 325. 
fyavhuqte 493, 582. 
fraca, instr. advl. 287, 


fraf$u- 876. 
frabda- 876. 
framru 275. 
frastir'ta 711 (3). 
frasruta 694. 
frSyezydf as pass. 678 N. 

, nom. sg. 287. 
fryqinahl 45 N. 3. 
-, dcln. 291. 

Av. _j <>. 

batuar'btS 336 N. 
bajina 1 7. 
bara'te, du. 451. 
/JJ/ar- 787 N. I. 
buyata, buyama 463 N. 
bu*ri-, dcln. 252. 

-, fut. 672. 
tidi, nom. sg. fem. 

t-, dcln. 295. 
- 31. 

bratu'rya- 191, 854 N. I . 
brvafbyqm 223. 

Av. I . 

nalcii 408 N. 
nagniia'ti 707. 
naoma-, ti&uma- 64. 
wa5 17. 
ar-, dcln. 332. 
aj^, imperat. 493. 
nS'dyah-, dcln. 346. 
tianttnff 229, 308. 
namqn 308. 

(/. 3 sg. 525- 
nijrS're 452, 486, 521. 
/'/-, !-, euph. 750, 

753 N. 2. 
nuruyd, mruyd 62 N. 3, 


*wr<?/ 49, 332 N. I. 
ntriul, ace. pi. 327. 
nfndsS 612. 
*// 731. 
d> 389. 

II. Avesta-Index (Word-List). Reference to the 


ttqsaf, redupl. aor. 65 1 N. 
nm&naya, loc. sg. 239. 

Av. -6 m. 
ma-, mavaril-, pronom. 

435, dcln. 438. 
mainya, opt. 504. 
mainyu-, dcln. 262. 
magavan-, magaun- 3 13 

N. i. 

mattima 63 N. 3. 
marnnuH 350. 
mas-, niasyah- 365. 
niasy, aaho, sg. pi. 


maz-, compar. 365. 
mazatjt-, dcln. 298. 
maz5na, instr. 305. 
mazdah-, form 89, dcln. 


mazyah- 365. 
mahrka- 100 N. I, 785. 
ma-cii 408 N. 
m&tirq$-c& 49, 327. 
mavdya 386. 
mipahvac& 872 N. 2. 
minai 557. 
mimar'^avuha 70 1 . 
mar'ng'duye 556. 
mirqjyftl 560. 
mraol, 3 sg. aor. pass. 


mravl, I sg. pret. 519. 
mravS're 452, 486, 521. 
;<?^-, mOvhd, dcln. 355. 

-, rel. dcln. 399. 

atfi; 593(4). 

750 N. 

yavaetuHe 842, 893. 
yasna-, dcln. 236 seq. 
j5// as general pi. 384. 
yahi, loc. sg. 353. 


, voc. sg. 314 N. I. 
yuvan, yuan-, dcln. 314 

N. i. 

yti-, dcln. 276. 
y&lmaktm 440 N. 3. 
y eight, form 136, 399, 

m. for f. 383 N. 

yw (Mi) 593 (4), 619. 

yesnyata, instr. advl. 73 1. 

Av. ^ r. 

rag-, r&i-, dcln. 277. 
raose, 2 sg. 518. 
raJ>alJla-, ar, dcln. 249, 
330, form 877, 881. 
rar'S-, intens. 705 N. 
ra$nvo, gen. instr. 265. 
razura- 8 I 6. 

oi 66 1. 

Av. () O>)- 
va'ntf 637. 
valda, pdgm. 621. 
vaZni 386. 
vaotatar* 613. 
vaozirxn 607, 616, 652 

N. 2. 

z>a/fc/o, dcln. 285. 
vaftfye'te 672. 
vacastaftivat, advl. 730. 
vacah; dcln. 339. 
vavhu-, compar. 365. 
vavuhi-, fern. 362. 
vavho, -vahyo 347. 
z/ar7 637. 
vastra-, dcln. 237. 

u&unui 350. 
a, 3 sg. aor. pass. 668. 
vatoyotii 39 N. 
var'prajni- 825 c. 
vitidita 560, 565. 
vipuS-, wk. stem 349-50. 
z//////, loc. sg. 359. 
vidoyum 63 N. 2. 
vidqm, imperative 456, 

627 N., 640. 
viddiprt, infin. 787 N. 3. 
vidvah-, dcln. 349-50. 
vivy^ghatu 701. 
z/w-, dcln. 279. 
visa'ti, num. 374. 
vis pa-, dcln. 443. 
visptm 20. 
vispaiS 229. 
V3r*prajan', dcln. 317, 

compar. 365 N. 3. 
V3r 3 pravan-, comparat. 

365 N. 3- 

vtr*nva*te, du. 451, 568. 
vfr'zyatqrn 485. 
ztf 'we' 389. 
/ 'you' 393. 
vohu-, compar. 365. 
vdijnauyo 62 N. 3, 247. 
z/# 393. 

Av. u J. 

salna- 187 (3). 
ja/a 374. 
sanaf 591. 
jar-, dcln. 335. 
saikin 607. 
jAif/ 527, 637. 
san- see j/a- 314 N. 
jd*>^ 452, 526. 
star-, dcln. 329. 
slS, sto 531. 


Indexes to Part I. 

slSumi 525. 

strJu?, ace. pi. 327-9. 

span-, sit ii', dcln. 314 

N. i. 

spajiti- 789. 
spa$upa 578. 
srivlin 637. 
sita'fiiS-, dcln. 359. 
sravi, 3 sg. aor. 668. 

Av. & /. 
fSfyit/i 162. 
S&vayoif 162. 
./?, dcln. 394-5. 
/*, nom.., fern. 250. 

Av. ro /. 
Hyaopium 162. 

Av. / z. 
*//- 823. 
~\fzan-, forms 553 N. 
zam-, z'm-, dcln. 318. 
sarattaSmS 591. 
zaranya- 48. 
zi%$nOn>h3mna- 465 N. 

sizatuyti 553 N. 

zizamn 652 N. 

z<, nom. sg. 318 N. 

ff 533- 

zyam- 'hiems', dcln. 318 

N. 2. 
zraya, zrayili, loc. sg. 

341, 357 N. 2. 
zrri/tf 314 N. i. 

Av. or, (jj, * //, h, h. 

ha"iva'li 582. 

haom 440 N. i. 

haoy& 68 N. 3, 440 N. I. 

toktr't 375, 73- 
A<7^/-, dcln. 256. 
ha^aya, affa 487. 
hamaspapniaidaya 869 


har'prt, infin. 787 N. 3. 
Aaz/fl- see Az/a- 440. 
hazavra- 374. 
^5 as nom. sg. m. 411. 
h&iriii- 777. 
h&u, pron. 432. 
//<7/w 1 8 N. 3. 
hipau$, oqm 278 N. 
hisposjmna- 465, 754. 

tu 465. 
hu- in cpds. 882. 
hud&h-, dcln. 353. 
htijtili- 31. 
//Cr<J, gen. sg. 334. 
AP// 532. 

hi, /<?, dcln. 394-5- 
Ao (hvo) 416 N. 
A<J, ^5, /a/, dcln. 409 seq 
//<?/w, him, Aftj- 753 N. 3. 
hyaf 403. 
hy&r', hyqn 455. 
/*///, Ay*/ 535. 
Az/a-, A'rt-, hava-, dcln. 


baepa'pe, instr. 239. 
h-vacah-, dcln. 339. 
Aa/^, reflex. 436 N. i. 
kavh&nm, ace. 325. 
hvap<&, qm 357 N. I. 
Avar-, dcln. 334. 
hfar'na, instr. sg. 344. 
h>ar'naauh&, "uQttm 295. 
hvavoya 436 N. 3. 
698 N. 

gen. sg. 334. 
hvqmahi 45 N. 3. 
Az/J, hv&voya 398, 416, 

436 N. 3. 


Ablative, the ending -St lightened 
to -<?/ 19, 239 ; remarks on forma- 
tion 222 seq. ; advl. use of 731. 

Abbreviation of final member of 
compound 876. 

Absolutive (gerund) 718. 

Accents, not written in Av. MSS. 
2; effect of 265, 341, 885. 

Accusative, formation 222 seq.; neut. 
sg. in pronouns 379; as infinitive 
721 ; as adv. 731 ; in compounds 
877, 881. 

Active endings with passive force 
678 N. 

a-declension, transfer from cons, 
dcln. 344; from vah stem 351; 
from <J//-stem 355,357 N. 3; from 
//-stem 359 N. See also Transfer. 

Adjective, dcln. of adj. 219 seq.; 
pronominal dcln. 443; comparat. 
degree 345-6, 363 seq. ; adj. pre- 
fixes 747-8; formed by primy. 
and scdry. derivation 761 seq.; 
adj. denoting material 829; ad- 
jective cpds. 881-3, 887. 

Adverbial prefixes 733; advl. uses 
of prep, phrase 737; adverbial 
cpds. 892. 

Adverb, numeral 375; multiplicative 
376; pronominal 436; formation 
of adv. 726-32 ; shows case-forms 

Agency, nouns of 787. 

Agglomerations 893. 

Aggregative compounds 879 N. 

Alphabet, characters and translitera- 
tion i. 

Anaptyxis 2 N., 69, 72. 

Anusvara (Skt.), how represented in 
Av. 46. 

Aorist-system, synopsis and forma- 
tion 447-8, 624-68; radical aor. 
subjunct. 549; augment missing 
in aor. 626 ; has scdry. endings 
626; modes of aor. 627; redupl. 
aor. 650-2; causative forms 652; 
sigmatic aor. 653 seq.; passive 
aor. 3 sg. 667-8. 

Aspiration, pronunciation of h 12. 

Aspirate mediae -\- t or -{- J 89. 

Assimilation of consonants 185. 

Augment, rules for in Av. 466; com- 
mon omission of aug. 466, 626; 
restored for metre 466 N. 2. 

Augmentless preterite as injunctive 

466 N. 3. 
a-vowel, contraction 60 seq. 

Avyayibhava (Skt.) compound in Av. 

Bartholomae's law, statement of, 89. 

Cardinals see Numerals. 

Cases in declension 2 20 seq.; inter- 
change 233; case-forms in ad- 
verbs 731; in cpsn. 877. 


Indexes to Part I. 

Causal signification without form 693 ; 
causal conjunctions 739. 

Causative aorist 652 ; formation of 
causative 684-94; modes of caus. 
686; inflection 687-8; aorist 689. 

Comparative, adj. dcln. 346; fem. 
form in -yehi 363 ; comparat. of 
a-stem 365 N. 3; in -tara 841. 

Compound stems, in general 858-95 ; 
how written in MSS. 858 N. ; union 
of members 86 1 seq. ; hiatus in 
cpds. 861-2; treatment of orig. s 
after /', u in cpsn. 754; contrac- 
tion in cpds. 862 ; sandhi in cpds. 
863; case-forms in cpsn. 877; 
classes of cpds. 878-91; copula- 
tive cpds. 879; aggregative 879 
N. ; determinative 880-2; depen- 
dent 88 1 ; descriptive 882 ; scdry. 
adjective cpds. 883-9; possessive 
884-6; participial adj. cpds. 888; 
prepositional adj. cpds. 889; nu- 
meral cpds. 891; adverbial cpds. 
892 ; loose combinations and ag- 
glomerations 893 ; long cpds. not 
common in Av. 894. 

Conjugation of verbs, in general 444 
seq.; voice, mode, tense 445; 
infinitive 446, 719-20; participle 
446; synopsis of conj. system 
447-8; secondary conj. 447-8, 
675-707; present-syst. 468-591; 
classes of verbs 469 seq, ; thema- 
tic or a-conj. 469-507; transfer 
in conj. 471, 529, 553, 563, etc. 

Conjunctions 738-9. 

Consonants , how written in Av. I ; 
prone. 6 seq. ; general system 73 
seq.; assimilation of 185; double 
cons, not allowed in Av. 186; 
dropping of 187-8; final cons, in 

Av. 192; interchange of cons, in 
MSS. 193 N. 2; rules for redu- 
plicating cons, in verbs 465. 
Contraction, of vowels 50 seq. ; in 
cpds. 862. 

Dative, dual -we for -bya 67; general 
remarks 222 seq.; as infin. 720; 
as adverb 731; in cpds. 877-81. 

Declension, classes of 219 seq.; dcln. 
of comparat. adj. 346; of stems 
in -vah 348 seq. ; of stems in -ah 
(-5s) 352 seq. ; of stems in -ijf, -uS 
358; of numerals 369 seq. ; of 
pronouns 377 seq.; of pronominal 
adverbs 437 seq. See Stems. 

Declinable stems, formation of 743 

Demonstrative pronoun 409 seq. 

Denominative verbs, formation and 
inflection 695-6. 

Dentals, become s before dentals 215. 

Dependent compounds 88 1. 

Derivation, see Word-Formation 743 

Derivatives, numeral 375; pronomi- 
nal 436. 

Desiderative, form 498 ; formation and 
inflection 699; pf. ptcpl. 701 N. 

Descriptive compounds 882. 

Determinative compounds 880-2. 

Diphthongs, prone. 7; their origin 

5 3 seq. ; by protraction 53; by 
reduction 53; proper diphthongs 

54 s eq. 

Dissimilation of u, i to t 31. 
Distributive force in pronoun 408. 
Double consonants, not allowed in 

Av. 1 86. 

Dual, its form in verbs 451 seq. 
Dvandva (Skt.) compounds 879. 

III. General Index. Reference to the 


Enclitic forms of pronoun 386 seq. ; 
sandhi with enclitics 895. 

Endings, paJa-endings in dcln. 85; 
noun-endings 221-2; primy. and 
scdry. of verbs 448 seq. ; of im- 
perative 448 c, 456 seq.; of sub- 
junctive 462; of opt. 464; of 
perfect 448 d, 597-600; of aorist 
626 ; of passive 678. 

Feminine, formation 362, 769, 779; 
comparat. -yefii 363; fern, and 
neut. forms interchange 232, 383. 

Final consonants 192; member of 
compound 873 seq. 

Future-system, synopsis 447-8 ; for- 
mation 669; modes 670; forms 
671; fut. pass, ptcpl. (see ge- 
rundive) 682. 

Gender, occasional difference from 
Skt. 220 N., 232, 283; distinction 
of gender in pronouns 384, 399. 

General plur. case 228, 308, 315, 

Genitive, sg. -ahe for orig. -asya 67 ; 

gen. plur. of personal pronouns 

440 N. 3; gen. in cpds. 877, 88 1. 
Gerund, remark 718. 
Gerundive 682; formation 716-17; 

form in -ya 812. 
Gradation, see Stem-gradation. 
Guna and Vrddhi 60 seq. ; give rise 

to diphthongs 53; in nouns 235 ; 

in verbs 481 N. 3, 509 seq. ; in 

caus. 685 ; in intens. 702 ; in primy. 

derivation 757 seq.; in scdry. 

deriv. 825. See Strengthening. 

Heavy syllable not strengthened 481 
N. 3; form -&na (-an) 770. 

I Hiatus, in compounds 51 N., 52 N., 

Imperative, first person 447 N. ; end- 
ings 448 c, 456 seq. ; 3 sg. in -qm 
456, 627 N. ; mode-formation 460 ; 
of a-conj. 474, 500-1; of non- 
<z-conj. 501. 

Imperfect, see Secondary formation. 

Improper subjunctive 445 N. 2. See 

Inchoative, formation 697-8. 

Increment, causes vowel-lightening 1 9. 

Indeclinables 725-42. 

Indefinite pronoun 408. 

Indicative, of -conj. 473, 496; of 
non-a-conj. 501, 525; of redupl. 
class 549-50; of perfect 612-16. 

Infinitive 446 ; causal 694 ; formation 
and examples 7 1 9-2 1 ; in -pre 
(-tar) 787 N. 3. 

Injunctive 445 N. 2, 466 N. 3. 

Insertion of before / 188; of nasal 
in 7th class 554; of / after root 
in derivation 745 N. I. 

Instrumental, general remarks 222 
seq.; as adv. 731; in cpds. 881. 

Intensive, formation and inflection 

Interjections 741-2. 

Interrogative pronoun 406 seq. 

Karmadharya (Skt.) compounds 882. 

Labialization of a (a) to d 38, 39. 

Lengthening, of u (to u) before epen- 
thetic /' 20; of final vowels in 
monosyllables 24; of final vowels 
in GAv. 26; in causative 6853; 
takes the place of strengthening 
685 N. 3 ; lengthening before -vatit 
857 N. I. 


Indexes to Part I. 

Ligature, written in MSS. 3; hm, tv, 

hv 3, 13. 
Liquid, prone, of r \ I ; / wanting in 

Av. ii N. ; nature of r 100. 
Locative, formation 222 seq.; loc. 

infinitive 721; as adverb 731; in 

compounds 877, 881. 
Loss of a consonant 187-8. 
Loose compound combination 893. 

Material, formation of adj. denoting 
material 829. 

Mediae (g, d, b,j), prone. 8 ; character 
82; med. aspirate -j-/ or -\-s 89. 

Members of compound 861-77. 

Metathesis of r 191. 

Metre, shows augment 466 N. i; shows 
dropping of prefix 752 N. I; shows 
Sandhi 753 N. I, 897. 

Middle voice 445 N. i ; with pass, 
force 676; mid. pass, ptcpl. 811. 

Mode, in verbal inflection 445 ; for- 
mation 45 9 seq.; indie. 459; im- 
perative 460; subjuncL 461-2; 
opt. 463-4; in a-conj. 473 seq. ; 
in non-a-conj. 510 seq. ; in perf. 
603-4; in aorist 627; in future 
670; in passive 679. 

Monosyllables, long 24. 

Nasals, prone, n; character 101; in 
yth class of verbs 470, 554-65; 
in causative 685 N. I. 

Nasalization of a (&) to q 45, 46, 201. 

Neuter, endings 225-7; ace. sg. of 
pronouns 379; form interchanges 
with fern. 232, 383. 

Nomen proprium, formation 893. 

Nominative, sg. fern, -e for orig. -ya 
67; formation 222 seq. ; in first 
member of cpd. 864, 867 N. I. 

Non-a-conjugation, formation 516-92. 

Non-sigmatic aorist 628-52. 

Noun-declension, 2 19 seq. ; composi- 
tion 859-95. 

nu- (fifth) class of verbs 470, 566-74. 

Number, remarks on 220. 

Numerals 366-76; cardinals 366; for- 
mation 367-8, 374; num. adverbs 
375; multiplicatives 376; in -pa 
844; in -ma 849; numeral com- 
pounds 891. 

Optative, mode-formation 463; end- 
ings 464; of fl-conj. 476, 504-5; 
of non-a-conj. 514; of redupl. 
class 552. 

Ordinals see Numerals 366 seq. 

Original r-sonant 47 seq. 

Pada-endings, -biS, -bit 22, 85. 
Palatal i = Av. s, /, i 145 seq. 
Palatalization of 9 (a) to i 30, 491, 

593 () 

Participle, dcln. pf. act. 348 ; general 
formation 446, 477, 709-15, 822; 
of a-conj. 475, 506-7; pf. pass, 
ptcpl. 681, 710 seq.; fut. pass, 
ptcpl. 682 ; causal 694 ; forms in 
-ant, -mna, -ana 709, 8 1 1 ; passive 
in -ta 710-11, 786; -ita 712; -na 
713, 802 ; participial adj. com- 
pounds 888. 

Passive voice 445 N. I ; aor. 3 sg. pass. 
667-8; form, and pdgm. 676-9; 
endings 678; pass, force with act. 
endings 678 N. ; modes of the 
pass. 679; fut. pass, ptcpl. 681-2; 
pass, ptcpl. in -ta, -na 710-13, 
786, 802. 

Patronymics, formation 828-34 ; show 
vrddhi strengthening 834. 

III. General Index. Reference to the . 


Perfect, act. ptcpl. dcln. 348 ; perfect- 
system synopsis 447-8; personal 
endings 448 d, 597-600; of ah- 
'to be' 539; perfect-system in- 
flection 592-623; redupl. syllable 
592-4; pluperfect 602; modes of 
the perf. 603-4 ; pdgm. 605 seq. ; 
periphrastic form 623; perf. pass, 
ptcpl. 68 1; perf. desid. 701 N. ; 
act. ptcpl. in -vah 714, 822; mid. 
ptcpl. in -ana, -ana 715. 

Periphrastic, perf. 623 ; verbal phrases 

Person in verbal inflections 447. 

Personal pronoun 385 seq.; endings 
of verbs 448; of perf. 497-600. 

Pluperfect 602. 

Plural, general plur. case 228 seq. 

Polysyllables, shorten final long vowels 

Possessive pronoun 434-5, 440 N. 3; 
cpds. 884-6. 

Postposition of preposition 736. 

Postpositive a in abl. and loc. 222-4, 

Precative, not quotable 666. 

Predicate verb, used only once when 
prefix repeated 752 N. 2. 

Prefixes, advl. 733; nominal 747-8; 
verbal 749-54; rules for connect- 
ing with verb 751; repeated 752; 
separated from verb 753. 

Prepositions, in general 734-7 ; placed 
in postpositive position 736. 

Prepositional adj. cpds. 889. 

Present-system 468-591; causative 
687. See Indicative. 

Preterite, see pluperfect 602. See In- 

Primary, derivation 756-823; treat- 
ment of root 757-8. 

Proclitics, see Sandhi 898. 

Pronominal, dcln. of adjs. 443; de- 
rivatives 857 N. 2. 

Pronouns, synopsis 377 seq. ; personal 
385 seq. ; relative 399 seq. ; inter- 
rogative 406 seq. ; indefinite 408 ; 
demonstrative 409 seq. ; possess. 
434-5, 44<> N. 3; reflexive 435-6. 

Pronunciation 6 seq. 

Proper diphthongs 54 seq. 

Prothesis 69, 71. 

Protraction-diphthongs 53. 

Punctuation, method in MSS. 5. 

Quantity, agreement between A v. and 
Skt. 15; different from Skt. 1 6; 
rules for vowels 23 seq. 

Radical syllable, in perfect 595-6; 
in intensive 704. 

Reduction-diphthongs 53; reduction 
of ya, va to i, u 63 ; in verbal 
forms 493-4; of ya to e in com- 
pounds 865 N., cf. instr. 239. 

Reduplication, general rules 465 ; 
redupl. class (third) of verbs 470, 
540-53; redupl. syllable of perf. 
592-4; absence of redupl. 620; 
redupl. in aorist 650-2; in de- 
siderative 699-701 ; in intensive 
703 ; in nouns 745 N. 2 ; redupl. 
of orig. j 754 (2). 

Reflexive use of personal pronouns 
395; reflex, pronoun 435-6. 

Relative pronoun 399 seq. 

Relationship, nouns of 321, 787. 

Repetition of same syllable avoided 
194; of pronoun 408; of root in 
intensive 705; of prefix 752. 

R6sum6 of Phonology 195 seq. 

Resolution of vowels 52, 862. 


Indexes to Tart I. 

Root-class (second), of verbs 470, 
516-39; root aorist 629-47 ; root 
repeated in intensive 705 ; forma- 
tion of root-words 744-5 ; root 
in primy. deriv. 757-8. 

Samprasarana 203. 

Sandhi, occurrence in Av. 75 ; with 
prefixes 753; in cpds. 861 seq. ; 
with enclitics 895-900; with pro- 
elides 898. 

Secondary conjs. 447-8, 675-707, 
448 b ; scdry. suffixes 826, 844-5 7 ; 
scdry. adj. compounds 883-9. 

Semivowels, y, v 91-3. 

Sentence-sandhi 897. 

Shortening of vowels 25, 51. 

Sibilants 106. 

Simple a-aorist (thematic) 648-9. 

Sigmatic aorist 653 seq. 

Sonant, see Surd, Voiced. 

Sonantizing of s to z 170; of /toi 179- 

Spirants^ prone. 9 ; voiceless , /, f 
77; voiced j, d, w 82. 

Stem-gradation 235, 284564., 290, 
320, 595-6. See Strong and Weak. 

Stems, dcln. of stems in a 236 seq. ; 
in a 243-9; m * 2 57! strong and 
weak 284-8; in radical i 261; 
in u, a 262-75; i n 5 * 2 77; * n 
aw 278; in consonants 279 seq. ; 
without suffix 279; in aye 287; 
in -artt, -ma%t, -va%t 289 seq. ; 
in -an, -man, -van 299 seq. ; in 
-in 316; in radical -n, -m 317; 
in orig. -r 319 seq., 333 seq. ; in 
-tar, -ar 321; in orig. -s 338 
seq. ; in -ah 339 ; formation 743 

Strengthening, in intensive 702 ; in 
derivation 825. 

Strong and weak forms, in verbs 
467, 509; in perf. 595-6. See 

Subjunctive, improper subjunct. or 
injunct. 445 N. 2, 466 N. 3 ; mode- 
formation 461; first persons 462; 
endings 462 ; formation in a-conj. 
475. 5 O2 -3; in non-a-conj. 512; 
in redupl. class 551. 

Suffixes 755-857; primy. 756-823. 

Suffixless formation 744-5 

Superlative formation 363 seq.; in 
-ttma 841. 

Surd and sonant (voiceless and voiced) 

Tatpurusa (Skt.), cpds. 88 1. 

Tense 445 seq. 

Tenues (k, t, p, c), prone. 8 ; character 
76 seq. 

Thematic vowel in verbs 461; the- 
matic or a-conj. of verbs 469-507 ; 
a-aorist 648-9. 

Transfer, in dcln. 234 seq. ; of /-stems 
to a-dcln. 256 N. ; of -stems to 
a-clcln. 269; of consonant stems 
to<7-dcln. 283 N., 297, 309, 3 13 N., 
3i 4 N.2, 332N.2, 344, 351, 355, 
357 N- 3 359 N. ; transfer of conj. 
classes and inflection 471, 529, 
553, 563-5, 574, 604, 619, 707. 

Transition, see Transfer. 

Transposition, see Metathesis. 

Union of members of cpds. 86 1 seq. 
Unthematic conjugation 516-92. 
w-stems, show trace of accent in 
genitive 265. 

Verbs see Conjugation. 
Verbal system, synopsis 447-8; pre- 
fixes 749-54; composition 749 

III. General Index. Reference to the 


seq., 858; abstract forms (infin. 
ptcpl.) 708. 

Vocalic r, how represented in Av. 
47 seq. 

Vocative of aw-stems 193; formation 

Voice, in verbal inflection 445. 

Voiced and voiceless 74; voiced 
spirants j, d, w 206; voiced and 
ypiceless consonants in cpds. 863. 
See also Voiceless and Sonant. 

Voiceless 74; voiceless spirants %, 
/, f 204; voiceless consonants 
753 N. 2. See.Voiced and Sonant. 

Vowels, how wrilten in Av. I, 2; 
prone. 6 seq.; system 14; agree in 
quality and quantity with Skt. 14; 
vowel-gradation 1 8 N. 2 ; higher 
and lower grades 1 8 N. 2 ; weaken- 
ing through increment 19; long 
in vicinity of v 20; long and 
short fluctuate in MSS. 21 ; rules 
for quantity 23 seq.; preference 
for long in GAv. 24, 26; leng- 
thened in monosyllables 24; shor- 
tened in polysyllables 25; treat- 
ment before -ca 26 N. ; differ in 
quality from Skt. 28 ; concurrence 
of vowels 50; co-alesce 50 seq.;. 

contraction and resolution 50 seq. ; 
short in contraction 5 1 ; streng- 
thened 60 seq. ; help-vowel (anap- 
tyctic) 71; fluctuations in writing 
ai, aS 193 N. 2; vowel-variation 
235, 467, 59 seq., 595-6 ; re- 
duplication in verbs 465, 592-4; 
treatment in causatives 685. 
Vowel-variation 235, 467, 509 seq., 


Vrddhi, diphthongs 53; strengthen- 
ing in patronymics 834. See also 

Weak stem, -/ in perf. ptcpl. 350. 
See also Strong. 

Word-formation 743 seq. ; by prefixes 
746-54; by suffixes 755-7. 

Word-sandhi 895. 

Writing, method in MSS. 2, 4; fluc- 
tuations in spelling between a, S 
i8N.; between t, a in MSS. 
29 N. ; between e, i in MSS. 35 
N. 2; between a, q in MSS. 45 
N. i ; defective (and pleonastic) 
writing of q (n) 45 N. 1,2; fluctua- 
tion between -ar', -tr* in MSS. 
47 ; manner of writing an older iy, 
uv 68 N. 2 ; -ai for -ahi- 357 N. 2. 


a. Corrections. 

A few obvious misprints are passed over without notice, 
page vii (line 17) for practise read practice. 

i (foot-note) - antar' read a^tar'. 

3 ( 6 1. 14) fawing read fawning. 

n 6 ( 19 1. 9) - apti^taraf read apafytaraf. 

8 ( 28 1. i) e read a. 

9 ( 29 1. 6) - evisti read wistt. 

ii 59 ( '9 2 ^-) ~ ii 'thou didst promise' read 'he promised'. 

,,117 (foot-note) omit gen. sg. take and strike out 


n I2 5 ( 44 ! 16) for yavdku read yuvaku. 

n *37 ( 4^6 1. 13) strike out Note 2. 

148 ( 505 1. 3) for v& a r<> read v&ur. 

,, 151 ( 516 1. 12) vdf~tt read vd$-fi. 

164 ( 576 1. i) -- ,, eigth read eighth. 

,, 179 ( 637 1. 5) ,, eor*f read c6r'{. 

191 ( 694 1. 4) - ,, Ys. read Yt. 

b. Additions. 
P a S e 5 ( r 7 ! 5) add: Av. vSyu- 'wind' = Skt. v&yu-. 

n I0 ( 3 2 ! I0 ) n GAv. tqm 'her' Ys. 53.4 = Skt. t&m, 

,, 15 ( 51 1. 16) Note 4. In the Gathas, as is shown by 

the metre, all contractions are to be re- 

,, 29 ( 77 1. 9) ,, Kv.va1i$a]>a- 'growth ' = Skt. vak$- 


38 ( 95 1- 4) ,, Av. zafar-, zafan-, cf. ^[ztmb-. 

,, 42 (109 1. 9) ,, Av. raocas.pairista-. 

n 53 ( I02 1- I0 ) - - n So Av. mtrqjyaf from mar'nc- 

Additions and Corrections. 


P a g e 57 ( J 83 ! 4) a< *d: So also Av. zoildiSta-, zoilnu-, cf. Skt. 

^f^-, hli}- ; Av. voiMayayt-, voiidaf, cf. 
Skt. *#. 

58 ( 187 1. 4) ,, So also in Av. yazdi Yt. 10.14 

= yaza(h)i. 
59 ( J 93 ! '4) Og /* becomes Av. km, cf. 

GAv. hahmi (haf-jiz), YAv. 
>- Geldner. 

59 ( 193) Note 3. Av. u, u occasionally = Skt. a 

(derived from nasal sonants), e. g. Av. 
vatdjuta- 'wind-riven' (cf. Skt. k$a-ta-}, 
Av. vayd.t&itf 'storm-bound' (l/~ tan-\ 
Paul Horn. 

11 75 ( 2 54 abl.) u Observe abl. YAv. a^taed-a 'in concord' 

(afiti-) Vd. 3.1. 

84 ( 286 1. 2) Dat. ape, ZPhl. Gloss, p. 86. 

., 95 ( 331 1. 4) afirat (a-dcln.) Afr. 4.5. 

,, 103 ( 362 1. 10) ,, mae$a- (m.) 'sheep, ram', mael- 

(f.) 'ewe'; fyjjapra- (m.) 'lord, king', 
fyjtaprt- (f.) 'mistress'. 

,, 184 ( 660 1. i) YAv. vatohant- aor. act. ptcpl. 

with fut. meaning Yt. 13.155. See 
Justi s. v. V van-. 




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